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151 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Archduke Ferdinand of Austria
Assassinated by Serbia in Sarajevo June 1914 immediate cause of WWI
Triple Alliance
Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy declared war on Russia in August 1914, backed by Turkey and Bulgaria
US formally recognized the Soviet Union
November 1933
Germany begins using subs to sink ships
Lusitania sank
May 1915 not a cause for US entering war, but did spark a change in public sentiment towards the war
Arabic sank
August 1915
Sussex sank
March 1916
Sussex Pledge
1916 Germany promised to protect the safety of civilians by ended submarine attacks without warning
William J Bryant
Democratic leader and Secretary of State under Wilson, opposed loans to Britain and France in 1914
Robert Lansing
Assistant Secretary of State under Wilson urged Wilson to grant loans to Britain and France in 1914, over Bryant's objections
British blockade
1914 Mined North Sea, hurt neutral countries trading with Germany
Espionage Act
June 1917
Trading with the Enemy Act
October 1917
Sedition Act
May 1918 limited criticism of government and the war effort
General Albert Burleson
Postmaster who blocked mailing privileges for publications considered disloyal
Eugene V. Debs
Socialist leader convicted under the Espionage Act for condemning war as a capitalist plot
Zimmerman Telegram
February 1917 telegram sent by German Foreign Secretary Arthur Zimmerman to the German minister in Mexico offering territory in Southwest if Mexico would declare war against US
John Pershing
Leader of the American Expeditionary Force
Selective Service Act
May 1917 draft of all young men into the service, eventually inducted 2.8 million, in addition to 2 million volunteers
Bernard Baruch
headed War Industries Board to direct and stimulate industrial production
Hitler invades Chechoslavakia
March 1939
Herbert Hoover
headed the Food Administration and urged various means of conserving resources
Nazi-Soviet nonaggression pact
August 1939
William McAdoo
Secretary of Treasury supported purchase of Liberty Bonds to raise funds
Germany invaded Poland
September 1939 triggering Britain and France to enter the war
National War Labor Policies
enacted 8 hour day, minimum wage and collective bargaining rights in an effort to avoid strikes
France invaded
1940, by Germany through Denmark, Norway, Belgium and Holland in the North, and by Italy in the South
National War Labor Policies
enacted 8 hour day, minimum wage and collective bargaining rights in an effort to avoid strikes
Allen White
formed the Committee to defend America by Aiding the Allies to generate public support for aid to allies, short of entering the war
Women's Bureau of the Department of Labor and Women's Trade Union League
helped open jobs to women in response to labor shortage during the war
Lend Lease Act
March 1941 allowed Britain to obtain arms from America as a loan
Nineteenth Amendment
1920 granted women the right to vote in response to women't service during the war as nurses, factory workers and volunteers
Robin Moor sank by German U-boat near Africa
June 1941
Great Migration
1915 to 1920 half a million blacks moved north to become skilled and unskilled industrial workers
Japan invaded Manchuria
Hitler became German Chancellor
Atlantic Charter
August 1941 statement by Roosevelt and Churchill that called for people in a territory to choose their own boundaries, and form of government and for freedom of seas and denial of arms to aggressor nations
Triple Entente
Great Britain, France, Russia supported by Serbia, and colonies in Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Africa and India
Germany withdrew representatives from the League of Nations
George Creel
1917 director of Committee on Public Information
Roosevelt authorized expanding US navy to counter Japanese buildup
Cordell Hull
Secretary of State under Roosevelt
Germany invaded Russia
June 1941
Reciprocal Trade Agreements Act
Engineered by Cordell Hull in 1934 giving the president the authority to reduce tariffs for nations that would in turn reduce tariffs on US, 22 nations agreed
Benito Mussolini
Created authoritarian state in Italy
Four Minute Men
CPI Volunteers who travelled giving pep talks and distributing press releases
Spanish civil war
1935 Germany and Italy supported rebel fascists, Russia supported loyalists
British treaty with Germany
1935 allowed Germany a surface navy 1/3 the size of Britian's
Josef Stalin
Russian Premier
Japan invaded five northern provinces of China
July 1937
Neutrality Acts
1935-1937 ended loans and arms sales to warring nations, warned civilians about travelling on belligerent ships
Charles Evan Hughes
Wilson's republican challenger in 1916 argued that US was not prepared to defend itself in a war
cash and carry
required foreign nations trading with US to pay cash and to ship goods themselves, prevented loans and the use of American ships in war zones
Germany occupied Rhineland
March 1936
Tripartite Pact
1940 alliance between Japan, Germany and Italy
Italy invaded Ethiopia
April 1936
Japan captured Nanking
December 1937
Fourteen Points
January 1918 Wilson's vision for peace and a new democratic world order. Affirmed basic liberal ideals, supported right to self-determination for European people dominated by Germany, and called for a League of Nations
Francisco Franco
Rebel Fascist leader in Spain
Good Neighbor Policy
1933 declaration made by Roosevelt in inaugural speech, called for cooperation, esp with Latin America
Pearl Harbor bombed
December 1941 united Americans in commitment to war and desire for revenge
Quarantine Speech
October 1937 Roosevelt's declaration that aggressors should be quarantined by the international community
Neville Chamberlain
British Prime Minister offered Sudetenland in Czechoslavakia to Hitler in 1938 to protect the rest of Czech
long term causes
nationalism, imperialism, militarism, and alliances
Germany surrendered
May 1945
Treaty of Versailles
1919 demanded reparations from Germany, rejected by Congress in 1920
Atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki
August 1945 approved by Truman
German concept of homeland
Japan surrendered
August 1945
Manhattan Project
research and development of the atomic bomb
Office of Price Administration
limited consumer purchase of meat, sugar and gasoline
Henry Kaiser
built ships quickly with prefabricated materials
communist guerillas in the Phillipines
Kim Il Sung
Communist leader in North Korea, supported by Russia
Syngman Rhee
South Korean President, supported by US
North Korea invades South Korea
June 1950 UN declares invasion an act of aggression
Dean Acheson
Secretary of State under Truman, emphasized communism over USSR as enemy, GR and TU domino effect
Douglas MacArthur
Commander of UN army moved troops to defend South Korea, fired for insubordination in April 1951
Dwight Eisenhower
appointed commander of NATO forces in 1950, defeated Adlai Stevenson for presidency in 1952
armistice agreement signed with Korea
July 1953
UN landed in Inchon, North Korean West Coast
September 1950
October 1950 North Korean capital captured
China supported a North Korean counterattack
November 1950
January 1951 South Korean capital captured
Matthew Ridgeway
Succeeded MacArthur as UN forces commander in Korea
heavily armed firebase near the border of China, lost by France in 1954
Geneva Accords
May 1954 agreement between France, Great Britain, China and Viet Minh that divided Indochina into Laos and Cambodia and divided Vietnam at the 17th parallel and provided for an elected government in S Vietnam
Ho Chi Minh
nationalist coalition communist (Viet Minh) leader in Viet Nam, claimed Vietnamese independence from France in 1954
Ngo Dinh Diem
elected leader in S Vietnam under the Geneva Agreement
Nguyen Van Thieu
Succeeded Ngo Dinh Diem in 1965 after Diem's death in 1963
William Westmoreland
American General in Korea requested more troops to occupy more territory
Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
Attempt by LBJ to gain support for sending troops to Korea
Paris Peace Talks
1968-1973 called for US withdrawal from Vietnam and exchange of all POWs
Guam Doctrine
Nixon's plan to reduce US involvement in Vietnam to a supporting role
Henry Kissinger
National security assistant, backed Nixon in Vietnam
Charles De Galle
French president during Vietnam war
Tet offensive
1968 invasion of S Vietnam caused Johnson to reverse policy in Vietnam and seek negotiated settlement
economic principal practiced by the colonies, marked by tariffs that protech domestic industry, and govt sponsored monopolies supported by A Hamilton
free competition ruled by natural laws, supported by T Jefferson
Union Pacific
cross country RR that originated in KC, characterized by inferior construction, paid a company owned firm, Credit Mobilier, $70 mil for $50 mil worth of work
Central Pacific
cross country RR, stockholders invested $121 mil, twice the actual cost, for building,
Cornelius (Commodore) Vanderbilt
consolidated small competing RRs into one large RR double tracked from NYC to Chicago, built Grand Central into a large shopping center
Gustavus Swift
Meat packer who built refrigerated RR cars to facilitate transport of cold goods
James Buchanan Duke
oned American Tobacco Co. and United Cigar Stores for a tobacco monopoly, invented cigarette rolling machine and founded Duke Power Co.
Andrew Carnegie
formed steel monopoly by converting to Bessemer steel process and dominating rail and pipe sales
John D Rockefeller
built his own oil refinery Standard Oil Co. (Exxon) and formed a trust forcing competitors to join, and built oil tankers for transporting oil
Sherman Anti-trust Act
1890 prohibited agreements made for the purposes of restricting competition, used to blame labor unions of conspiracies to restrict trade
cooperation of competitors for the purpose of sharing resources
Interstate Commerce Act
1887 Interstate Commerce Commission formed to study RRs to determine regulation needs
international marketing agreements (ex. Std Oil collaberated with IG Farben, a German company, also OPEC) not covered by antitrust act
Clayton Act
1914 more specific version of the Sherman antitrust act
company operating in at least 8 countries and netting at least $100 mil per year
progressive era
1901-1917 started earlier in WI and GA
Elkins Act
1903 made rebates illegal (special favors) misdemeanor with $25 fine
Mann-Elkins Act
1910 called for ICC actions to take immediate effect and established the commerce court for RR cases
Hepburn Act
1906 raised penalty for rebates and regulated RR rates
Pure Food and Drug Act
1906 established FDA
Stock Market Crash
1929 almost 16.5 mil shares of stock sold, stock tickers ran about 5 hours behind and caused a panic similar to the earlier bank panics
1st New Deal
1933 called for a bank holiday to audit banks, est SEC to regulate the stock market and prevent fraud, required a prospectus in order to sell stock
Federal Reserve Act
1913 est Fed Res Banks with 12 districts, a portion of each banks earnings goes to the district bank and a bank in trouble can take a loan from the districts fed res bank, est a fed res board with the majority of members nonbankers, decisions would be made economically
Decade of Prosperity
1920s leading up to Crash, middle class grew, as did use of credit; cars, electicity, appliances and movies made their way into popular use
Samuel Insoll
formed a pyramid electric company, sold stocks in several electric companies under the original company, all but the first existed only on paper
Civilian Conservation Corp
1st New Deal project run by the Army to employ males 18-25
Arthur Morgan
head of Tennessee Valley Authority built dams on TN river to generate electricity, succeeded by David Lilienthal, head of Atomic Endergy Commission
National Recovery Administration
1935 established by the National Industrial Recovery Act to encourage cooperation between government and business, people were encouraged to by products with the NRA blue eagle logo
Public Works Administration
1935 allocated $3 bil to restart economy through the building of roads airports, public buildings, harbors and bridges
2nd New Deal
1935 attempt to satisfy critics of 1st New Deal, established social security
Works Projects Administration
1935 replaced Public Works Admin, headed by Harry Hopkins
Wagner Act
1935 established National Labor Relations Board to oversee the formation of unions in factories where desired by workers
Resettlement Administration
1935 set up camps to aid transient farmers travelling West, offered board and work
3rd New Deal
1937 established Fair Labor Standards Act and added 6 new members to the Supreme Court to prevent new legislation from being ruled unconstitutional
GI Bill
1944 provided $16 bil for vets education and loans to buy homes and start businesses
Marshall Plan
1948 European Recovery Program spent $13 bil to stimulate Western European economy
1876 election
Rutherford B Hayes R v Samuel J Tilden 19 electoral votes were disputed and both parties negotiated a compromise and formed an election commission to evaluate disputed votes, David Davis, only indepedent, resigned and was replaced by a republican
1884 election
Grover Cleveland R v James G Blaine characterized by excessive mudslinging JB took contributions from RRs and repaid the favors, GC fathered child out of wedlock, and admitted possible paternity election became corruption v adultery
1912 election
Woodrow Wilson D v William H Taft Republican party split over the Payne Aldrich tariff in 1910 T Roosevelts supporters formed the Bull Moose party and nominated TR, TR New Nationalism v WW New Freedom, WW supported banking reform and stronger anti trust, TR supported gov guided econ, big business
1928 election
Herbert Hoover R v Alfred E Smith AS planned to continue economic policy, AS catholic though not mentioned by HH, AS ineffective with radio, AS criticized prohibition, HH supported the Noble Experiment and wanted studies done
1948 election
Harry S Truman D v Thomas E Dewey Southern Dems formed Dixiecrats in opposition to lynching laws and nominated Strom Thurmond, polls supported TD
1960 election
John F Kennedy D v Richard Nixon close race less than 1%, TV debates favored JK, JK Catholic but assured SBC that religion would not factor in
1968 election
Richard Nixon R v Hubert Humphrey close race, George Wallace formed American Party for states rights, segregation and law and order in response to war opposition, RN supported limiting participation in Vietnam
Presidential responsibilities
resolve conflict, insure domestic prosperity, keep taxes low, balance budget, negotiate and build coalitions and treaties, commander in chief of military, oversee national security, ceremonial head of state, mobilize public opinion, active or passive, effective?
James G Blaine
opposed Grover Cleveland, held a dinner known as Belshazzer Feast where he accused Dems of "rum, romanism and rebellion" and responsibility for Civil War, and alienated Irish supporters
Theodore Roosevelt
1901-1908 AP McKinley, Monroe Doctrine Corollary, N Sec, coal strike, Hepburn Act, FDA, Panama Canal
Woodrow Wilson
1912-1920 AN LoN dispute WWI 14 Points, Fed Res, labor reform
Franklin Roosevelt
1932-1936 AP New Deal, Good Neighbor WWII
Harry Truman
1945-1952 AP Hiroshima UN charter, containment, Marshall Plan, Fair Deal, inflation, GI bill, labor, postwar civil rights, Korea
Dwight Eisenhower
1952-1960 PN trial balloons, limit fed spending, New South interstates, NASA, stagnant economy
Lyndon Johnson
1964-1968 AN Vietnam, inflation rose to double digits, Great Society, Walter Heller chief econ advisor, National Sales Tax proposed in 1968, most effective w/ small groups, improved relations in S Amer
Richard Nixon
1968-1972 AN Watergate, 1972 Russian grain sale, 1973 OPEC, decentralized Great Society, Clean Air/Water Acts, stagflation
Ronald Reagan
1980-1988 PP high interest to 82, 88 months econ growth, effective communicator, James Baker chief of staff to 84, then Sec of Treas
Great Society
LBJ spending programs to benefit poor, community action about 30% success, Head Start, Job Corp, dropped unemployment to 3%