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41 Cards in this Set

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Pope Urban
Wanted power. Started the Crusades for an excuse to get rid of people and have them do what he wanted. He also wanted to expand the lands of the church.
Crusades
Nine expeditions where the Christians tried to recover the holy lands from the Muslims.
What was happening before the crusades?
Feudalism and manorialism
Why were people trusting the church again?
The church became less corrupt
Why was the government becoming more centralized?
Strong leaders were emerging, there was population growth (witch grew towns) and feudalism and manorial ism were ending.
Crusades name comes from:
The word Crux, which means cross, and knights who "took up the cross" were called crusaders.
What were the tree religions in the holy lands?
Muslims Christians and Jews.
Why did the Jews care about the holy city?
It was God's city and the sight of Solomons temple.
Why did the Muslims care about the holy city?
It was their third holiest city and where Muhammad acceded to heaven.
Before the Seljuk Turks invaded, how did were the Muslims controlling the Holy Land?
Holy land was controlled by mostly Muslims or Arabs and they were tolerant of "people of the book" and taxed them and people where free to travel.
After the Seljuk Turks invaded, what happened?
Pilgrimages to the Holy Land became difficult and dangerous, and the Byzantine empire was threatened.
Who sent a letter to the Pope and why?
HRE Alexius sent a letter to ask for money for mercenaries. He got the crusaders.
How was the first crusade started?
Pope Urban II encouraged people to go on crusades by giving a speech at a church at Clairmont, France appealing to their pride, Christian nature, greed and hope for salvcation.
Why did people want to go on the crusades?
For money, adventure and glory. They would go directly to heaven an be free of sin. Serfs would become freemen, and second sons who wouldn't inherit any thing would gain glory. Knights could practice their military skills.
What did people say to Pope Urban's speech?
"Deus vault!" in French, which means "God wills it."
What was the symbol of the crusade?
A red cross painted or sewn onto the front of tunics and shields.
What happened in the first crusade?
Knights and noblemen burned and pillaged Jewish settlements before they made it to Constantinople where they weren't allowed into the city because they were barbarians. They suffered and died from conditions on the way to Jerusalem. They had quarrels about leadership.
In the first crusade, what happened when the crusaders got to Jerusalem?
There was a two month siege where afterwards they slaughtered most of the people in Jerusalem's.
What were the results of the first crusade?
The church gained more power and western Europeans gained more self confidence.
What happened after the first crusade?
Those people who didn't return home set up feudal states, and the religious Zeal cooled.
What happened to cause the second crusade?
The Seljuk Turks conquered Palestine, and then the Pope Eugenius IV called the second crusade to defend the holy land. Then there were sermons by Clairvaux who was a monk.
Who were the leaders of the second crusade?
Luis VII and HRE Conrad III.
Why did the second crusade fail?
The leaders quarreled and were bad military leaders, and their troops were easily defeated.
What brought on the third crusade?
Muslim leader Saladin recaptured Jerusalem, and united the Muslims.
Who were the three leaders of the first crusade?
HRE Fredric Barbarossa, Philip Augustus of France, and Richard I of England.
What happened on the way on the Third crusade?
Fredric Barbarossa died and his army returned home. Philip Augustus went back to France. Richard I went on alone, and won many battles, but couldn't win a victory.
What happened with the treaty of the third crusade?
Richard wanted Saladin to give Jerusalem's back to the Christians, which he refused but allowed pilgrims access.
What happened on the forth crusade?
Pope Innocent III wanted to take back Jerusalem. Venician merchants prospered because they lent money to the crusaders. The venecians had an agreement with the crusaders to sack the city Zara, so they were excommunicated by the pope. Then they sacked Constantinople.
What happened on the peasants crusade?
Peter the Hermit encouraged peasants to plunder Jews, Muslims, and other Christians. They made it to Constantinople were Alexius shipped them off to Asia minor, where they were slaughtered by the Turks.
What was the truce of God?
Pope urban outlawed fighting from Sunday to Wednesday, before the crusades.
What happened on the children's crusade
A group of children wanted to go to the holy land, and they thaught that they would succeed because they were puerer than the adults. Children 10-18. They had charisatic leaders, but they were killed or enslaved, and many died of hunger disease and cold. They believed that the Mediterranean sea would part for them, it didn't, so they went home. This was also the basis for the legend of the Pied Piper.
What happened on the fifth crusade?
People tried to end Muslim power in Egypt, but they failed.
What happened on the sixth crusade?
No fighting, but a treaty was signed.
What happened on the seventh crusade?
King Lius IX of France tried to capture Jerusalem, but his army was defeated and he was captured and ransomed.
What happened on the eighth crusade?
Luis tried to capture Jerusalem again, and failed because many of his men died from the black plague.
What were the cultural affects of the crusades?
Self confidence bolstered. There was the translation of ancient Greek, Muslim and Roman knowledge. Better maps were developed. Gun powder and cannons were developed, along with the magnetic compass.
What were the political affects of the crusades?
Pope Innocent III demanded that Saladin finance the third crusade. Western monarchs made national taxes. The power of feudal nobles was weekend. Their were castles in the crusader estates, with parapets.
What were the Military religious orders?
Knights of the Templar were French, and they took monastic vows, and they had their own communities. They guarded money shipments, and they protected peasants.

The Knights of the Hospital of Saint John of Jerusalem ran hospitals. Then they moved to Malta and became the knights of Malta, which is a charity body today.

The Teutonic knights in Prussia Conquered and converted people.
What were the economic affects of the crusades?
Trade increased on the Mediterranean for luxury goods. Venice and Genoa dominated trade, they developed banking techniques for the crusaders. Taxes hampered overland trade, so they made another way to get to the east. Marco Polo traveled to china, and brought back stories in "A description of the World", and people called him the Prince of Liars, which started the age of exploration.
What were the religious affects of the crusades?
First crusade increased church power. Later crusades weekend the church and drove the churches apart. It institutionalized antisemitism and began a hatred between Christians and Muslims.
What were the negative affects of the crusades?
The Byzantine declined, western colonization, and the idea that violence was justified by god.