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110 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
753 BC
Foundation of Rome
750 BC
Greeks first established a trading post in Italy in Bay of Naples at Pithekoussai
753-715
reign of Romulus
706-705 BC
Spartans found Tarentum
700
alphabet introduced to Italy
510 BC
Romans expel last king and become a republic. Athenians exile tyrant Hippias.
323 BC
Death of Alexander the Great
323-31 BC
Hellenistic period
275 BC
Romans defeat Pyrrhus at Malventum and drive him out of Italy.
272 BC
Greeks in magna graecia subject to rome
31 BC
Octavian defeats Mark Antony and Cleopatra at Actium
27 BC
Octavian established principate, takes name Augustus, Achaia formally a province
AD 212
Caracalla extends citizenship to all in Roman empire
293 BC
Cult of healing god Aesculapius enters Rome
281
Tarentum, suspicious of Rome's growing power in Southern Italy, appeals to Pyrrhus, king of Epirus
234-149
Cato the Elder
217 BC
All distinction betweeen Greek and Roman gods officially annulled
211 BC
Sack of Syracuse. Following the sack, Greek art begins to arrive in Rome
200 - 118
Polybius, Greek historian
196
Proclamation of freedom at the Isthmian Games
188
As a result of the Peace of Apamea, Antiochus loses most of Asia Minor
167
Macedonia is divided into four republics, deportation of 1000 Achaeans to Rome, sack of Epirus
146 BC
Macedonia becomes a Roman province, sack of Corinth, the Achaean League is disbanded
133 BC
Attalus III of Pergamum bequeathed his kingdom to Rome
89
Mithradates VI, king of Pontus, posing as liberator of all Greeks, leads a rebellion and massacres Romans in Asia, Athens defects
Mycenaeans
first Greek culture
centered at Mycenae in the Argolid
Southern part of Greece
arrived in Greece as early as 1600 BC
trading posts at Taranto and Syracuse
gave Greeks an ancient background, why Romans claimed to be from Troy
linear B
collapsed around 1200 BC
Hellen
mythical figure
greeks traced ancestry from Hellen
patriarch of Hellenic race
both Ionians and Dorians claimed descent from Hellen
origin of word hellenism, hellenistic
panhellenic - all greek, events and istitutions in wihch greeks could participate
Doras, founder of Dorians, is son of Hellen
Ionian founder was grandson of Hellen
Dark Age
after fall of Mycenaeans
in Greece
around 1200 BC
disappearance of linear B
barbarians
barbaros - greek word
mocking their way of speech
ethnic slur
non-greeks
idea began in 480s BC
Etruscans
civilized people
influenced by trading with greeks
conduit through which Romans "met" Greeks
arrived in Rome in late 7th century
Rome's last 3 kings were said to be Etruscan
Corn
Greece and Rome dependent on imports
corn big import
Egypt breadbasket
believe Trojan war was fought for access to Black sea where corn was easy to grow
mountainous, little farmland in Greece
fought Carthaginians for grain-rich italy
romans didn't plant very efficiently
Hellenistic Era
323-31 BC
death of Alexander the Great - Battle of Actium
period when Greek unfluence expanded through mediterranean and into Egypt due to empire of Alex the Great
time when Romans first encountered Greek
Greek speaking world still exercised some political influence and enjoyed some independence
Al Mina
trading post on coast of Turkey
Greeks first encountered Phoenicians
probably found the Phoenician alphabet there
greeks then adapted alphabet for own use
added vowels
Sosistratus of Aegina
trader, late 6th century
according to Herodotus, wealthiest trader of all time
usually met with prejudice
prejudice linked with kinship to pirates
archaeological evidence he existed
made a donation in Italy
Rivers
few navigable rivers
had to travel by oxen of mule
Rome on Tiber river
ferries and barges used to transport goods from Ostia to Rome
Neptune originally god of River
romans created roads to make travel easier
Piraeus
port
5 miles from Athens
connected by paved road
long road for Greeks, usually only local roads
5 miles inland for pirate protection
Via Appia
roman road
others: via flaminia, via egnatia
legionnaires built roads
marched 25-35 miles a day
connected rome to brundisium
paved
Demos
people
where "democracy came from"
principle which Athens community was founded on
sense of community founded on principle of citizenship, the demos or the people
athenian citizen body - demos
roman citizen body - Senate and people of rome - SPQR
Servius Tullius
6th legendary king of rome
second king of etruscan dynasty
ruled 578-535 bc
cared more about poor people than rich
his son and law and daughter had him killed then his daughter ran him over in the street of infamy
preceeded by Tarquin the Elder
succeeded by Tarquin the Proud
Lucius Tarquinus Superbus
succeeded Servius Tullius
Tarquin the Proud
last king of rome
bought Sibyllene books
ties to etruscans - grandfather was etruscan
expelled from rome 510 bc
Romulus
legendary founder of Rome
raised by she-wolf and woodpecker (related to Mars)
taken in by farmer
killed his brother
mother a vestal virgin raped by mars
uncle was king
built walls of rome
king was an usuper, didn't want daughter of real king to have kids, made her a vestal virgin
trial by jury
100-1000 people
simple majority needed
trials held in forum for all to see
Solon
Athenian
statesman, lawmaker, lyric poet
credited with laying foundations for Athenian democracy
considered one of the seven sages of the ancient world
created solonian constitution - athen's legislative system
law of the twelve table
earliest roman law code
448 BC
earliest evidence for Roman legislation
laws relating to family
gives rights of paterfamilias
paterfamilias has to kill deformed child
point of reference for punishments
acknowledgement that people have rights
imprisonment
no prison system in rome
only jail was single cell to hold those about to be executed
other punishments were beatings, execution, slavery, sent to mines
Emperor Justinian
530 AD
Byzantine
codifies Roman law
"the emperor who never sleeps"
collects roman law into one book, known as digest
re-takes italy from barbarian rulers
became emperor on his uncle's death in 527 AD
almost overthrown in Nika riots
freedmen
used to be slaves
freed through process of manumission
sons could be citizens
still required to work for their previous masters
emperor clodius' freedmen became richer than richest man at time
social mobility
sons could ascend to office
foreigners
prejudiced against
not allowed to be citizens
212 - caracalla extended citizenship
tarquin the elder, 5th king, son of a foreigner
foreigners can be integrated into society
more welcome in Rome than Greece
disability
prejudiced against
no use in society
Rome and Sparta - deformed killed
law in code of 12 tables
old became disabled
should sell old slaves so you didn't have to feed them
Pithekoussai
first greek trading post
Bay of Naples
founded 750 BC
founded by Greeks from Euboea
Greeks first arrive in Italy
Magna Graecia
Great Greece
southern italy and eastern sicily
becomes subject to rome in 272, marking end of italian independence
tarentum afraid of rome
so many greek settlements it was called great greece
prosperous region
Tarentum
Magna Graecia becomes subject to rome in 272
Tarentum afraid of Rome, so appealed to King Pyrrhus of Epirus
Pyrrhus was defeated and driven out
Epirus
King of Epirus was King Pyrrhus 272
offered to help Tarentum against Rome
wanted to create an empire westward
region in northwewst greece
king pyrrhus viewed himself as Alexander the Great reborn
Polybius
greek captive in Rome
was a favorite, well treated
so pro-Roman his history given from Roman point of view
historian
first greek historian to have access to Roman sources
high standard of accuracy
Alexander the Great
died 323 BC
death marked end start of Hellenistic era, ended classical era
after his death the empire divided
created a greek empire
greek leaders viewed themselves as his reincarnation
Eleutheria
greek word for freedom
slaves could buy freedom or be granted
greeks fought for freedom
flamininus announced greek freedom at isthmian games
pthonos
greek word for grudge
reason behind most wars
war every summer
truce at olympics every ten years
peloponnesian war nonstop
Illyrians
Illyria was a territory on the western side of the balkins, extended from head of adriatic to epirus
romans drawn into illyrian war 229 bc after winning first Punic War, first time roman fleet crossed adriatic
philip v joined with carthaginians against illyrians, initiating first macedonian war
philip v
king of macedon
joined with carthaginians and initied first macedonian war 215 bc
rome made peace with philip to end two front war 205 bc
beaten by romans in 197 bc
succeeded by son perseus
achaean league
confederation of greek city-states
eventually gained control of all of Peloponnesus
almost allied with macedon, rome responded by taking hostages including polybius
perseus king of macedon at time
Archimedes
greek mathematician
killed during siege of Syracuse
say siege lasted as long as it did because he was there
inventor - made machines
discovered idea of displacement while in public bath, used to tell if king's crown was solid gold or if it had silver in it
claw of archimedes - could lift ships out of water and then sink them
Flamininus
Roman general, consul
declared greeks free at isthmian games
general during Second Macedonian war
fluent in greek, admirerer of greek culture, hailed as liberator of greeks
was at battle of thermopylae
received triumph
animism
original Roman view of world was animistic
had minor local deities
contradiction with greek anthropomorphic gods
roman gods did not have human form
few originally roman myths due to this
animism has non-human entities
Sibylline books
cumaean sibyl had books
cumae - greek colony
sibyl - mouthpiece for god
religious cults recommended by Sibylline books
bought by tarquin the proud
foreign cults introduced in times of crisis
pontifex maximus
head priest
where name "pope" comes from
all emperors named pontifex maximus after julius caesar was
provided legal power - could cancel meetings of senate according to omens
bird signs, lightning
Do ut Des
I give that you may give
gods based on system of reciprocity
vengeful, vindicitive
principle worship was sacrifice
syncretism
pairing of greek and roman gods
roman gods originally minor deities
example - neptune river god
romans wanted as many gods as possible on their side and didn't want greeks to support hannibal
all distinction between gods ended 217 bc
Aesculapius
healing god
cult introduced in 293 in response to plague
came from Peloponnaise
snakes were sacred to him because they regenerate their skins
healing sanctuaries dedicated to him
Magna Mater
Great Mother
cult of oriental goddess Cybele
introduced in 205
during Macedonian War
Macedonia
Macedonian Kings Philip V, Perseus
3 Macedonian Wars
when Perseus was defeated at 3rd war, which was provoked, Macedonia was divided into 4 republics and lowered to status of Roman province
Corinth
sacked in 146 BC
Corinthians invented Doric architecture
also good at pottery
city in Greece
rivalled Athens and Thebes in wealth
host of Isthmian games
Greco-Roman
refers to culture of people in Roman empire
dominated Mediterranean
Battle of Actium
31 BC
end of Hellenistic period
Octavian defeated Cleopatra and Mark Antony
Egypt became personal property of Emperor
31 BC - started stability in Mediterranean that lasted 200 years
Attalids, Pergamum
Attalid dynasty
under their rule Pergamum becomes prominent
Alexander the Great's general gave money to someone to watch Pergamum, they set themself up as king
Became one of the leading Hellenistic cities
established great library
Pergamum given to Rome in will of last Attalid King
Mithradates VI of Pontus
invades Asia claiming to be liberator
orchestraets murder of 80,000 Romans
takes war to mainland Greece
Athens sided with Pontus
Romans send Sulla who destroys part of Athens and wreaked havoc on 80 cities
Athens never fully recovered
88 BC - wanted to put naval base in Piraeus
Sulla
defeated Mithradates in 87 BC
made peace in 85 BC
Roman general
almost destroyed Athens for supporting Mithradates
Egypt
breadbasket, rich in grain
after death of Alexander becomes Ptolemy dynasty
Becomes personal property of Roman emperor after Battle of Actium
on verge of anarchy when Rome went in
Rowers
rowed ships in navy
trireme
rammed other ships
poor, couldn't affor equipment for army
Hoplites
Greek infantry
hopon - shield
fought in phalanx
citizens, men of means
shield protected your neighbor as well
Mercenaries
4th century - becomes common
Xenophon - Athenian mercenary, served Prince Cyrus, wrote book on service in war
detachment of citizenship and sevice
until rise of mercenaries, soldiers were ameteurs
Gloria - Glory
Romans emphasized virtus and gloria
Romans fought to spread values and way of life
Greeks fought for superiority
Romans had more incentive
Triumph
had to kill 5000 people
highest award for a general
only general with triumph could enter Rome at head of army
procession displaying spoils of war
all purple toga, golden chariot
slave held golden laurels over his head
peloponnesian War
Athens vs. Sparta
nonstop, did not stop during winter
Sparta victorious, afraid to destroy Athens for fear of her allies
Sparta declined within 10 years
Persian Wars
greeks formed a coalition
480s BC
Battle of Thermopylae
against Xerces
first Greek navy
Cato the Elder
said all doctors trying to poison us
historian, wrote Origines, history of Italian towns from foundation to his present
234 - 149 BC
personifies ambivalence
writing influenced by Greeks
Roman statesman
received triumph for achievements in Spain
Philhellenism
love of the Greeks
Lord Bryon most famous
c. 500 BC
Greek cults begin to enter the Roman pantheon
228 BC
Romans are admitted to the Isthmian Games
219 BC
Archagathus is the first Greek physician to practice in Rome
200-197
Second Macedonian war
190 BC
The Romans defeat the Seleucid king Antiochus III at Magnesia
186 BC
The Senate outlaws the rites of Bacchus
173 BC
The Romans expelled two Epicurian philosophers
168 BC
The Romans defeat the Macedonian king Perseus at Pydna, Antiochus IV invades Egypt but leaves under Roman ultimatum
86 BC
Athens falls to Sulla
67 BC
Pompey rids the eastern Mediterranean of pirates
AD 68
Nero 'liberates' Greece
AD 70
The Emperor Vespasian reduces Achaia to provincial status
AD 117-138
Under the Emperor Hadrian the Roman Empire reaches its maximum extent
AD 267
The Heruli sack Athens
AD 293
The Emperor Diocletian divides the empire into two halves for administrative purposes by establishing the Tetrarchy ('Rule of Four')
AD 312
Constantine defeats Maxentius at the Milvian Bridge
AD 324
Constantine re-unites the Empire and becomes sole emperor
AD 330
Constantine dedicates Constantinople on the site of Byzantium
AD 361-363
Reign of Julian the Apostate
AD 395
The Emperor Theodosius I abolishes pagan rites; on his death the Roman Empire splits into two halves
AD 410
Alaric the Visigoth sacks Rome
AD 476
Deposition of the last emperor, Romulus Augustulus, in the West presages the 'fall' of the Roman Empire; Odoacer becomes first barbarian ruler of Italy
AD 529
The Emperor Justinian orders that the philosophical schools be shut down
c. AD 530
Codification of Roman law by the Emperor Justinian