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30 Cards in this Set

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The U.S. built it in 1818. It connected the Potomac River at Cuberland, Maryland, with Wheeling, West Virginia, on the Ohio river. Best road that technology could provide with a relatively smooth stone surface. Bad traffic ruined the road.
National Road
New technology
American System
After victory in 1815 Henry Clay and John C. Calhoun urged Congress and the president to encouraged government support for roads, canals, a strong navy, and a national bank. They expressed the dangers of a sprawling American nation and that they should ally itself with the forces of trade.
A nation of trade
Francis Cabot Lowell
Designed a power loom in 1813 from the memory of a machine he had seen in England. Him and a partner spent $400k opening the first factory in the U.S. that integrated all steps of cloth making under one roof: the Boston Manufacturing Company, in Waltham, Massachussets. It was powered by a 10 foot waterfall. They also supported young females by hiring them to produce yarn and cloth at home.
Cloth
Liberia
The American Colonization Society, founded in 1816, bought Liberia to deport free blacks, because they agreed that whites and blacks could not live together freely after slavery. About 12,000 were deported over the next 50 years. This paved the way towards a protests against the notion of colonization.
free blacks deported
Anti-Masons
The Masons had every New York governor but one between 1804 and the late 1820s. A brother of the Masons, William Morgan published its secret rituals and fury over the Masons spread across the country. By 1827 nearly a hundred "Morgan Committees" met and formed in New York and spread across the North. Within 2 years, the "Anti-Masons" had established over 100 newpapers. They invented new ways of pressuring legislatures directly. They devoted themselves to changing public opinion and mobilization against the Masons. Masonry lost more than half its members and had no new lodges for 15 years. They even considered creating a political party.
Fuck the Masons.
Nat Turner
A field hand born in 1800 felt that God called him for more than a slave. He travelled the area as a preacher and was well known. He saw visions that he said foretold a slave revolt. He built a revolt around a small group. On August 22, 1831, his band revolted. They went to farmhouses killing all residents found. White revolts began and innocent slaves were murdered. Eventually all members, but Turner, were found and killed. Turner was captured 2 months later and tried and put to death. A crackdown on slaves and blacks was soon in effect putting a damper on abolition.
A black abolitionist who, in 1829, released his Appeal to the Colored Citizens of the World which called for immediate and universal emancipation. He also condemned Clay for supporting deportation. After being published it created worry about invisible networks of resistance among slaves and free blacks.
David Walker
The Appeal
Trail of Tears
The Jacksonians quickly pushed through the Indian Removal Act of 1830 to remove Natives from Georgia. The removal of the Cherokee took the longest and an unrepresentative group of the Cherokee agreed to the Treaty of New Echota in 1836, but 17,000 refused to leave. General Winfield Scott lead 7,000 troops against them. About a quarter of all eastern Cherokees died on this trail that lead them to their new lands in Oklahoma.
Cherokees forcefully migrated
Joseph Smith
American religious leader who founded the Church of Jesus Chris of Latter-Day Saints in 1830. He went around New York selling his book called the Gold Bible, but was met with hostility almost everywhere, but slowly gathered followers of the Mormon religion. He led his congregation from New York State to western Illinois and was murdered by anti-Mormons.
mormons
Along with Protestant penitentiaries, asylums for the deaf, blind, insane, orphans and poor were established in the 1820s. Dix lobbied ceaselessly for cleaner, healthier and more hopeful kinds of institutions to care for those unable to do so. Believed in inherant good of human nature.
Dorothea Dix
the penn
He attended meetings held by African Americans, including the group that published the first antislavery newspaper, Freedom's Journal. He sought financial supporters and a partner to launch a paper called The Liberator, which launched in 1831. He called for immediate emancipation. In their first year they only had 6 subscribers and 53 the next. Many whites who had never seen news edited by blacks, but most coverage from editors who denounced him. Was a driving force in the goal to convert south to free.
William Lloyd Garrison
emancipation
Charles River Bridge
A bridge that was granted a franchise by state legislature in 1785 and required a toll to cross. It cost about $70,000 to maintenance and it made $30,000 per year. Another bridge went up just 260 feet away and the traffic on Charles River Bridge was cut in half and so they sued. It went to the U.S. Supreme Court, in 1837, where Judge Taney shot down the monopolistic idea and helped make way for innovation and investment.
monopoly
Patented his version of the electronic telegraph in 1840 and for ten years he devised the code of dots and dashes that bears his name as well as devising ways to make the current travel farther. He was given a grant of $60,000 from Congress to study it and eventually telegraph was spread across the country with great speed.
Samuel F. B. Morse
telegraph
In the 1840s he learned to read from his mistress. He was sent to Baltimore by his owner where he worked in the shipyards and continued to read and plot his escape to freedom. He borrowed the papers of a free black sailor and rode a train to freedom. In New York City he met a black man who introduced him to the New York Anitslave Society. White abolitionists appreciated his speaking ability and sent him with William Lloyd Garrison to travel the North and speak.
Frederick Douglass
Garrison's abolitionist partner.
The Creole
Great Britain insisted that they be allowed to search American ships to stop the importation of slaves to America. In 1841 American slaves seized this ship which was taking them from Virginia to New Orleans. They took the ship to the Bahamas where they claimed their freedom under British law and the British gave them sanctuary.
Slave ship
Manifest destiny
In 1845 newspaper editor John Louis O'Sullivan announced that it was the manifest destiny (the clear and unavoidable fate) of the U.S. "to overspread the continent allotted by Providence for the free development of our yearly multiplying millions." He believed that God intended white Americans to fill in every corner of the continent regardless of other inhabitants.
Containing the U.S.
Northerners feared the expansion of slavery with the victory over Mexico in 1847. When a $2 million bill to purchase CA and Mexico was introduced Wilmot, a first-term Pennsvylania Democrat in favor of war, offered a condition that declared slavery could not be established in any territory won from Mexico. It passed in the House but was later defeated, but from 1846 on the opponents of slavery increasingly distrusted Polk and southern politicians.
David Wilmot
Northern anti-slavery dem
Popular sovereignty
The Dems chose Lewis Cass of Michigan as their candidate for the 1848 primary. He spoke for the northern Dems who sympathized with white southerners who supported slavery. He called for popular sovereignty, allowing people in the terroritories to make their own policies on slavery. Antislavery Dems left the convention and started their own in Buffalo, NY, and nominated president Martin Van Buren as their Free-Soil candidate for the primary.
Territories should decide on slavery
In 1839 he emigrated from Switzerland to Sacramento and established a large fort, trading post, and wheat farm. He hired a carpenter to build a mill on the American River. During the project he noticed a small nugget of gold. They tried to keep it a secret but word leaked and sailors, soldiers and clerks came from miles around to look for gold on the American River.
John Sutter
The Gold Rush
In 1848 him and his 250 followers created the Oneida Association in upstate New York. He was convinced that humans could be "perfected," made free of sin. Also argued that perfected people should not be bound by conventional monogamous marriages; all belonged to one another sexually in "complex marriage." He had a small group around him and put his beliefs into action and practiced birth control by pulling out.
John Humphrey Noyes
Utopian secular society
In 1840 women attending the World's Anti-Slavery Convention in London, England were seated in an separate roped-off area. Stanton and Lucretia Mott got together and vowed to start a movement back in the U.S. for woman's rights. In 1847 she met with Mott again, in New York, where they modeled their "Declaration of Rights and Sentiments" on the Declaration of Independence. It demanded the right to vote, and woman's full equality with men including property rights, education, employment, divorce and in court; the Seneca Falls Convention. They succeeded by getting Americans to talk about woman's rights.
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
Woman's rights
Bleeding Kansas
The Kansas-Nebraska Act, of 1854, declared that settlers would decide for themselves, by "popular sovereignty," what kind of society they would create. Partisans from the North and South were determined to fill the "virgin soil" of Kansas with their supporters. Kansas became known as Bleeding Kansas because of violent actions taken by both sides during this conflict.
Taking over Kansas' virgin soil
fire eaters
Political differences, during the Kansas-Nebraska Act issue of 1854, divided southerners. Fire-eaters, defenders of the South and slavery, saw themselves as the voice of honesty. They believed that abolitionists wanted to destroy the South and that their only response was to not yield, even an inch, anywhere.
Southern whites and slave owners
In 1843 Dred Scott, his wife and two daughters were moved to St. Louis with their master. In 1846 they petitioned for their freedom claiming that their residence in the free territory entitled them to freedom and it went to the supreme court. Two days after Buchanan took office in March of 1857 Chief Justice Roger B. Taney announced the decision. He denied any rights to slaves, even court, because they were constitutionally essentially property. This was an influence in the division of North and South.
Dred Scott
Chief Justice Taney
Lecompton Constitution
In 1857 in order for Kansas to become a U.S. state they had to draft a constitution that Congress would accept. The draft would allow voters to choose either an anti or proslavery constitution but either way current slave owners would be permitted to keep their slaves. Democrats were divided in this issue and they ended up losing 21 seats in congress in the 1858 election due to their division.
Kansas' constitution regarding slavery
John Brown, an abolitionist, pushed the movement in Kansas and wrote to rich abolitionists for donations towards his cause. From 1857 to 1858 he planned an attack on the federal arsenal at Harpers Ferry, Virginia. The assault on Harper's Ferry began the summer 1859, on Oct 16 his group seized the arsenal but were easily dispersed within a few days, most were killed and Brown was tried and sentenced to be hanged. The word of this event spread quickly and public opinion became sharply opposing. He was a figurehead for the abolitionist movement.
Harper's Ferry
Brown's attack
In 1861 General Winfield Scott's plan to squeeze the South to death like a snake does to its prey. He would send a force down the Mississippi River in the fall to divide the south in two. The Union Navy would seal off the South from outside supplies. Ground troops and land battles kept to a minimum. This would significantly weaken the South's defensive advantage.
Anaconda Plan
squeeze the south to death
Appointed as provisional President of the Confederate States of America on February 18, 1861, and served during its entirety from 1861 to 1865. He was a strong states' rights advocate but not enthusiastic about secession. He considered a reprovisioning of Fort Sumter as a declaration of war against the South. He decided to attack the fort before reprovision could arrive and thus began the Civil War. After the war he was imprisoned for 2 years for treason but charges were later dropped.
Jefferson Davis
began the civil war
General William T. Sherman marched his troops directly into southern territory to show the world that the North had a power that Davis could not resist. His army of 60,000 made its way across Georgia during the fall of 1864. This was a morale boost for the North and a blow to the morale of the South. Sherman presented Savannah to Lincoln as a Christmas gift.
March to the Sea
to take Savannah
The 15th amendment, ratified in 1870, allowed all races to vote but did not address women's suffrage. Anthony opposed the amendment, but Douglass said this was a time for the black man. The American Woman Suffrage Association was later established.
Susan B. Anthony
woman's suffrage