Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

135 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What border states stayed with the Union? Why?
Kentucky, Maryland, Delaware, Missouri, and West Virginia stayed iwht the Union. They did so because of Pro-Union leaders in state, Confederate invasions, and separations from other states.
What is the Wilmost Proviso?
A bill that removed the right to allow slaveholders to take their slaves anywhere in the U.S. or its territories.
What happened at Fort Sumter and how did the North react?
The South attacked Fort Sumter. The North responded with a blockade on the Confederate's coastline.
In the first two years of war, how did the North have success?
The North had success in that they won numerous battles, and had a winning strategy to blockade the South.
What were some of the Strengths of the South?
The South had Robert E. Lee, and was more motivated.
In the first two years of war, how did the South have success?
The South had success in that they won many battles in the East.
What was the Compromise of 1850?
A bill written by Henry Clay to create peace, that gave the North the abolition of slavery in Washington D.C., and made California a free state. The South was given the right to do what they will with slaves in territories won from Mexico, and new laws passed helping slaveholders find runaway slaves.
What were some weaknesses of the South?
Had less people, less resources.
What were the strengths of the North?
Had more people, resources, and Abraham Lincoln.
What was the Fugitive Slave Act?
An 1850 law to hlep slaveholders recapture runaway slaves.
What were the weaknesses of the North?
Less motivated.
What is the Kansas-Nebraska Act?
An 1854 law that establishede the territories of Kansas and Nebraska and gave their residents the right to decide wheter to allow slavery.
What was "Dred Scott vs. Sandford"?
An 1856 Supreme Court case in whic a slave, Dred Scott sued for his freedom because he had been taken to live in territories where slavery was illegal; the Court ruled against Scott.
What is Harpers Ferry?
A federal arsenal in Virginia that was captured in 1859 during a slave revolt.
What was the First Battle of Bull Run?
An 1861 battle of the Civil War in which the South shocked the North with a victory.
What caused the Republican Party to form?
A split between the Northern and Southern Whig Party.
What was "Monitor and Merrimack"?
An 1862 battle between the Union's Ironclad, Monitor, and the South's "floating roof", Merrimack.
Who was George McClellan?
A major general in the Union Army during the Civil War, that made a large mistake by not "finishing off" the South when he had the chance, allowing the South to regain power and energy.
Who won the Election of 1860 and why?
Abraham Lincoln won the Election of 1860 because the North had more people in it, otherwise, it would have been a tie between Lincoln and Breckinridge.
Which states seceded first? Who joined the Confederacy later on?
First Seced States: South Carolina, Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, and Texas; Those who joined later: Tennessee, North Carolina, Virginia, and Arkansas.
What was the South's primary stategy?
To use cotton as a source of blackmail, forcing allies to come help them defeat Union forces.
Who was Clara Barton?
The founder of the American Red Cross, who started up hospitals for wounded Civil War soldiers.
What was Pickett's Charge?
The major turning point in Gettysburg, and the Civil War. A Union charge led by George Pickett.
What is Vicksburg?
A Large Confederate stronghold during the Civil War.
Who was General Sherman?
Leader of a Union troop that drove Confederates out of Chattanooga, TN.
In what ways did the South hope to convince European nations to recognize and support them?
By not giving Europe cotton, forcing them to help the South, as cotton was somewhat of a necessity.
What was the status of African American troops in the Civil War?
African Americans were paid less than Anglo saxon troops of the same rank.
What is Antietam?
The site of the bloodiest day in American history, as well as the bloodiest Civil War battle.
What were the terms of the South's surrender?
Were allowed to leave with all of their belongings, but had to set down arms.
What was the reaction of the Emancipation Proclamation?
It was never passed in Senate, as most believed it would cause too much commotion, as well as they believed that the African-Americans did not deserve it.
What was the primary strategy of the North?
The Anaconda Plan: to create a blockade of the South.
What were the disadvantages of freeing the slaves from Lincon's perspective?
It could anger the border states, could possibly divide Union, and believed to contradict the Constitution.
Who was Alexis de Toqueville?
A Frenchman who studied American prisions and politics and noted how the nation was divided by slavery.
Who was Henry Clay?
A Senator of Kentucky who helped create the Missouri Compromise in 1820, which was a document meant to negotiate with the North and the South on slavery.
Who is Stephen Douglas?
A Senator of Illinois who succeeded in working on trying to pass the ompromise of 1850.
Who was John Brown?
An extreme abolitionist who attacked Harpers Ferry, VA, a federal arsenal to inspire slaves to fight for freedom, by trying to take over Harpers Ferry.
Who was James Buchanan?
A Southern Democrat who ran for president, and appealed to both the North and the South.
Who was Abraham Lincoln?
The winner of the Election of 1860, whom did not want slavery to expand. Lincoln won in a very close race, but due to the electoral college, Lincoln squeezed by. Best known for his powerful speeches. Assassinated by John Wilkes Booth.
Who was John Breckinridge?
A former vice-president and a strong slave supporter whom ran for president in the Election of 1860.
Who was John Bell?
A presidential nominee in the Election of 1860 whom represented the Constitutional Union Party, and was a moderate in the election, because he wasn't over opinionative about slavery.
Who was Robert E. Lee?
The General of the Confederate Army, whom had previously worked with Lincoln in the North, but heard that his home state of Virginia was seceding, and moved back to Virginia to represent his home state. Opposed slavery and secession, but wanted to help the South due to the fact that he was born there.
Who was Ulysses S. Grant?
The General of the Union Army in the West whom was best known for winning the Siege of Vicksburg, and capturing Forts using Ironclad boats.
Who was Frederick Douglas?
An abolitionist who urged Lincoln to emancipate slaves. This led to Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation.
Who was George Pickett?
A General of the Confederate Army best known for Picketts Charge in the Battle of Gettysburg.
Who was John Wilkes Booth?
The murderer of Abraham Lincoln in Ford's Theater in Washington, D.C., five days after Lee's surrender.
Who was Andrew Johnson?
The vice-president to Abraham Lincoln, who became president after Lincoln's assasination. Was a very bad president, who believed that Reconstruction was the job of the president, and therefore vetoed many legitimate laws. The House of Representatives voted to impeach him, and succeeded.
Who was Hiram Revels?
One of the first two African Americans to serve as a Senator of the United States. Was the Senator of Mississippi.
Who was Thaddeus Stevens?
A Radical Republican Leader who pushed to make land reform part of the Reconstruction Acts of 1867. He proposed to make a plan to Congress that would have taken land from Plantation owners and given it to freed people. Congress did not pass the plan.
Who was Samuel Tilden?
The Democratic nominee for the Election of 1876 whom ran in an extremely close race against Rutherford B. Hayes and lost.
Who was Rutherford B. Hayes?
The Republicans' nominee for the Election of 1876 who won the extremely close election because of the Compromise of 1877.
Who was George A. Custer?
The Commander of the Seventh Cavalry who set out to return the Sioux to the reservations, and was defeated by the Sioux in the Battle of Little Bighorn.
Who was Sitting Bull?
A Sioux Chief who tried to push back the intruders of his land, by defeating George A. Custer and his Cavalry in the Battle of Little Bighorn.
Who was Cheif Joseph?
The leader of the Nez Perce tribe who refused to give up his tribe's land to American settlers.
Who was William "Buffalo Bill" Cody?
A buffalo hunter turned showman who was recognized as having an incredible reenactments of frontier life, which attracted people from all over.
Who was Benjamin "Pap" Singleton?
A leader of Tennessee who convinced thousands to migrate to new homes in Kansas. They compared themselves to biblical Hebrews led out of slavery in Egypt and called themselves "exodusters".
Who was John Deere?
The inventor of the settle plow which sliced through tough sod. Helped farmers out with making crops.
Overproduction of crops => Inflation
Who was William Jennings Bryan?
The Democratic candidate in the election of 1896 whom supported free silver (a farmers money inflation plan)and received many farmers' votes, but still lost the election to William McKinley.
Who was William McKinley?
The Republican Candidate in the Election of 1896, whom supported the gold standard (that every dollar was backed by a certain amount of gold. Represented bankers and businessmen. Won the Election, and ended the short existence of the Populist Party.
Who was Frderick Jackson Turner?
The writer of an influential essay about the frontier which sparked a rush of people to the frontier to find new oppourtunity.
What was the Free Soil Party?
A group of people whom were dedicated to stopping the expansion of slavery.
Who were the Northern and Southern Democrats?
Two groups divided by region whom were pro-slavery.
What was the Constitutional Union Party?
Formed when the conflict between the North and South broke down the older parties. The party was recognized as having no political principle, but the Constitution of the country.
What was the 54th Massachusetts Regiment?
The first all African American army Regiment organized to fight for the Union in the Civil War.
What were Copperheads?
Norther Democrats (those who were pro-slavery in the Northeast)who wanted peace and had Anti-Draft riots.
What were Radical Republicans?
Extreme Republicans who interpreted things very seriously or extremely.
What was the Ku Klux Klan?
A group that performed "hate" against African Americans and races other than Caucasian.
Who were/are the Sioux?
A Native American tribe led by Chief Sitting Bull during the Civil War.
Who were/are the Nez Perce?
A Native American tribe led by Chief Joseph during the Civil War.
What were/are Mexicanos?
A Spanish person whose ancestors were of Mexican descent and settled in the Southwest.
Who were Exodusters?
Those who migrated to Kansas who compared themselves to the biblical Hebrews being led out of Egypt. Convinced by Benjamin "Pap" Singleton.
What was the Populist Party?
A party put together by farmers representing the common people.
Which states did the Confederate States of America include, and what was in it's Constitution?
The states of the Confederacy included Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, and Virginia. The Confederate Constitution allowed stronger states' rights, and explicit protection of the issue of slavery. Apart from that, the Union and Confederate Constitutions were basically the same.
What was the importance of Andersonville?
Andersonville was the site of one of the largest Confederate military prisons.
What was the importance of Petersburg?
Petersburg was the object of the longest military action ever waged against an American city. Site of the Seige of Petersburg.
What was the importance of Richmond?
It was the capital of the Confederacy.
What was the importance of Appomattox?
It was the site of the Confederate surrender of the war.
What was the importance of the Great Plains?
Was considered the future of America. The Great Plains frontier offered open space for a new begginning in the farming world.
What was the significance of Pike's Peak?
Site of a gold rush attracting many people to the Pike's Peak region.
What was the significance of Denver?
Became a largely populated city after the "Pike's Peak Gold Rush" leaving many people in the region.
What was Bleeding Kansas?
What Kansas was referred to after violent disputes over the freeing of slaves.
What was the Crittenden Plan?
A plan designed specifically to prevent secession.
What was the Anaconda Plan?
A plan designed by the Union to hurt the South's economy by blocking off anything and everything from leaving the South and coming into the South.
What was the Battle of Shiloh?
A battle that took place in 1862, in which Union forces forced the Confederacy to retreat in possibly one of the most violent parts of the Civil War.
What was the Fall of New Orleans?
The instance when New Orleans was captured by the Union showing the success of the Anaconda Plan.
What was the Second Battle of Bull Run?
The last time that the Union was able to get into Virginia.
What was the purpose of the Emancipation Proclamation?
Contrary to popular belief, the Emancipation Proclamation was not meant to set all of the slaves in the Union territory free, but rather to prove to the South, that if they could secede from the Union, the government could pass this law.
What was the significance of the Battle of Gettysburg?
It was the turning point of the Civil War, in which the North penetrated Southern forces.
What was the Siege of Vicksburg?
A complete Union blockade of Vicksburg in a successful attempt to block Vicksburg from the outside world until the Vicksburg stronghold of Confederates surrendered.
What is the Thirteenth Amendment?
The Thirteenth Amendment states that slavery or involuntary servitude is not allowed except as a punishment for a crime.
What was Freedman's Bureau?
An organizationg giving aid for ex slaves after the Civil War.
What was the Civil Rights Act of 1866?
An Act to protect all Persons in the United States in their Civil Rights, and furnish the Means of their Vindication.
What was the Reconstruction Acts of 1867's importance?
It was the first big thing that the Radical Republicans got through the government to divide the South. When all was said and done, old Confederates lost their right to vote and hold office.
What is the Fourteenth Amendment?
An amendment to the U.S. Constitution passed in 1868 that made all people born in the United States including ex slaves, citizens of the country.
What is the Fifteenth Amendment?
An amendment to the U.S. Constitution stating that there will be no discrimination against race color.
What was the Anti-Klan bill?
A law passed which led to thousands of Ku Klux Klan members being arrested.
What was the Panic of 1873?
A financial crisis where the banks closed and the Stock Market collapsed.
What was U.S. vs. Reese?
A Supreme Court case that ruled that the states could prevent African Americans from voting.
What was the Compromise of 1877?
A compromise between Republicans and Democrats over whether Rutherford B. Hayes, the Republican candidate, and Samuel L. Tilden, the Democratic candidate, were moderate reformers, and the election was very close. Tilden led in the popular vote, but the count from four states, which represented a total of 20 votes in the electoral college, was disputed. Hayes ended up winning.
What was the Homestead Act?
A law passed offering 140 acres of land free to anyone who made an agreement to live on and improve that land for five years.
What was the Battle of Little Bighorn?
A battle between the Sioux indian tribe and the Seventh Cavalry led by George A. Custer. The turnout of the battle was a surprise Sioux indian victory.
What was the Wounded Knee Massacre?
The killing of almost 300 Men, Women, and Children Sioux indians on the banks of Wounded Knee Creek.
What was The Dawes Act?
An act trying to get Native Americans to adapt to "civilized" culture.
What was the Oklahoma Land Rush?
When a bunch of white settlers came to Oklahoma to claim territory in what was left of the frontier.
What is Popular Sovereignty?
A pre-Civil War doctrine asserting the right of the people living in a newly organized territory to decide by vote of their territorial legislature whether or not slavery would be permitted there.
What is Defensive War?
Defensive war is when one side of the war does not attempt to provoke the opposing side by attacking them, but instead only fights when the opposing side attacks.
What are Ironclads?
An armored naval vessel from the mid to late 19th century covered in iron as a form of shielding from gun shots and such.
What is Conscription?
A draft.
What is a Bounty?
A payment for the capture of or assistance in the capture of an outlaw.
What is a food shortage?
A deprivation of food in a specific place.
What is inflation?
An increase in the volume of money and credit relative to available goods and services resulting in a continuing rise in the general price level.
What is income tax?
A tax on the earnings of an individual or a business.
What is total war?
When both sides of a war are both defensive and offensive.
What were black codes?
Unconstitutional laws set in the South on African-Americans after the African-Americans were emancipated.
What were "carpetbaggers"?
Carpetbagger was the term applied to Northerners who moved to the South after the Civil War with very little money.
What is impeachment?
To charge a public official before a full trial with misconduct in office.
What were Freedmen's Schools?
Schools specifically designed to educate recently freed slaves.
What is the Contract System?
The system of employing convicts by selling their labor (to be performed inside the prison) at a fixed price per
day to contractors who are allowed to have agents in the prison to superintend the work.
What was sharecropping?
To be given land to farm from another farmer.
What is lynching?
To put to death (as by hanging) by a mob action without legal sanction.
What is a frontier?
A region that forms the margin of settled or developed territory.
What is mining?
To dig for ore or metal.
What are Long Drives?
The herding of cattle and such across a long stretch of land.
What are Vigilantes?
A member of a volunteer committee organized to suppress and punish crime summarily.
What is Supply and Demand?
When a company supplys the customer with what he/she wants, and demands a certain amount of money in return.
What are Cooperatives?
Agreements on bussiness terms.
What is free silver?
An inflation attempt made by farmers in protest of farmers losing money.
What is the Gold Standard?
The gold standard is a monetary system in which the standard economic unit of account is a fixed weight of gold.
What is a Candidate?
One that aspires to or is nominated or qualified for an office.
What is a Political Party?
A group of people who share similar political views.
What is a convention?
A meeting of the delegates of a political party for the purpose of formulating a platform and selecting candidates for office.
What is a nomination?
To propose as a candidate for election to office.
What are Electors?
People chosen from each state to vote for a specific candidate in the Electoral College.
What is a campaign?
A connected serious of operations designed to bring about a particular result.
What is Popular Vote?
The candidate chosen by each individual person to become president of the United States.
What is the Electoral College?
The Electoral College was established by the founding fathers as a compromise between election of the president by Congress and election by popular vote. Generally, the political parties nominate electors at their State party conventions or by a vote of the party's central committee in each State. Should no presidential candidate receive an absolute majority, the House of Representatives determines who the next president will be.