Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

170 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Failure of Germany's last major attack on the Western Front
March-August 1918
Major flu epidemic kills 400,000 Germans and almost 40 million worldwide
Summer-winter 1918
Ludendorff concedes defeat and states that a democracy should be set up to gain a more generous peace treaty
September 1918
Prince Max of Baden is appointed Chancellor and a series of democratic reforms are introduced
3rd October 1918
Soldiers begin to mutiny in Wilhelmshaven
29th October 1918
Mutiny spreads to Kiel and Hamburg-Grand Fleet refuses to leave port and sailors mutiny
2nd November 1918
Unrest worsens and spreads to Berlin and other major cities-revolutionary councils formed the similar to those in Communist Russia
6th November 1918
Prince Max lost control of the political situation-October reforms had failed and he could not stop the mutinies
7th November 1918
Bavaria proclaimed a socialist a socialist republic under Kurt Eisner-Wittelbach royal family deposed
8th November 1918
Prince Max leaves office and a new left-wing coalition government is formed under Chancellor Friedrich Ebert-the Kaiser flees to Holland
9th November 1918
The Ebert-Groener Pact between the President and the army
10th November 1918
Armistice between Germany and the Allies signed at Compiègne and fighting ends on the Western Front
11th November 1918
Stinnes-Legien agreement between trade unions and employers
15th November 1918
Ebert's coalition government loses the support of the very left-wing USPD as they want a more left-wing state
Late December 1918
German Communist Party founded
1st January 1919
Spartacist revolt as the German Communists under Karl Liebknecht and Rosa Luxemburg try to seize Berlin-it was easily crushed by the Freikorps and the army
5th January 1919
First elections for a democratic Parliament-the National Constituent Assembly
19th January 1919
Democratic coalition government formed by the SPD, DDP and ZP and the National Constituent Assembly meets in Weimar
6th February 1919
Treaty of Versailles signed ending the First World War
28th June 1919
The German Parliament (the Reichstag) approves the new German Constitution by 262 to 75 votes
31st July 1919
President Ebert ratifies the new German constitution
11th August 1919
The Kapp putsch
March 1920
Formation of the Ruhr army by 50,000 workers to oppose the Kapp putsch
March 1920
'March operation'-uprising and strikes organised by the KPD in Merseburg and Halle
March 1921
'German October'-a wave of strikes and the creation of an SPD/KPD state government
Summer 1923
Murder of Matthias Erzberger, Finance Minister, who was a member of the ZP and a Catholic and had signed the Armistice, by the Consul Organisation
26th August 1921
Murder of Karl Gareis, leader of the USPD, because he was a committed socialist, by the Consul Organisation
9th June 1921
Murder of Walter Rathenau, Foreign Minister, because he was Jewish and committed to democracy, by the Consul
24th June 1922
The Munich Beer Hall Putsch
8-9th November 1923
IARC (Inter-Allied Reparations Commission) fixed reparations at £6600 million-132 billion gold marks
May 1921
Franco-Belgian occupation of the Ruhr-passive resistance proclaimed
January 1923
Period of hyper-inflation
January-November 1923
Gustav Stresemann made Chancellor of Germany
August 1923
Stresemann's 100 days
August-November 1923
Dawes plan proposed and accepted
April 1924
Treaty of Rapallo with the USSR
Stresemann as Foreign Minister
Hindenburg elected President
April 1925
Locarno Conference/Pact
October 1925
Hermann Müller's Grand Coalition (SPD, DDP, ZP, DVP) and Alfred Hugenberg leader of the DNVP
May 1928
Kellogg-Briand Pact
August 1928
The Young Plan
Death of Stresemann and the Wall Street Crash
October 1929
Creation of the German Workers' Party (DAP) by Anton Drexler
Party name changed to NSDAP (National Socialist German Worker's Party) and the 25-points programme drawn up by Drexler and Hitler
February 1920
Hitler in Landsberg prison-Mein Kampf written
NSDAP refounded in Munich with a centralised, bureaucratic entity which demanded absolute obedience to Hitler (the Führerprinzip) and allowed total organiation of propaganda. The Gauleiters, who were responsible to Hitler alone, were introduced at the same time.
February 1925
Bamberg conference-Hitler's leadership reestablished and a national structure organised to win political support e.g. Gauleiters/Gaus, the SA to fundraise and demonstrate as a disciplined force of order and youth groups set up e.g. the Hitler Youth
February 1926
Reichstag election result-the Nazis won just 2.6% of the vote and a mere 12 seats
May 1928
The Great Depression
Reichstag election-the Nazis emerged as the second largest party
September 1930
Reichstag election-the Nazis became the largest party in the Reichstag holding 37.3% of the seats and between them NSDAP and the KPD had a combined share of the vote of 51.6% meaning that the German people had effectively voted to end democracy
July 1932
Brüning dismissed as Chancellor and replaced by Papen
May 1932
Reichstag passed a massive vote of no confidence in Papen's government-512 to 42
September 1932
Reichstag election-Nazi vote dropped to 33.1%, winning 196 seats (down from 230 in July 1932)
November 1932
Papen dismissed as Chancellor and replaced by Schleicher
December 1932
Schleicher dismissed and Hitler appointed as Chancellor
30th January 1933
Reichstag fire-Communists blamed and Hitler granted emergency powers so he banned the KPD, made mass arrests of Communists and introduced Peoples' Courts as a way of inflicting instand 'justice' on opponents. The Nazi propaganda machine was also turned against the Communists at this time. Emergency powers remained in place until 1945.
27th February 1933
Frick drew up, and Hindenburg signed, the 'Decree for the Protection of People and State', suspending mose civil and political liberties in a few short clauses and the power of central government strengthened, using the Communist threat as a pretext. In the final week of the election campaign, hundreds of those opposed to the Nazis were arrested and the violence reached new heights.
28th February 1933
Final Reichstag election according to the Weimar Constitution-the Nazis used every advantage to try to win the election but failed although they did manage 44% of the vote, though this was not enough to pass the Enabling Act by legal means so Hitler persuaded the ZP to support him
5th March 1933
The 'Day of Potsdam'-the Nazis staged a national day to celebrate the merger of the old traditional Germany with the new Nazi regime as they wanted to evoke a feeling of national patriotism to win support for the passing of an Enabling Act
21st March 1933
The Enabling Act was passed creating the new Nazi dictatorship and banning democracy-passed by the Reichstag so Hitler could claim a legal basis for his dictatorship
23rd March 1933
The regional Parliaments were dissolved by law and then reformed with acceptable majorities, which allowed the Nazis to dominate regional state governments
31st March 1933
Reich Governors (Reichstatthalter) created, who were more often than not the local party Gauleiters with full powers
7th April 1933
German Labour Front set up under Robert Ley replacing the trade unions with one Nazi workers' organisation. Workers could no longer negotiate their wages or working conditions which brought the largest class in Germany, of which Hitler was deeply suspicious, under Nazi control.
1st May 1933 (this day was chosen as it was a traditional workers' holiday)
The assets of the Social Democrats were seized and then they were officially banned
22nd June 1933
Catholic ZP decided to give up the struggle and followed the rest of the political parties which had dissolved themselves in the course of late June 1933
5th July 1933
Process of centralisation completed when the regional Parliaments were abolished altogether-federal governments and governors were subordinated to the authorities of the ministry of the interior in the central government
January 1934
The Stennes Revolt-the most serious disagreement between the SA and the party leadership, when Walther Stennes (the leader of the Berlin SA) rebelled against the orders of Hitler and Goebbels to act legally and to limit the violence (the revolt was defeated by a small purge but the issue was not really resolved until the night of the long knives)
February 1931
The night of the long knives-destruction of the SA by the SS and a purge of those leaders which could have posed a threat to Hitler e.g. Ernst Röhm
30th June 1934
All organised opposition to NSDAP banned-no new parties could be formed, all left-wing parties were banned, many of the remaining parties dissolved themselves and opposition was now seen as treason so held the death penalty. Germany became a one-party state.
14th July 1934

At the same tim,e the July Concordat ensured there would be no religious opposition from the Catholic Church and the Protestant Church was compliant.
The death of Hindenburg removed the last major obstacle to Hitler's power and Hitler combined the role of Chancellor with that of President in the new position of Führer (previously Hindenburg could have used Article 28 to impose martial law and stop Hitler)-the death of Hindenburg complete the setting up of the dictatorship. An oath of loyalty was sworn by the army (under General Blomberg) to Hitler (not to Germany as was traditional), in gratitude for the purge of the SA which had threatened the army.
2nd August 1934
Blomberg-Fritsch crisis-purge of army generals and other leading Conservatives (replaced with more pro-Hitler generals so Hitler could have the full support of the army for the war in 1939)
February 1938
Jewish shops and businesses boycotted-first official boycott
1st April 1933
A national anti-Semitic propaganda campaign began
April 1933
Law for the Restoration of the Professional Civil Service-Jews were dismissed from the Civil Service, 2000 Jewish scientists and professors lost their jobs, Jews were excluded from the legal professions and Jewish doctors were restricted in that they could only treat Aryan patients
7th April 1933

Hindenburg did stop the expulsion of those Jews who had fought at the front in WWI but this only lasted for 2 and a half years.
Cultural exclusion ofJews from theatre, films and literature and most of the arts.
From September 1933
The Haavara Agreement-the SS secretly negotiated with the Zionists to help Jews leave Germany and settle in Palestine, to remove Jews from Germany and benefit from the cost of their departure. The agreement was signed between the Zionists and the Reich Ministry of Economics.
September 1933
Nuremberg Race Laws introduced:

1. The Reich Citizenship Act stated that 'no Jew can be a Reich citizen' so Jews lost their civil and political rights and had no protection agains the law

2. The Blood Protection Act banned marriage and any relationship between Jews and Aryans with harsh punishments (prison/execution)
15th September 1935
The Berlin Olympic Games forced the relaxation of the Nuremberg Race Laws
Summer 1936
The Anschluss (merger) with Austria brought 206,000 more Jews into the Reich and Austrian Nazis were even more extremely anti-Semitic than in Germany so more focus was put on the Jewish question as the Austrian Nazis pushed for more action against the Jews
March 1938
Jews were forced to add the name Israel (for men) or Sarah (for women) to their names to make it easier to identify and discriminate against Jews as well as depersonalising them, and all Jews had to carry identity papers
August 1938
Kristallnacht (Crystal Night)-anti-Jewish pogrom
9-10th November 1938
As a result of Kristallnacht, the leading Nazis decided to organised a more effective anti-Jewish policy in a meeting in Berlin which confirmed new actions against the Jews-the Jews lost insurance rights so could not claim damages for Kristallnacht, and were fined a quarter of a billion marks (collective responsibility for the murder of Von Rath, an embasst official in Paris. It set the precedent for secretly organised violence against the Jews.
12th November 1938
Confiscation of all Jewish businesses ordered by Frick to complete the Aryanisation of the economy and to gain Jewish wealth-these businesses were sold to the Germans with the government keeping most of the money
December 1938
Creation of the Reich Central Offfice for Jewish Emigration
- Jewish pupils expelled from school
- Jews lost their driving licences
- Conscripted into forced Labour
- Banned from museums
After 1939
Jews had to surrender all gold and silver objects
From February 1939
A curfew was introduced for Jews and their radio sets and phones were disconnected to isolate them
September 1939
Wannsee Conference-decision made by top Nazis such as Reinhard Heydrich and senior SS figures (Hitler was not present) to coordinate action against the Jews, particularly mass transport and there was discussion of 'deportation'. Final Solution to exterminate the Jewish people.
January 1942
The burning of the books
May 1933
Riech Ministry of Education created-control of education taken away from the Länder
Creation of the Confessional Church, an opposition group, which upheld orthodox Protestantism and rejected Nazi distortions-led by Pastor Martin Niemöller
Papal encyclical (public letter), Mit Brennender Sorge (With Burning Concern), issued, in which Pope Pius XI vehemently attacked the Nazi system
March 1937
Bishop Galen's sermon against euthanasia
August 1941
Exexcution of 12 Edelweiss Pirates in Cologne
November 1944
The Law for the Hereditarily Diseased Offspring which ordered sterilisation of all those with hereditary conditions such as schizophrenia, Huntingdon's chorea, and hereditary blindness/deafness
July 1933
Euthanasia programme begun
The Reich Central Office for the Combatting of Homosexuality and Abortion was established
The Central Office for the Fight Against the Gypsies established
A directive titled 'The Struggle against the Gypsy Plague' ordered the registration of Gypsies in racial terms
First case of mass murder through gassing was committed by the Nazis against Gypsy children at Buchenwald
January 1940
Germany's gypsies sent to the Auschwitz concentration camp
First months of 1943
Universal military service reintroduced-Jehovah's Witnesses refused to serve
Officials seized and shut down the Watchtower office in Magdenburg, Germany, but eventually returned the property after pressure from the USA
April 1933
Jehovah's Witnesses were banned in several German states
May 1933
As the moderating influence of Ernst Röhm weakened, the Nazis Party launched its purge of homosexual clubs in Berlin, outlawed sex publications nad banned organised gay groups so many homosexuals fled Germany
Late February 1933
A special division of the Gestapo was set up to compile lists of gay individuals
After the purge (Night of the long knives) in 1934
Appointment of Hjalmar Schacht as President of the Reichsbank
March 1933
Appointment of Schacht as Minister of Economics
July 1934
New Plan aounnounced by Doctor Schacht-attempted to finance the recovery using Mefo Bills and without unions, workers were made to work longer for lower wages, but it did reduce unemployment and keep a firm control on the economy
September 1934
Conscription reintroduced
1935 (but had no real impact until 1936)
Reparations had been cancelled at the Lausanne Conference
1932 (before Hitler came to power)
The problem of funding economic recovery and rearmamnet at the same time became clear
Hermann Göring's Four-Year Plan introduced-the drive for rearmament
Reichswerke A.G. Hermann Göring set up to make iron
July 1937
Resignation of Schacht as Minister of Economics
November 1937
War Economy Decrees
December 1939
Rationalisation Decree issued by Hitler
December 1941
Albert Speer appointed as Minister of Armaments which greatly improved war production
February 1942
A Central Planning Board was set up to streamline production and particularly to expand the workforce using concentration camp workers and women
April 1942
Peak of German munitions production
August 1944
Membership of the Hitler Youth made compulsory
The Nazis centralised control of schools, removing regional control
Nazi schools introduced-21 NAPOLAs (National Political Education Institutions) set up to train Nazi leaders which emphasised militarism and physical fitness, 10 Adolf Hitler schools for general Nazi instruction and the Ordensburgen (18+ elite training)
1933, NAPOLAs under SS control from 1936
'Strength through Joy' (KDF) programme introduced the Volkswagen scheme (the Peoples' Car-the KDF Wagen)
Six months compulsory work was required from all men between the ages of 19 and 25 (Reich Labour Service)
Compulsory work also introduced for women (Reich Labour Service)
SS formed as an elite bodyguard for Hitler as a minor unit of the SA with just 250 members
Heinrich Himmler became leader of the SS and under his leadership it grew exponentially
Himmler created a special security service, Sicherheitsdienst (SD), which was to act as the party's own internal security police
Himmler assumed control of all the police in the Länder, including the Gestapo in Prussia
All police powers unified under Himmler's control, including the Gestapo, as 'Reichsführer SS and Chief of all German Police'
June 1936
All party and state police organisations involving police and security matters were amalgamated into the RSHA (Reich Security Office), overseen by Himmler but actually coordinated by his deputy, Reinhard Heydrich
The Kripo (which was responsible for general policing) was linked with the Gestapo
The Editors' Law made newspaper content the sole responsibility, so it was his job to either satisfy the Propaganda Ministry or face sinister consequences
October 1933
Internationally renowned Frankfurter Zeitung forced to close due to Nazi success in muzzling the press
Red Orchestra opposition group (socialist and communist) discovered and closed down with members brutally tortured
The Nazi-Soviet Pact (a non-aggression pact which opened the way for the occupation of Poland) made the position of the German Communists difficult as it seemed hypocritical to oppose fascism whilst taking orders from a country allied with the fascists
Planned putsch by General Beck if war resulted from the Czech crisis and appeals were made to the British Foreign Office
September 1938
The Kreisau Circle, a politically Conservative and strongly Christian opposition group, which met at the Kreisau estate of Helmut von Moltke, drew up a programme
August 1934
Stauffenberg Bomb Plot failed to overthrow the regime and the army was purged as a result-organised by individual members of the Kreisau circle, including Colonel Von Stauffenberg who planted the bomb (Operation Valkyrie)
July 1944
White Rose student opposition group distributed anti-Nazi leaflets
The Gestapo arrested the six leaders of the White Rose group, including brother and sister Hans and Sophie Scholl, who alongside another conspirator, Christoph Probst, were executed by behading that afternoon
February 1943
Rhineland remilitarised in defiance of the Treaty of Versailles
March 1938
The Munich Agreement ceded the German-speaking Sudetenland (in Czechoslovakia) to Germany
September 1938
The Nazis occupied the non-German lands of Czechoslovakia
March 1939
Hitler invaded Poland
1st September 1939
Britain and France felt compelled to defend Poland and so declared war on Germany, beginning WWII
3rd September 1939
German attack on the Western Front
May 1940-delayed from November 1939, prolonging the Anglo-French 'Phoney War'
Germany lost the Battle of Britain and decided to switch Germany's military objectives from the Western Front to preperation for an invasion of the USSR, before Britain had been neutralised
Autumn 1940
Hitler issued Directive No.21, giving the go-ahead to 'Operation Barbarossa', with the aim of crushing the Soviet Union
18th December 1940
Germany finally invaded the USSR-the offensive was delayed by the need to invade Yugoslavia and Greece in order to secure Germany's lower flank
22nd June 1941
German troops were only miles from the major cities of Moscow and Leningrad, in Germany's early success
November 1941
The 'turn of the tide' in Germany's military success-German defeats at El Alamein and Stalingrad
Winter 1942-3
German declaration of war on the USA following Pearl Harbor-continental war globalised and complicated Germany's existing strategy as well as turning the industrial capacity of the world's greatest power against it-this was a vital turning point in the war although this was not apparent at the time
11th December 1941
Speer's reforms to mobilise the war economy
February 1942
German defeat at El Alamein as the Afrika Korps attempted to drive the British back across North Africa into Egypt
November 1942
German surrender after the siege of Stalingrad in which German troops had advanced into the Caucasian oilfields hoping to capture city which was seen to represent Communism
January 1943
Goebbels' speech rallied the people for total war
18th February 1943
The Soviet forces had re-conquered much of the Ukraine after a massive tank victory at the Battle of Kursk
July 1943
Anglo-American forces were linked up in Africa, and had established a hold on southern Italy
By the end of 1943
Period of total war
Hamburg fire-storm
24th July 1943
Allied landings in Normandy
6th June 1944
Hitler finally accepted defeat and committed suicide in his bunker, as Soviet soldiers advanced within a mile of the Chancellery in Berlin, and many other leaders including Goebbels killed themselves-THE NAZI STATE CEASED TO EXIST
30th April 1945
German surrender-occupation and division of Germany
7th May 1945
Nazis were forced to introduce rationing of food, clothes and basic amenities such as soap
1939 (from the outbreak of the war)
Marked decline in the availability of consumer goods
1942 onwards
Reich Entailed Farm Law