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36 Cards in this Set

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Philip II
He rules 359-336 BC. He spends several years consolidating his power by fighting off barbarians and his own family members. With political skill, he develops his kingdom, builds a powerful army, and plans a program of conquest. Using aggression and diplomacy, Philip added poleis and large territories to his kingdom from all directions. He develops a sphere of influence in central Greece following the Third Sacred War. The war was about the issue of control over Delphi with differing groups of people. Philip II steps in and he encroaches into Greece; Athens were ambivalent toward having Philip II in Greece. There were two parties in the 340's: pro-Macedonians and anti-Macedonians. The pro-Macedonians won over eventually with attaining a peace treaty called the Peace of Philocrates in 346 BC. However, right after, the anti-Macedonians asserted themselves and declared a war in 340 against Macedon. In 338BC, there was a decisive battle, and all the Greek allies lose to Philip II, who gains control of all of mainland Greece. He gathered the poleis into an obedient alliance called the League of Corinth, and they were going to head to Persia to conquer, but then Philip was assassinated in 336 by one of his officers.
Allegory of the Cave
The Allegory of the Cave was written by Plato, who lived from 428-347 BC; the allegory of the cave talks about how there are prisoners stuck in a cave, and they can only look one way. All they can see are appearances of reality, which are the shadows on the cave cast by unknown objects. When someone is liberated and turns around, he sees how reality is, of what causes the shadows and how the world truly is, though it is painful to see. However, he returns back to tell the prisoners what is really going on. The prisoners feel so threatened with the truth that their world view is false that they kill the prisoner with the true vision. It relates directly to Socrates, because he attempted to bring truth and got killed for it. It demonstrates Plato's view that we can only see perceptions of reality, and we need to break out of that and see what the ideal form really is.
Socrates
470-399 BC; he began philosophic inquiry by studying early philosophers, but he was disappointed. Upon learning that his friend went to the oracle at Delphi and found that there was no man wise than Socrates, Socrates decides that he is the wisest man alive because he recognizes his own ignorance. He went on to discover true wisdom. The Socratic method for wisdom was dialectic; he would start a conversation with someone with the goal of discovering truth by starting with abstract concepts and asking people to define it. He found that people did not know any more than him. He was also interested in ethics, and he believed that people should search for virtue and knowledge. In his lifetime, he was a controversial figure for the way he asked people. His death was caused by his connection with Critias, one of the 30 tyrants who exhibited much cruelty, and his unorthodox religious beliefs. He was accused of impiety and corrupting the youth, which was a direct attack on his relation to Critias. He transformed philosophy into an inquiry about the moral responsibility of people. His star student was Plato, who went on to write The Apology, which details the trial of Socrates.
Plato
428-347 BC; Our knowledge of Socrates' thoughts comes mainly from the writings of Plato. Plato continued Socrates' investigation of moral conduct by writing a series of profound and complex philosophical books, mainly in the form of dialogues in which Socrates is the main speaker. He sought truth through a subtle process of reasoning and inquiry. Plato believed that moral goodness was restricted to the elite who could master it through philosophic study. He believed that one most go beyond the evidence of our senses to find ultimate reality and truth. Plato founded a philosophical school called the Academy. He had a doctrine of forms; according to Plato, everything we see is an imperfect reflection of the ideal form. He wrote about the Allegory of the Cave, which is in the Republic, which talks about his idea of a perfect state and demonstrates his philosophical ideas about how the state should be in the hands of that elite who masters moral goodness through philosophical study.
Aristotle
he is Plato's best student; 384-322 BC; he founded his own school in Athens called the Lyceum. It embraced all fields of learning known to the ancients, including logics, metaphysics, astronomy, biology, physics, politics, and poetry. He wrote Politics, Ethics, and many other works. He saw reality as consisting of both form and matter. In this way, he turned his pupils to empirical sciences, the study of what can e seen to exist. He also believed each object has a purpose as part of a grand design of the universe. The task of the philosopher is to study these individual objects to discover their purpose; then he may ultimately be able to determine a general pattern. He had advanced analysis such as the teleological doctrine, which was concerning the end or goal; everything happens because of a distinct cause. At the top of Aristotle's hierarchy of causes there was a formal cause. Like Socrates and Plato, he concerned himself with human behavior, ethics and politics in which Aristotle advances his ideals of the state and people in it.
Romulus and Remus
According to mythology, Mars, the god of war, impregnated Peasiliua, and she gave birth to Romulus and Remus. They were exposed to Tiger River, and left to die. They were picked up by a she-wolf, who became the symbol of Rome. She nursed the boys and ensured their survival. They found their own cities, but they get into a fight. Romulus kills his brother, and found Rome on April 21st, 753 BC on a hill. Archaeology is roughly in agreement with that date, because there was considerable habitation around that time.
Aeneas
He was the son of Prince Anchises I and Aphrodite, according to mythology. Aeneas is a Trojan nobleman and hero who was directed by the gods to find a new city in Italy. When Troy was sacked by the Greeks, Aeneas gathered a group, collectively known as the Aeneads, traveled to Italy and became a progenitor of the Romans. During his journey, Aeneas and his fleet made landfall at Carthage. Vergil, who lived from 70-19 BC, wrote the Aeneid, which covered Aeneas' travels and the founding of Rome.It is at this point that the poem of the Aeneid begins. Aeneas had a brief affair with the Carthaginian queen Elissa, also known as Dido, who proposed that the Trojans settle in her land and that she and Aeneas reign jointly over their peoples. However, the messenger god Mercury was sent by Jupiter and Venus to remind Aeneas of his journey and his purpose, thus compelling him to leave secretly and continue on his way. When Dido learned of this, she ordered a funeral pyre to be constructed for herself; and standing on it, she uttered a famous curse that forever would pit Carthage against the Trojans. She then committed suicide by stabbing herself in the chest. When Aeneas later traveled to Hades, he called to her ghost but she neither spoke or acknowledged him. The Trojans were thought to be Roman's ancestors, and it seems so if they settled around the area.
paterfamilias
Rome was founded in 753 BC, and from then on in the family there is a paterfamilias; he is the oldest living male ancestor; his power over the household is absolute; in earlier times, they could kill wife or children at will; it results in an uncomfortable situation, especially for sons because paterfamilias gets to make all decisions and control all the money
-so, he could be a Roman adult male and still have no power
Twelve Tables
The Twelve Tables originally came from the demand of the Plebeians for Roman laws to be written down. They wanted the laws to be written so that it can prevent the arbitrary administration of justice from magistrates. So, as a result, the Twelve Tables was created, the first codification of Roman law. It is called the Twelve Tables because they were engraved on twelve bronze tablets and posted in the Roman forum. The importance of the Tables was the fact that they were published; in general, laws were harsh and did little to protect plebeians, such as in the law of debt on Table 3, where a creditor could shackle the debtor if he did not pay his debt within 30 days; after 60 days, debtor could be sold as slave or executed. The Twelve Tables followed the form of lex talionis, which is the rule of retribution (man convicted of arson burned at stake). It was the foundation of Roman law for 1000 years, since around 450 BC
lex Hortensia
With lex Hortensia, the Struggle of the Order ends in 287 BC; the Plebeians had their own legislative body called concilium plebis, or plebeian council. Prior to lex Hortensia, any decisions the plebeian council made had to be approved by the Senate to apply to everyone. The lex Hortensia removed that ratifying requirement in Lex Hortensia. The lex Hortensia makes plebiscita (laws passed by the Plebeian council) binding in Roman people without the Senate's approval. Now there is equality, and they have political power.
Hannibal Barca
Hannibal Barca was the Carthaginian general in Spain during the 2nd Punic War, which was from 218-201 BC. He started the 2nd war by violating the Ebro Treaty between Carthage and Rome and crossed the Ebro River. He besieges and captures city of Saguntum, which is the immediate cause of the war. Hannibal was a brillian and daring strategist, second to almost none in history, he determined to carry the war to the enemy. Hannibal invaded Italy, and gets through from Spain to Italy by crossing the Alps. He left with 46,000 troops and 37 elephants, and, at Italy, he had 26,000 men. Once across Alps, hannibal succeeds in initial invasion of Italy-- after several military engagements, Rome feared for Rome itself. Rome tried to harass Hannibal with delaying tactics but Rome was impatient and in 216 had a pitched battle at Cannae. It was disastrous, as Hannibal destroyed the Roman legions, killing 80,000 Roman troops with the loss of 6000. Rome then continued their delaying tactics and avoided pitch battles. Hannibal rampages through Italy until Rome conquers Spain, leaving Hannibal isolated and having to withdraw and move.
Cannae
During the 2nd punic war, which was from 218-201 BC. The battle of Cannae was significant because it changed the Roman strategies in the war. Hannibal had invaded Italy from Spain and kept succeeding in several military engagements there. Romans tried to harass Hannibal with delaying tactics, but Rome became impatient. In 216 BC, they risked it with a pitched battle at Cannae. It was disastrous, as Hannibal destroyed the Roman legions, killing 80,000 Roman troops with the loss of 6000. Rome then continued their delaying tactics and avoided pitch battles.
Zama
After conquering Spain, forcing Hannibal, the Carthaginian general, to move towards the end of the Italian boot, Rome invades north Africa and the home territory of Carthage freely. In 204 BC, Scipio, the Roman commander, lands in Africa and in a decisive battle at Zama, near Carthage, in 202 BC forces Carthage to sue for peace. This ends the 2nd Punic war.
Marius
(157-86 BC); during the Roman Revolution, Roman politics divided into two main groups: Optimates and Populares; The Optimates were supporters of the senatorial aristocracy, and the Populares were supporters of the Gracchi, with reforms to help the poor; Gaius Marius was the head of the Populares. He rises to success as a Roman general. He reformed Roman legions and He was important because he changed, radically and forever, the membership of the Roman army and the direction of its loyalty. He gained high prestige from winning a war (111-106 BC) against Jugurtha, the king of Numidia in North Africa. Marius had obtained this command after the generals who had been sent out by the Senate had proved incompetent. He hated the feeble aristocrats who had bungled the campaign. His reputation grew when he drove back an attempted invasion (105-101 BC) and so during the decade from 107-100, he dominated politics by serving as consul six times.
Sulla
(138-78 BC) He was a man without scruples, a glutton and sensualist who helped himself to whatever women he liked. During the Roman Revolution, Roman politics divided into two main groups: Optimates and Populares; The Optimates were supporters of the senatorial aristocracy, and the Populares were supporters of the Gracchi, with reforms to help the poor; Sulla was the head of the Optimates; In the 80s civil war broke out in Rome over who should obtain the command in a war against Mithridates, the king of Pontus in Asia Minor. Sulla was elected to command in the first Mithradatic War in 89 BC which was centered around Pontus in North Asia; The war ends in 85BC, and Sulla returns victorious, lands in Brundisium, Italy in 83 and marches north. Sulla wins the battle in 82 against the partisans of Marius, his rival. He takes over Rome after being appointed dictator and begins a reign of terror. He had 2500 public enemies in Rome and had many people executed. Sulla reforms the Roman constitution. He transfers the criminal juries in the criminal standing courts from the equestrian to the senatorial aristocracy. Also, he increases the number of senators and curbed the power of tribunes by enacting a law that blocked tribunes form holding any other office and that they had to wait ten years to be reelected. That way, ambitious politicians were discouraged from seeking this office. Sulla forbade army commanders to leave their provinces or make war outside their borders without instructions from the Senate. This prevented generals who had used the loyalty of their armies to gain political leverage. He resigned the dictatorship in 79BC.
Pompey
Pompey reigns after the death of Sulla in 78 BC. In 76, he receives command of Roman armies in Spain to crush the revolt led by Quintus Sertorius. It lasts until 72, when Pompey declares victory. In Italy, while Pompey is gone, there is a slave revolt that erupted that was led by Spartacus. The revolt lasts for two years but they were crushed by Crassus. Pompey annihilated the rebel army that survived and took credit for ending the revolt, which furthered the rivalry of Crassus and Pompey. He gained popularity through his military campaigns. In 66 Pompey spends time away from Rome. In 63, there was a major conspiracy against the state led by Cataline, who had lost several consul elections. The plans were detected by Cicero, who drove Catline out. The army was defeated and Cicero was honored by the Roman state as "father of his country." Pompey was part of the First Triumvirate with Crassus and Caesar. When Crassus dies, he declares Caesar as a public enemy, but Caesar builds up his army and defeats Pompey, who flees to Egypt and is assassinated later.
Cicero
Cicero rose to prominence as a legal advocate; he comes to fame with trial of Gaius Veres for misconduct as governor; Cicero wins as a prosecutor; he was so good that Veres gives up and goes to exile before the verdict is reach; Cicero was known as Roman's leading orator. In 63, there was a major conspiracy against the state led by Cataline, who had lost several consul elections and lost to Cicero. The plans were detected by Cicero, who drove Cataline out. The army was defeated and Cicero was honored by the Roman state as "father of his country." He was dedicated to compromise and political negotiation and thought that such procedures would establish the combined rule of the two upper classes, the senatorial and equestrian. Cicero was the most versatile Latin writer of his time, and his polished prose style became his model in Latin for clarity and elegance. He also wrote philosophical treatises and was interested in Stoicism, the thought of Plato. He was against the Triumvirate, and gets banned from Rome in 58 BC. Upon Caesar's assassination in 44 BC, Cicero returned to public life and delivered a series of scathing speeches (the "Phillipics") against Marc Antony. This proved to be Cicero's undoing: when Antony took power in a triumvirate with Octavian and Marcus Lepidus, Cicero was declared an outlaw and killed by Antony's men in 43 BC
First Triumvirate
in 60, Caesar joins the 1st Triumvirate with Crasssus and Pompey, which is a unification of the three most powerful politicians in Rome. Caesar spends 7 yrs, from 58-51, subduing the people in Gaul with his Roman legions and crushing revolts there; in 51, Gaul was pacified and then becomes a Roman province; After Gaul, Caesar returns to find Rome deteriorating, where Pompey and Crassus were at each other throats and there was gang violence. In 56 BC, they convene at Luca and renew the Triumvirate for five more years. According to terms at Luca, Crassus gets to invade Mesopotamia but in 53 he was killed in battle at Carrhae. This upsets the balance of power, and Caesar eventually wins in the power struggle with Pompey. The Senate declares him as a public enemy. Caesar knew that if he crossed the Rubicon, then he would be declaring civil war because Roman legions under arms are not allowed in the borders of Italy. After building forces in Northern Italy, he went ahead and declared civil war as he sent his Roman legions and fought from 49-45 BC. He clashes with Pompey at Pharsalus in Thessaly, and wins the fight as Pompey flees to Egypt.
2nd triumvirate
· In order to solidify his position, octavian joined forces with antony, and with a third man, marcus aemilius lepidus--> the second triumvirate, and it was formerly est. on november 27th, 43; recognized by senate and granted term of 5 yrs to head roman senate
· In the next yr, 42, octavian and antony confronted caesar's assassins, brutus and cassius
· Their respective armies met at phillipi in macedonia; the triumvirs won the battle and brutus and cassius committed suicide
· After this victory, the triumvirs partitioned the roman empire among themselves
· Octavian got the west, antony got the east, and lepidus got africa
· In the meantime, a new threat had arisen which struck at the very heart of the empire
· A son of pompey named sextus pompeius, commanding sizeable pirate fleet, had seized sicily and sardinia and was blockading rome, thus cutting off the city's seaborne grain supply
· Open warfare between the triumvirs and sextus pompey occupied yrs 38- 36 when sextus pompey was decisively defeated
· Also in 36, octavian and antony jettisoned lepidus and prepared for a two man battle between themselves for control of the whole empire
cleopatra
69-30 BC; she had a power struggle with her brother Ptolemy. Caesar stepped in around 48 BC and took out her brother and reinstated her as pharoah. They had a son. Politics played with love, because Cleopatra's affections guaranteed Roman control over the rich resources of Egypt. Caesar unusually left it as a kingdom. She also was involved with Marc Antony, and by 34, antony had appointed cleopatra co-ruler of the east with him, which was highly unpopular with the Roman people. Octavian, or Augustus, falsely asserted that Antony was planning to place her in command of the state, and so he exploited the rumors surrounding their romance. In 32, octavian convinced senate to declare war on antony and cleopatra
· The decisive showdown between octavian and antony was a naval battle fought off the coast of northwest greece at actium in september of 31; octavian won the battle as antony and cleopatra fled the scene and made way to egypt; octavian chased antony and cleopatra to egypt, where unfortunately for them, their power base had disappeared and she committed suicide with antony.
livy
59 B.C.–A.D. 17 I n the field of prose writing, augustian era produced rome's greatest historian, Livy
· Livy wrote a comprehensive history of rome and titled ab urbe condita (from the founding of the city); livy's history went from the founding of rome, as the title indicates, to the year 9 bc; of an original total of 142 books, today we have 1-10 and 21-45
nero
He was part of the dynasty established by Augustus. His mother poisoned the last ruler, Claudius, in order to ensure her son would claim the throne. When Nero came to the throne in 54, was only 16 yrs old; he was a young man who loved gymnastics, music, painting, racing horses, and killing his relatives, including adopted brother Britanicus and mother agripena (wife of claudius). Nero thought he was great athlete and musician, and often treated roman people to public exhibitions of his skills. He was a great admirer of greek civilization; he wanted greeks to be great admirers of Nero, so he went on tour in Greece in 67-68, where, not surprisingly, he went undefeated in both musical competitions and chariot racing, winning a total of 1800 events. According to the roman historical tradition, the first five years of Nero's reign were good ones; he administered empire well despite murdering occasional relative. By 63, true colors showed with the treason trials, common under tiberius and caligula, now resumed; and nero's extravagant entertainment budget threatened to put rome into bankruptcy
· 64, a great fire swept through city of rome. Apparently, Nero sang while Rome burned and after the fire, he appropriated 120 acres of prime burned out real estate to build himself a new palace- the golden house
· Unfortunately for nero, for fortunately for everyone else, when he returned in triumph from the aforementioned tour of greece in 68, he found that a number of provincial governors and military commanders organized coups against him; rebels marched on rome, nero fled and had trusted servant stab him to death; thus ends julio-claudian dynasty
marcus aurelius
He embodied plato's ideal philosopher king; was a dedicated student of philosophy and himself a practicing stoic who composed a book of introspective observations called the Meditations, unfortunately, he spent great majority of principate fighting foreign wars against the Parathions and on the Danube frontier
· With the death, on St. patrick's day in 180 ends Pax Romana. He was known as one of the Five Good Emperors.
Jesus
4 B.C.-A.D. 29; born in Bethlehem, son of carpenter Joseph and wife Mary
· Know very little about Jesus' life before he began his preaching since the gospels are mostly concerned with his Ministry.
· Jesus began his ministry probably around age of 30; gathered him around himself a group called the Twelve Apostles, he was leader. He taught that he was son of god, the "anointed one," who had come to fulfill the law of the old testament.
· On the day of judgment, those who had faith in him would be saved, while everyone else suffered eternal damnation
· Also taught charity, love, humility, and prayer (gave them the Lord's prayer) and he also predicted his own betrayal, trial, and crucifixion as well as resurrection
· Jesus' teachings go him into a lot of trouble with local Jewish authorities; biggest problem was his claim to be the Messiah; while some people believed him, and accepted Jesus as messiah, most people did not and thought he was guilty of blasphemy
· Now according to the Gospels, Jesus taught his followers and disclosed his identity as the Messiah largely through parables (metaphor, like the sower and the seed) and miracles, such as turning water into wine, walking on water, healing the sick, curing disabilities, exorcising demons, and raising man from dead
· Unorthodox preaching got Jesus into serious trouble with local authorities. When he entered jerusalem to celebrate passover in AD 29, he knew he was a wanted man. He even predicted own execution, adding that he would rise from the dead on the third day. In jerusalem, Jesus got together with Apostles called the Last Supper; took a loaf, blessed it and broke it, saying this is my body, which is given to you, do this in rememberance of me; took a cup after eating, these cup is the “new convenant” in my blood, which is spilled for you luke 22, 19-20
· Words of jesus begins sacrement of communion, and also provides title new testament for christians (covenant = testament)
· After the last supper, one of the apostles, betrayed jesus into the hands of the high priest; after questioning by the council, called the san hedrin, Jesus was handed over to the Roman official in charge of Judea, Pontius Pilate, who sentenced Jesus to death by crucifixion. He was crucified along with two thieves on Good Friday
· Two days later, some of his followers visited his tomb but could not find his body
· Appeared two times to his disciples telling them resurrected on Easter Sunday
· Told apostles to continue his work after his death; no evidence in the gospel that Jesus saw himself as the founder of a new religion; he was a Jew who believed he was the messiah as shown in the Old testament prophets
Paul
The next crucial event in the history of the Apostolic church was the conversion of Saul in Tarsus
· Saul had been active in persecuting Christians in Judea, but one day, while traveling to Damascus, saw vision of Jesus which led him to convert to Christianity
· He changed his name from Saul to Paul, and then became extremely active as an apostle spreading the gospel
· Up to this point, the Christian movement only at Judea and neighboring provinces; but one night, Paul had a vision of a Macedonian who told him "cross over into macedonia and help us" ; and so Paul crossed into Europe, and thus went to Macedonia and converted ppl, and traveled to Athens and Corinth, which spread Christianity to Europe
· On return to jerusalem, taken by Romans, arrested; at prison, wrote four letters in his name, that came to be canonized in new testament
· After great fire of rome in 64, when the emperor nero scapegoated the Christians, Paul was executed, probably around 68
Decius
Roman emperor (249 - 251) known for Great Persecution of Decius, 250
Decius issued the edict for the suppression of Christianity. Decius persecuted Christians throughout the empire; he ordered all provincial governors to round up their Christian populations and order them to sacrifice to the Roman gods; if they sacrificed, they were set free
· If they fled, their property was confiscated and they were sentenced to death in absentia
· If they refused to sacrifice, they were imprisoned and tortured
· If they did not change their minds, they were sometimes executed
Diocletian
A period of recovery begins with the elevation of Diocletian to the position of sole emperor in 285
· It also marks transition from history of roman empire from the principate, founded by augustus, to the dominate
· Diocletian (r. 285-305) had learned from previous fifty yrs of Roman history the importance of a well defined accession to the throne. Enacted major change to govt of the empire, which was the Tetrarchy, or Rule of Four, in 293; There were two co-emperors called Augusti (Diocletian, Maximian), and each had a Caesar, or vice emperor [Caesars (Constantius, Galerius)]
· Purpose of this system was to ensure a defined succession
· The Caesars were the designated heirs of the Augusti. When one of the emperors died, or abdicated, his Caesar would be promoted to Augustus and would appoint a new Caesar to replace him. Under diocletian, each of the Augusti and Caesar had defined sphere of influence in empire. We can see this in location of their imperial palaces, where Diocletian's in Asia Minor, Maximian's in Italy in Milan, Constaitus' in Gaul, and Galerius in province of lower Panomia
· Diocletian made strategic decision to place Augusti and Caesar on frontiers of the Empire
· None of tetrarchs resided in rome, so as a result, rome began to decline in importance
· Effect began decentralization of the empire, as zones of concern moved from center, rome and italy, to the provinces
· In addition to reform of government, diocletian also carried sweeping military and economic reforms; in response to rapid inflation in Roman world, he issued Edict of Prices in 301; it set a fixed value of all goods and services; and the penalty for violation was death. However it was ineffective so the emperors stopped enforcing it.
· Diocletian finally is notable as the last emperor under whom Christians suffered serious persecutions; in 303 and 304, Diocletian issued a series of Edicts against the Christians throughout the empire; he mandated the destruction of Christian churches and books, the imprisonment of Christian clergy, and forced all inhabitants of the empire to perform customary sacrifice to the Roman gods or face possibility of execution
· Fell victim to serious illness and abdicated position as Augustus on May 1st, 305; impelled co-Augustus Maximian to follow suit so that Caesars, Constantius and Galerius, became Augusti in their places
· But, real unifying force behind Tetrarchy had been Diocletian
· With him now gone, the Tetrarchy soon collapsed, with each member competing for sole power
Constantine
Constantine was sole emperor 324-337, after eliminating rivals before.
· Constantine had vision, saw a cross in the sky saying en toutôi nika, “Conquer in this”; jesus appeared to him a in a dream, and told him to make a labarum, which shows the first two letters of Christ; made out of precious metals, had his soldiers paint the chi-row on their shields; next day, he won battle of bridge, and thus won control of western Roman empire
· From that point on, Constantine was a champion of Christianity, though he honored roman pagan gods as well as christian god
Built new capital to celebrate, chose Greek city Byzantium, which he rebuilt after himself, Constantinople (now Istanbul), construction was from 324-330. When finished, Constantinople was a second Rome, a new Rome, and it is notable as the first city in world history expressly founded as a Christian settlement.
· In 325, the year after construction began on Constantinople, Constantine decided to address growing tensions within Christian church. Summoned bishops from all over the empire, to a Council of Nicaea, in the province of Bithynia in 325
· The bishops at Nicaea, presided over by Constantine drew up a creed called the Nicene Creed: Son consubstantial and coeternal with Father; they expelled anyone who dissented from the church and thus declared Arians as heretic
· Nicene Creed was the fundamental document in church history
· As the man who convened and presided over the Council of Nicaea, Constantine became the first emperor to exert influence over church doctrine-tendency will last
Attila the Hun
(r. 433-453) He was referred to as the "scourge fo God" according to Christian writers, and he established his horde on the plain of the middle Danube and from there led the Huns on raids into both Gaul and Italy. In 452, Rome was nearly sacked again by him, but he was convinced to spare the city by Pope Leo I. With his death in 453, the Hunnic empire disintegrated.
Romulus Augustulus
The western Roman empire comes to an end in 476, when last emperor in the West deposed
· He has ironic name: Romulus Augustulus (combo of Romulus, founder of Rome and Augustus, the first Roman emperor)
· due to deposition, year 476 traditionally reckoned as date of fall of Roman empire
Corpus Iuris Civilis
Between 529 and 534, Justinian issued a comprehensive and exhaustive series called Corpus Iuris Civilis (the body of the civil law), 529-534: the three parts of it were Institutes, Digest, Codex Iustinianus
· Institutes were textbook of Roman law for use throughout the empire
· Digest was collation of legal commentary by leading Roman jurists from the 2nd c. AD on
· Finally, the Codex was a compendium of imperial edicts still enforced from Hadrian to Justinian
· These three works together formed the Corpus Iuris Civilis, which codified laws of the empire
· Now, the Corpus was the most thorough and systematic codification of Roman law ever
· Just a glance at the Corpus shows us how far Roman law had come since the days of the Twelve Tables
· In fact, the Corpus was so advanced in its legal thought that it became the foundation of the legal systems of most of modern Europe. The European civil law countries trace the ancestry of their legal systems back to Justinian
Muhammad
(ca. 570-632), the founder of Islam, was born in Mecca (today's Saudi Arabia); in 610, Muhammad had a vision of the arkangel Gabriel, and began to preach new religious ideas in neighborhood in Mecca
· Got into trouble with local pagan authorities
· hijra (“flight”)- named for the emigration to Medina, 622 (moved to Medina to preach), made converts, and rose to position to political leadership, which was key to expansion of new religion
· 630, Muhammad and his army captured mecca, the place of his birth
· 2 yrs later, died but expansion of his religion had only begun
· Religion founded by Muhammad was called Islam -- "submission" to God (Allah)
· Allah was same God worshipped by Christians and Jews
· According to Islam, Muhammad was a prophet of Allah, but not the only prophet
· He was the last and most authoritative of a line of prophets which included the prophets of the Old Testament and Jesus Christ
· The prophesies given by Allah to Muhammad were collected after his death in the Koran, written in Arabic 651-652
· Everyone must follow Five Pillars of Islam: confession of faith, prayer, almsgiving, fasting during Ramadan, pilgrimage to
Five Pillars of Islam
Every Muslim had to follow Five Pillars of Islam: confession of faith, prayer, almsgiving, fasting during Ramadan, pilgrimage to Mecca at least once during a person's lifetime;
Charles Martel
(r. 768-814) The Muslim army were trying to conquer all of Europe and expand their influences. However, at France, at the battle of Tours, Muslim army defeated by the Franks under their king Charles Martel in 732
· As result of victory, had nickname Martel (the hammer). It was crucial turning point because he managed to do something no one else had been able to do, which was to turn back an invading Muslim army. This ensured that most of Europe would remain Christian. The Carolingian empire would reach its peak with Martel's grandson Charlemagne.
Charlemagne
r. 768-814) - our main sources for the reign of Charlemagne include two royal lives, one written in Latin by a member of Charlemagne's royal court named Einhard, Life of Charlemagne
· He was an extremely warlike ruler who added a number of territories to the empire, namely northern Italy and Corsica annexed in 744, Bavaria annexed in 788, Saxony and southwest Denmark, annexed in 804, and northeast Spain and Brittany, annexed in 811. The empire of Charlemagne as well as the dynasty of emperors, which followed him, are commonly named after him and called Carolingian. As well as being a successful conqueror, Charlemagne was also an able administrator of his empire
· He closely supervised all departments of government, and all regions of his empire through a number of royal officials
· Like the old Roman empire, Charlemagne Carolingian Empire was divided into provinces
· Charlemagne's provinces were called counties because each was governed by a count
· The reign of Charlemagne also witnessed a revival of learning, known as Called the Carolingian Renaissance -- with breakup of Roman empire, literacy went downhill. Charlemagne sought to reverse this trend and to promote literacy and learning throughout his empire, though he could not read. So in pursuit of this goal, Charlemagne invited to his royal court scholars, writers, and grammarians from all over his empire and beyond. He mandated that every monastery in his empire established a school in order to teach boys to read and write. Included course of study which would become the 7 liberal arts of the Middle Ages : grammar, rhetoric, logic, mathematics, geometry, music, and astronomy. So, Charlemagne lays the foundations of the standard education in the Medieval west. Charlemagne's scholars also established a standard literary form of medieval latin, along with a standard script, known as the Carolingian minuscule, featured upper case letters at beginning of sentence, and lower case letters elsewhere, which we follow today. Scholars also published standardized versions of latin text, including in particular the Vulgate Bible. So during his 46 yr reign, he expanded the frankish empire to include most of western europe, he tightened royal control over the empire, establishing a standard bureaucracy, and he fostered learning and produced the Carolingian renaissance
· The high point of Charlemagne's career, occurred in 800 with his coronation as Holy Roman Emperor
· The result was holy roman empire, which would last throughout the middle ages and to yr 1806
· As its name signifies, the holy roman empire was a union of the power of the church vested in the pope and the power the state vested in the holy roman emperor, Charlemagne, and his successors
missing: alexander the great, caesar, and augstus
blady blah blah