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15 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Absolutism
One ruler with complete power. 3 pillars-orthodoxy, autocracy,
Divine Right
The right to rulers given by God
Enlightenment
Paris. Where thinkers examined traditional beliefs and customs in "the light of reason" and found them flawed. Philosophers used reason. Chuch was challenged. Locke, Hobbes, Montesquieu, Marx, Smith.
Reason
Used by philosophers to prove theories
Peasants during the Enlightenment
Ddin't change much. Western peasants had little improvement, East stayed the same.
John Locke
Believed all were born naturally good. Believed in human rights. Rejected absolute monarchy. Gave right to revolution. influenced the ideas of the US Constitution and Bill of Rights.
Adam Smith and the Wealth of Nations
Wrote Wealth of Nations. Argued that the free market should be allowed to regulate business activity. tried to show how trade, wages, profts were all linked to supply and demand.
Montesquieu
Felt that the best way to protect themselves against tyranny is dividing the various functions and powers of government. among 3 separate branches: Legislature, Executive, and judicial to share power.
The First Estate
1 % of population. had the clergy. no taxes. owned much of land
The Second Estate
1% of popuation. Noblies and kinights with top jobs. Owned uch of land. Proected peasants that worked for them.
The Third Estate
98% of popuation.
Class order among 3rd class:
1) HBourgeoisie class-bankers, merchants, manufactorers
2) Peasants and serfs
3)Urban workers
The Estates General
Each state had only one vote.
The Storming of Bastille
BECAME A SYMBOL OF THE FRENCH REVOLUTION. 800 Parisians storm-prision looking for weapons and found none. Used cahiers for complaints but had no effect
The Reign of Terror
1793-1794 40,000 people died. 15% clergy & nobles 15% middle-class. led by Robespierre. used guillotine. PURPOSE WAS TO GET RID OF ALL OPPPOSITION TWOARDS FRENCH REVOLUTION
Maximilien Robespierre
Lawyer and politician. Want to absolish slavery, took Rousseau's idea of general will. Hated old regime. Leader of Committee of Public Saftety. Killed by revolutionaries.