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134 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what characterized western europe by the year 1200?
renewed vitality and flexing its military muscles
what is a schism in a church?
a break between churches over church docterine
why is charlemagne remembered?
first holy roman emperor & improved empire
how did the byzantines difffer from their western counterparts?
king was in the byzantine and the pope was in western europe
what were the byzantine cultural achievments?
cyrillic writing system architects alphabets and law code
what transformation occurred in western europe after the fall of the roman empire
divided the kingdoms
what happened politically to the western roman empire after the fall of rome in the 5th century
no education
what was the primary center of agricultural production in the western europe during this time
why is this the traditional decription of europe from 300-1200 as "feudal" an oversimplication
relationship b/w landowners and serfs hardly resembled a system
what is a feudum or fief
land awarded for military service
what is the investiture controversy
the struggle b/w the church and laylord to control ecclesiatieal appts.
what challendes did the roman catholic church face after the tenth century
investiture controversy
what were the responsibilities/services provided by monasteries and convents during this period
schools, shelter, care for old
what was the most important impact of monasticism
preserved literature and learning
what characterized the relations between western europe and the muslims prior to the crusades
fighting b/w the christians and the muslims
what were europeans exposed to as a result of the crusades
muslim culture..pasta, paper, sugar, and colored glass
what were the first areas conquered by the mongols under genghis khan
nothwestern china, beijing, and central asia
how did marco polo's narratives affect the europeans
stimulated ambition to find easier trade routes
what were the effects of the mongol expansion
daeth by bubonic plague and expanded trade routes
what city became russias dominant political center under the mongols
who overthrew mogol rule in russia
who made up mongol armies
mongols, turks, chinese, and iranians
what groups status was elevated by the mongols
merchant and doctors
in what areas did the mongols encourage the sharing and exchange of ideas
astronomy and medical texts
genose mariner who went 4 voyages found new world
christopher columbus
ferdinand magellan
completed columbus' interrupted voyage; sailed aroud the americans and across the pacific
who were the greatest mariners in the atlantic in the early middle ages
which two nations began a maritime revolution that profoundly altered the course of world history
portugal and spain
what were the primary motives that led to iberian overseas expansion
expand contacts and increase dominance
why is prince henry known as henry the navigator
devoted his life to exploring the south atlantic
who controlled the sources of slaves in west africa
african kings
whay was the malacca important to the portuguese
explored straits
what was the result of portuguese domination of the indian trade route
what was the dif b/w the spanish and the portuguese empure
spanish-vast and territorial

portuguese- trading
martin luther
ignatius loyola
spanish nobleman
what did sugar plantations in the west indies need in order to expand
more slaves
how did the sugar plantations effect the environment
soil exhaustion and deforestation
what happneded to the arawak and carib as a result of european colonization
wiped out by abuse and disease
why did men outnumber woman on caribbean plantations
boats brought over twice as many men
what was the major cause of death for slaves
unfamilar diseases
where was the great stock market of the 17th and 18th century
what is mercantilism
polocies that promote citizens oversea trade and support capitalization
what was the purpose of the english navigation acts
confined trade with caravans to english share
what is the atlantic circuit
clockwise network of sea routes out heart of the trading system
why was morality high on slave ships
attempts to escape pschological depression and ill treatments
what did the africans receive for the slaves they traded with the europeans
what was the source of most slaves taken from africa
what were most household slaves in the islamic world
concubines and servents
who could not be enslaved in the islamic world
which area gained the most wealth as a result of the slave trade
what did the colonial wars of the 18th century
france and britains money problems
what was the enlightenment
applied methods of science to everyday life
what did john locke favor
governments are for the people
what radical idea about gov did rousseau propose
needs consent of the goverend
what role did women play in the dissemination of enlightenment ideas
purchased and discussed books
what 2 related problems did the birtish face after defeating the french in 1763
limited settlement on indian lands and imposing taxes
what evet occurred in 1770 that radicalizes public opinion in the american colonies
boston masscare
why was the battle of saratoga crucial
convinced france to join
what happened in yorktown
surrendered to george washington
why is the constitutional convention on 1787 called the second american revolution
created a new gov
what characterized the french revolution
no longer a representative democracy
what happened during the reign of terror
made new calender without any sundays
what happened to louis xvi as a result of the french revolution
what were the contribution factors to the financial crisis that triggered the french revolution
failure to collect taxes from nobility and clergymen

cost of three wars
why did napoleon become europes first popular dictator
brought order to the chaos
how did napoleon win the support of the peasantry and middle class
equality in law protection and property
what led to napoleons decline
invaded russia retardedly
where was napoleons final defeat
why did saint domigue erupt in revolt
turmoil in france
why is toussaint l'ouverature famous
leader of the rebellious slaves
what was the main objective of the congress if vienna
restore french monarchy and their borders
what inspired widespread revolutions across europe in 1848
desire for democratic reforms and national self determination
why did population grow priot to the industrial revolution
widespread disease and more dependable food
what were the results of the agricultural revolution
rich-enclosed land
poor-lost land
what new forms of energy were important for industrialization
steam engine and electricity
what is division of labor in manufacturing
divide work specialized and repetative tasks
what new inventions were developed to weave cotton textiles
spinning jenny and waterframe
what did james watt develop
steam engine
what inventions revolutionized communication during the indistrial revolution
what profound impact did instrustrialization have on the world
north america became powerful
how did industrial work impact the family
family seperated; work not in home
why was factory work a complete transformation from agricultural work
more accidents; boring; little job satisfaction
single women and married women did factory work for different reasons..what?
single women did it for aliving
married did it when their husbands cudnt support their family
what ist he cult of domesticity
middleclass women ran home and children
what does adam smith propose in the wealth of nations
business shud control business gov should not
how did workers resist harsh treatment
change jobs; riots; strikes; absent on mondays; poor work
how did industrialization change the relationship b/w western europe and the non western world?
based on western dominance
what happened during the industrial revolution
populations increase; industrial countries take over
what does laissez-faire economics support
a bussiness rnning itself with little interference
what was the first major manufacturing industry
what does a country need in order to industrialize
land labor capital
what characterized imperialism of the 1800s
rivalry among nations
what was the name of the group that sonspired to assassinate archduke francis ferdinand
black hand
what characterized the western from in ww1
trench warfare
who were the central power nations in ww1
germany austria hungary bulgarian and the ottoman empire
what is total war
all resources devoted to war
why did the united states join the allies in fighting ww1
restricted submarines
what were the immediate causes of ww1
assassination of francis ferdinand
what were the results of ww1
allies win germany signs treaty germanany invasions of belgium blank check for austria
what did the 1918 treaty of brest provide
russian withdrawl of ww1
what was the main purpose of the league of nations
establish and maintain peace
why were europes new democracies after ww1 unstable
inflation warcosts loss of manpower inexperiened in rule and gov formed coalition gov
what did the roosevelt corollary state
US had the right to interlead countries
what event began the worldwide depression in the 1930s
1929 stock market crash
why did ww2 begin
germany invades poland
what is appeasement
avoids wars
what characterizes a totalitarian government
state controls everything
what was the kristallnacht
nazi rampage
what does fascism glorify
what factors lead to many germans to accept hitler and the nazis
believed hitler ended germanys depression
what were the nuremberg laws
jews lot citizenship
what is genocide
ethnic cleansing
what characterized the attitude of many americans toward other countries in the 1920s
what was the immediate cause for the US entry into ww2
japanese attack on pearl harbor
what was the citical new naval weapon of the pacific war during ww1
aircraft carrier
what was the holocaust
killing of jews by hitler
why did the american president order the use of the atomic bomb on japan
no invading japan
established colonies
leads large standing army
repays for the wars
controlled by the league of nations
german nazi leader
won spanish civil war
francisco franco
russian communist revolution
facist leader of italy
benito mussolini
leader of chinese connumist party
mao zedong
british prime minister in ww2
winston churchill
leader of free french forces
charles de gualle
commander US president
dwight d eisenhower
dictator of russia after lenin
ordered use of the atom bomb
harry truman
leader of the indian indepedence movement
mohandas gandhi