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81 Cards in this Set

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Foreign Policy
A set of goals outlining how a country will interact with other countries of the world
Washington's farewell address
Strongly advised U.S. to avoid any alliances with other countries except in emergencies. Established isolationist policy
Monroe Doctrine
Monroe stated no more European colonies in western hemisphere. Any foreign military expeditions sent there would be seen as a threat to U.S. No European Country sould interfere in U.S. affairs at home or abroad.
Dollar Diplomacy
Government policy encouraging inbestment of U.S. capital in China.
League of Nations
An international association established to maintain world peace; started in 1920 during the Woodrow Wilson presidency
Roosevelt Corollary
U.S. has tright to interfere in business of Latin American Countries if American businesses of citizens were at risk
United Nations
An international organization to protect the security of all countries
Vietnam War
1954-1955 conflict between communist north vietnam and non-communist south vietnam. The north won and communism spread throughout the country.
Nietnamization
U.S. policy allowing south vietnam to take over war and allow American troops to withdraw
The Marshall Plan
The primary plan for the U.S. to rebuild and create a stronger foundation for the Allied countries of Europe and repel communism after WWII
Detente
Reduction in the tension between the communist powers and the U.S. during the Cold War.
The Truman Doctrine
Belief of U.S. president Truman that communism was a worldwide threat, and the U.S. should meet it by helping all people whose freedom was threatened by communism.
Containment
After WWII, U.S. policy of securing peace by trying to contain communism, or keep it from expanding beyond its current borders
Richard Nixon
U.S. president who followed a foreign policy marked by detente with the Soviet Union and by opening diplomatic relations with People's Republic of China. He resigned the presidency in the face of likely impeachment by U.S. House of Representatives. His successor, Gerald Ford, issued a controversial pardon for any federal crimes Nixon may have committed. Only U.S. president to have resigned from the office.
Dwight D. Eisenhower
First supreme commander of NATO. Republican serving two terms. Thought country would best function on proven business principles. Conservative with money but liberal with people. Improved economy until he became ill along with the nation. He ended the Korean War, kept up the pressure on the Soviet Union during the Cold War, made nuclear weapons a higher defense priority, launched the Space Race, enlarged the Social Security program, and began the Interstate Highway System.
Mohammed Mosaddeq
Prime minister of Iran. Democratically elected to the parliament, and as leader of the nationalists was twice akppointed as prime minister by the Shah of Iran. He was a nationalist who opposed foreign intervention in Iran. He was the architect of the nationalization (change from private to government ownership) of the Iranian oil industry previously under British control.
George W. Bush
Won 2000 election as Republican candidate in aclose and controversial contest. Although he lost the nationwide popular vote, the Supreme Court decision in Bush v. Gore stopped the selective recount process, giving Bush a 537-vote margin in the state of Florida, and the required number of electoral votes. After terrorist attacks, declared a global War on Terrorism and ordered an invasion of Afghanistan to overtthrow the Taliban, destoy Al-Quaeda, and to capture Osama bin Laden.
Ho Chi Minh
Prime Minister and President of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam. Most famous for leading the Viet Minh independence movement, establishing the communist-governed Democratic Republic of Vietnam, and defeating the French Union at Dien Bien Phu.
Isolationism
Policy of isolating one's country from the affairs of other nations by dclining to enter into alliances. Devoting efforts of one's country to its own advancement and remain at peace by avoiding foreign entanglements
Internationalism
"World Police" Policy of cooperation among nations for the promotion of their common good.
Imperialism
"World Bully" Policy of extending the rule or authority of an empire or nation over foreign countries, or of acquireing and holding colonies and dependencies. Taking over foreign countries.
Panama Canal
Connects Caribbean Sea with Pacific Ocean. .S. gained construction rights after Panama declared its independence. Treaty stipulated that the Panamanians gained full rights of sovereignty over the canal.
Iraq War
Began with U.S.-led invasion of Iraq in 2003. Iraq had violated UN resolutions related to treaties for the 1991 ceasefire and that Iraq was developing weapons of mass destruction, posing a threat to U.S. allies and interests. In state of the Union Address Buss advised that the U.S. could no wait until the threat from Saddam Hussein became imminent. U.S. officials cited claims of Saddam Hussein's alleged connection to Al-Quaeda including harboring a suspect of the 1993 World Trade Center bombing. Others pointed to human rights abuse in Saddam Hussein's Iraq and need to establish democracy in Iraq as a reason for removal of dictator. Economic importance of Iraq'a oil supply limited non-military options. Invasion led to overthrow and capture of Iraqi dictator Saddam Hussein
Communism
No private businesses. Commn ownership. Classless, stateless social organization based on common ownership of the means of production.
John F. Kennedy
-began slow and cautious and gradually became more aggressive and assured
-“The New Frontier”
-focused on foreign policy-the cold war and containing communism
-space race-after Kennedy’s request, NASA began sending people to space
-increased spending for defense and for the space program poured billions of dollars into government contracts that would increase employment
-Area Redevelopment Act-channeled federal funds into needy regions
-Aliance for Progress-series of aid projects undertaken cooperatively with Latin American countries that agreed to democratic reform
-Peace Corps-sent volunteers to developing countries to live among the local people and assist in education and rural development projects
-His achievements in office were the U.S. Peace Corps (1961), the Trade Expansion Act (1962), and the Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (1963).
-assassinated in 1963
President Johnson
-became president after Lincoln’s assassination
-Congress was not in session when Johnson took office, so he proceeded with his plans for reconstruction (the process of restoring relations with the Confederate states)
-in May 1865 he granted amnesty (pardons) to Confederates who would sign an oath of loyalty to the Union
-by December 1865 all ex-confederate states except Texas had fulfilled the requirements and had elected representatives to Congress
-when Congress reconvened in December, it refused to seat the newly elected southern representatives
-Congress pointed out that Johnson had done nothing to prevent new southern state governments from passing black codes (laws that restricted rights of newly freed African Americans)
-1866: Johnson vetoed bill that would have enabled the Freedmen’s Bureau to continue (assisted former slaves)
-Congress overrode the veto
-vetoed Civil Rights Act of 1866
-Congress overrode the veto
-undermined African Americans’ efforts to obtain equality
-1868: fired Secretary of War Edwin Stanton regardless of Tenure of Office Act (required Senate approval for the removal of cabinet members)
-The House voted to impeach him on 11 charges of misconduct and he was acquitted by only one vote
Martin Luther King Jr.
-Baptist minister
-January 1957-King called a meeting in Atlanta of 60 Southern ministers to discuss nonviolent integration
-became president of the new organization, the Southern Leadership Conference (SCLC)
-encouraged his followers to use nonviolent resistance-those who carried out the demonstrations should not fight with authorities, even if provoked to do so
-the SCLC and the Fellowship of Reconciliation (FOR) (an interracial organization founded in 1914) conducted workshops in nonviolent methods for civil rights activists
Malcolm X
-brilliant and bold Black Muslim who preached about black power and separatism
-advocated the use of weapons for self defense
-after his pilgrimage to Mecca, where there is no racial separatism, he softened his views on black and white separatism
-February 21, 1965-three members of the Nation of Islam assassinated him as he spoke in Harlem
Stokely Carmichael
-leader of SNCC
-June 1966-marched through Mississippi in demonstration of blacks’ right to vote
-overran King’s chant of “Freedom Now” with “Black Power”
Thurgood Marshall
-first African American justice on the Supreme Court
-extremely popular among southern blacks
-knew how to get through to people
Rosa Parks
-December 1, 1955-refused to give her bus seat to a white person in Montgomery, Alabama, so she was arrested
-her action is regarded as the true beginning of the civil rights movement of the 1950s and 1960s
-the news quickly spread through Montgomery’s black community and a bus boycott along with other protests began
Black Codes (Reconstruction)
laws adapted in the South that severely restricted the rights of newly freed slaves
“Separate but equal”
-a Supreme Court opinion held that if separate accommodations provided in railroad cars were equal for both black and white passengers, then the resulting segregation was constitutional
-soon the principle was being used to justify segregation in housing, restaurants, public swimming pools, and a variety of other public facilities
Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka
-seven-year-old Linda Brown had to cross through a railroad switching yard to catch the bus to her all-black elementary school, which was miles away
-her father wanted her to attend the all-white school that was a few blocks from her home
-Supreme Court declared that school segregation was illegal, despite major resistance
Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC)
January 1957-King called a meeting of 60 southern ministers to discuss nonviolent integration
Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC)
-played a leading role in the Freedom Rides, the 1963 March on Washington, Mississippi Freedom Summer and the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party
-in the late 1960s, led by fiery leaders such as Stokely Carmichael, SNCC focused on Black Power and fighting against the Vietnam War
Black Pride
pride in being African American: pride in one’s African ancestry and one’s American nationality
Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party (MFDP)
-1966
-asked to be recognized at the national Democratic party convention as the legitimate Democratic party in the state
Black Muslims
-the Nation of Islam
-a subgroup of the Islamic religion
Black Nationalism
-black separatism
-a complex set of beliefs emphasizing the need for the cultural, political, and economic separation of African Americans from white society
Plessy v. Ferguson
-legal precedent for the “separate but equal doctrine”
-separate, segregated facilities were constitutional as long as they were equal.
Civil Disobedience
-a strategy for causing social change by means of nonviolent resistance to unfair laws
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)
-initiated a series of court cases that chipped away at the Plessy ruling
-worked to rid of segregation in schools
-Thurgood Marshall led them in challenging the courts that segregation in itself was illegal
Desegregation
the process of ending the separation of different races
Disenfranchisement
failure to give the right to vote to a person or group of people
Congress of Racial Equality (CORE)
-black civil rights leaders continued the strategy of mobilizing mass resistance to discrimination and employed acts of nonviolent civil disobedience such as sit-ins at movie theaters and restaurants
-helped end segregation in public accommodations in several northern cities
March on Washington
-Philip Randolph was appalled by discrimination in the armed forces, in which African Americans had already fought for their country during World War I
-he was also angered by the exclusion of African Americans from well-paying jobs in war industries to which billions of federal dollars were flowing
-to help right these wrongs, Randolph organized a march where supporters rallied behind the slogan “We Loyal American Citizens Demand the Right to Work and Fight for Our Country
Greensboro lunch counter sit-ins
blacks sat in restaurants for whites only until they were served
Franklin D. Roosevelt (Foreign Policy)
-concentrated at first on making the United States a “good neighbor” to the countries in this hemisphere
-1993-anounced Good Neighbor Policy-supported the idea of nonintervention among nations
-pledged that the United States would not interfere in the internal affairs of its Latin American neighbors
Harry Truman (Foreign Policy)
-Truman Doctrine-defined American foreign policy for the next 20 years
-asked for $400 million in military and economic aide to support the Greek and Turkish governments
-most Americans would view communism as a worldwide threat to democracy that they had a duty to resist
Ngo Dinh Diem
nationalist and anticommunist leader of South Vietnam
Why did Jews follow Nazi orders?
In the beginning, Jews followed Nazi orders because they did not know their fate. Later they followed orders to avoid being killed.
What purposes did concentration camps serve?
Nazis forced prisoners to work in concentration camps, but mostly they were exterminated.
What were different ways that people helped Jews (including themselves)?
Some gentiles secretly and illegally housed Jews until the war was over so that they were not sent to concentration camps and/or killed. Some Jews fled, but ones that were captured supported each other and looked out for each other.
What are two competing theories about why the Holocaust happened?
Some believe that the Holocaust occurred due to a long background of hatred towards Jews, while others think that people were brainwashed and psychologically tricked into obeying Hitler.
How was Hitler able to achieve a genocide the size of the Holocaust?
Hitler kept the Holocaust fairly secret, and he trained millions of soldiers to follow him. He also recruited children of all ages who would follow him blindly.
Who was most likely to be killed by the SS in the early phase of the “Final Solution?”
Foreign Jews
How did the Nazis dehumanize Jews?
The Nazis forced Jews to work and live under the same conditions that an animal would. Jews were also brutally slaughtered in mass numbers.
What other groups were targeted in the Holocaust?
Other than Jews; Communists, homosexuals, gypsies, the physically handicapped, the mentally retarded, Soviet prisoners of war, Polish, Russian, and other Slavic intelligentsia, political activists, Jehovah's Witnesses, some Catholic and Protestant clergy, trade unionists, psychiatric patients, and common criminals were targeted in the Holocaust.
How does the human behavior that we have studied relating to the Holocaust connect to other examples of human behavior that we have studied throughout history? Consider the decisions that people make whether or not to act or to remain bystanders in difficult situations.
In the Holocaust and in the Milgrim experiment, people are treated specially and they are asked to act cruelly towards another person. In both occasions many follow their leader.
Warren Gamaliel Harding
-Won election against James M. Cox which was seen as a rejection of Wilson’s brand of internationalism. As senator fought against joining Wilson’s League of Nations. Owes success to Americans’ exhaustion with war, progressivism, and turbulence of 1919.
-Talked about needing restoration, adjustment, serenity, healing, normalcy
-sounded and looked presidential tall, handsome, stately.
• Called presidential conference to consider problems of unemployment.
• Chose friends to aid him in office-bad decision friends sent to jail, commit suicide.
• Teapot Dome affair-Harding’s secretary of the interior, Albert Fall, leased government oil fields (One at Teapot Dome, Wyoming) to wealthy friends in exchange for hundreds of thousands of dollars in bribes. First cabinet officer to go to prison. Harding grew depressed/distraught of his friends’ betrayal.
-Became ill in seattle contracted pneumonia and died in san Francisco august 3, 1923 before press began to reveal news of his administration’s corruption.
Calvin Coolidge
-Erased damage of Harding scandals on Republican administration.
-Carried out Harding’s programs- rejected government programs to help ordinary citizens, gave big business a boost in 3 ways 1. appointed business people to commissions supposed to regulate business 2. selected supreme court justices who ruled against progressive legislation 3. named conservatives to powerful cabinet positions. -Appointed to regulatory commissions people who opposed regulation.
-Cabinet positions went to wealthy business leaders used positions to protect big business interests
Herbert Hoover
-Secretary of commerce under Harding and Coolidge got blame when Republican prosperity came crashing down.
-Expanded Commerce department to control and regulate airlines, radio, other new industries.
-Helped organize trade associations (groups of firms in same line of business) to minimize price competition which he thought was inefficient.
-Pushed Bureau of Standards to standardize everything manufactured in nation
-Supported zoning codes, eight-hour days in major industries, better nutrition for children, and conservation of natural resources (pushed through Pollution Act of 1924 first effort to control coastline oil pollution)
-Believed in volunteer effort and free enterprise. Argued that American business was entering a new era. With growth of trade associations, Hoover hoped business would show a new spirit of public service.
Franklin D. Roosevelt (Depression/ New Deal)
•-First major task to restore faith in country after economic depression..
•-Roosevelt grew up in a wealthy, well-connected family. When he was 20 his cousin Eleanor (Who had volunteered at a settlement house in the slums of New York City) brought him to the home of one of her students and he said “I didn’t know people lived like that!”
-He later married Eleanor
-1920 gained Democratic nomination for Vice president but didn’t become it because Democratic presidential candidate lost.
-1921 suffered an attack of poliomyelitis left legs completely paralyzed- strengthened his spirit
-Promoted conservative measures to end Depression, had strong spirit and promised direct action.
Nativism
A preference for native-born Americans over immigrants
Prosperity
More than enough money simply to live on, American workers could buy more of goods they produced (part of growing middle class). Many middle-class American consumers improved their standard of living (necessities and luxuries an individual enjoys). Could afford to buy more goods and had higher standard of living. New inventions/technology made life easier.
Popular Culture
pop culture- music, tv, movies, fashion fads, styles
Stock Market Crash of 1929
Anyone could be rich if he invests in good common stocks, and allows the dividends and rights to accumulate. Inspired thousands of people to pour savings into stocks. Many investors wanted to make fortunes immediately though. Hoped heavy financial risks would pay off quickly, people in late 1920s speculated stock market. Speculation was way of gambling with short-term investments. Speculators buy stocks thought would rise in price quickly then if went up sold stock for profit. Fueled by practice of buying on margin. In boom of late 1920s, savvy margin buyers made fortunes. Buying stocks at low prices, watched as stock values soared. When thought stock reached peak price, sold it, paying off stockbroker with money made from sale. Brokers received up to 20% interest on loans. When prices began to slide, brokers had to protect loans. Since stocks were their only collateral, when prices began to decline, brokers called in their margins. If investors who had borrowed money from them could not put down more cash the broker sold the stock, keeping proceeds as repayment for loan. Enforced selling pushed down prices further and when others noticed the downturn investors began selling their stock in panic. CRASH GAINED! October 1929 bottom fell out of the stock market. Since savings deposits were not federally insured, people who had prudently tucked their money in banks found savings vanished. Many banks lent cash reserves to stockbrokers. Brokers lost money when customers could not respond to margin calls and failed to repay loans. First few months predicted a quick recovery. As new decade began though, U.S. fell into deep business depression, a period of severely reduced economic activity. Sharp rise in unemployment.
Speculation
A risky business venture involving buying or selling a property in the hope of making a large, quick profit; making investments in the stock market
Buying on margin or credit
on credit-A delayed payment plan in which a purchaser puts money down and pays the balance in installments; time allowed for payment of something sold on trust. On margin- investor put down as little as 5 percent of stock price and borrowed the rest of the money from a stockbroker. If the investor could not repay loan, the broker gained ownership of stock.
Causes of Depression
1. Depressed Farms and Industries- Farmers’ incomes fell. Textile, lumber, mining, and railroad industries declined. In months preceding crash, automobile and construction industries suffered from decrease in orders, resulting in drop in wages workers being laid off. With incomes cut farmers/workers could not afford manufactured goods that U.S. industries had been churning out at impressive rates in 1920s. Underconsumption became major weakness in economy. 2. Wealth Distribution- growing gap in wealth between rich people and Americans of more ordinary means. Although business profits in many industries rose throughout 1920s, not all workers received proportionate share of profits. Not enough consumer buying power to keep up all goods being produced. By late 1920s, radios, telephones, refrigerators, washing machines, and other goods were stacking up in warehouses across country. 3. Monetary Policy- After crash, Federal Reserve system, charged with regulating the amount of money in circulation, followed restrictive police that dried up credit. Policy left country with supple of money in circulation not large enough to allow economy to bounce back after stock market bubble burst. 4. Decline in Foreign Trade- In 1920s, U.S. served as bank for other nations, lending money to aid foreign industries and speed recovery from the Great War. During late 1920s, as Americans began pouring borrowed money into stock market, bank funds for loans to other nations dried up. International trade slowed down because without American loans, other nations had less money to spend on our nation’s goods. High tariffs (taxes on imported products) further blocked international trade.
First Hundred Days
Before Roosevelt’s Inauguration panicky Michigan residents began withdrawing cash from saving accounts, which depleted bank funds where many banks closed. Michigan governor declared banking moratorium, a temporary shutdown of operations, in effect closing all state banks, hoping it would be enough time to replenish their supplies of ready cash and restore depositors’ confidence. Had opposite effect caused a panic to spread. By inauguration 38 states closed banks and others had restricted banking operations. Majority of Americans lost faith in financial institutions hiding their money
• Roosevelt decided to direct banks to accept all deposits and make emergency loans for food and animal feed over the course of the next four days but refrain from any other business
• Secretary Woodin and advisers worked all day to hammer out legislation ending banking crisis
• March 9 passed bill stating banks in good financial shape would be reopened immediately and those lacking assets would remain closed until government could develop way to open safely
• FDR reassured people their money would be safer in newly reopened banks than hidden in homes and soon after deposits exceeded withdrawals signifying end to banking crisis.
The First New Deal
The first 15 Bills introduced addressed the three R’s: relief for the unemployed, recovery measures to stimulate the economy, and reform laws to help lessen threat of another economic disaster.
Second New Deal
Addition of other bills making up what is know as the New Deal.
Civilian Conservation Corps
Employed young men in environmental projects
Court-packing
A movement by President Franklin D. Roosevelt to increase the size of the Supreme Court and then bring in several new justices who would change the balance of opinion on the Court. Roosevelt proposed to pack the Court in the 1930s, when several conservative justices were inclined to declare parts of his program, the New Deal, unconstitutional. Congress would not allow the number of justices to be increased, and Roosevelt was criticized for trying to undermine the independence of the Court.
Fireside Chats
FDR promoted friendly informality of white house by informally addressing American public in frequent radio broadcasts. He explained the legislation of New Deal in simple, straightforward terms. Steady, relaxed voice reassured people across nation that problems would be solved and they could participate in solving them.
To what extent did the policies of the booming 1920s contribute to the Depression?
o The 1920’s was a decade of prosperity where people made more than enough money simply to live on. American workers could buy more of the goods that they produced. They were part of a growing middle class. Many middle- class American consumers improved their standard of living through purchase of necessities and luxuries an individual enjoys. They could afford to buy more goods. Wanted to get rich fast so began buying stocks on margin. When brokers lost money they weren’t able to repay banks; therefore when people went to take out money from their account it was gone.
How effective was the New Deal in accomplishing its goals?
The government programs of the New Deal neither eliminated individual poverty nor ended the Depression. The U.S. economy did not completely recover from the Depression until WWII was well underway.
9. In what ways were the goals and actions of the New Deal similar to those of the Progressive Era? In what ways were they different?
Similar- They both advocate reforms to confront problems caused by industrialization and urbanization. Big gap between rich and average American.
Different- Progressives believed that trained experts could analyze and conquer crime, alcoholism, and political corruption while in the New Deal, the government was more involved in fixing the problems
10. What is the long-term legacy of the New Deal? How did it change American government and life?
Federal regulation, the expansion of the federal government into almost all aspects o people’s lives, was a direct legacy of the New Deal. Under FDR for the first time federal government assumed responsibility for the economic welfare of individuals as well as for the health o the nation’s economy at large. Turning point in American history. New Deal increased people’s confidence in nation’s political and economic systems.