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27 Cards in this Set

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Fort Sumter-
What happened?
Who were the generals?
Who won?
Significance?
Anything else?
Fort Sumter-
The South was taking control of all the post offices and the railroads, and the forts. So Lincoln had a decision to make, he could stop the South or let it go on. If he allowed it, it would mean he was recognizing that the South was an independent country, if he tried to stop it, it would mean he was against them, and could possibly start a war. Well Lincoln went in, and Anderson and his men went in Fort Sumter (Which was very important because of its protection). Although their rations were low and they didn't have the man power to lift, more and fire cannons. So Beauregard went over and gave Anderson a warning and a choice to Surrender, but Anderson told him he would fight until he had nothing left. So on April 11th 1861, Beauregard bombed the fort and Anderson surrendered three days later.
Generals were Anderson (North) and Beauregard (South).
South won.
The significance was that is was the first act of the Cicil War. And was basically the destiny of the war.
Fort Sumter was located in South Carolina
Border States-
What were the 4 that remained with the Union?
Anything else?
Missouri, Delaware, Kentucky, and Maryland stayed with the Union.
Maryland was critical to the North because it bordered their state capital, Washington DC.
Secession/Confederacy-
What was the last attempt to save the union?
What caused the Southerners to seceede?
Which states seceeded?
Anything else?
The last attempt to save the union was thought up by John Crittenden who was a senator from Kentucky. He said we should extend the 36,30 Missouri Compromise Line, and create an "unammendable ammendment" which said the South could ALWAYS have slaves. But it gained very little support.
In 1860, Lincoln was elected president. This made the South mad because they thought they would have no say in government.
South Carolina was the first to seceede. Followed by Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia, Tennesee, and FLorida.
The south said that the Declaration of Independence said we have the right to alter or abolish the government, so they could seceede.
They joined the Confederate Sates of America.
Advantages of The North and of The South-
North's advantages-
South's advantages-
NORTH- More population for more volunteers. More factories to make more weapons, and clothes. Good transportation (railroads). Lots of money. Strong Navy opposed to the South's "no navy". Wonderful Generals/Leaders (Abe Lincoln, Grant).
SOUTH- Grew crops (Rice, tabacco, cotton) to trade to other countries (get more money). About 1/3 of the population were slaves. Better generals (Lee). Fighting on their homeland, so they knew the place better. They didn't have to actually defeat the other side, only had to defend.
Abraham Lincoln-
Life span-
About him-
His Assassination-
Anything else-
1809-1865
Married Mary Todd Lincoln and had 4 chlidren. Was a captin in the Black Hawk War. Hannibal Hamlin was his first Vice President. John Wilkes Booth assassinated him in the play Our American Cousin at Ford's Theatre, 3 days after Lee surrendered.
3 point plan to killing Lincoln. Booth-Lincoln, Atzerodt-Johnson, Powell-Sewerd. Only one that succeeded was Booth.
Booth watched the play 6 times before, so he waited until the bodyguard left Lincoln's side, and Booth went into the booth and waited until the loudest part of the play to kill Lincoln. Booth shot Lincoln at pointblank range and jumped out of the booth and stumbled onto the stage and ran off. Was captured later.
Jefferson Davis-
Life span-
About him-
Anything Else-
1808-1889
Senator in Mississippi. Appointed secretary of war by President Franklin Pierce (14th president) in 1853. Davis' presidency lasted 6 years. (1861-1867) Imprisoned in Fortess Monroe, Virginia. Served as an officer in the Mexican War. Respected for hoensty and courage. Died in New Orleans.
Union and Confederate plans of attack-
Union's 3 point plan-
Confederate's plan-
UNION-
-Use the navy to block southern ports to cut off the south with Europe.
-Get Richmond, Virginia(South's capital)
-Take the Mississippi River to prevent the South from using the river to supply troops.

CONFEDERATES-
-Fight a defensive war until the idea of war grew unpopular so then Lincoln would have no choice but to recognize the South as an independent country.
-Count on European money/supplies. The south hoped that Europe would recognize the Confederacy as an independent nation, and buy their cotton to make money.
Battle of Bull Run-
What happened?
Who were the generals?
What was the significance?
Who won?
Anything else?
On July 21st 1861, the Union troops left Washington DC to arrive at Richmond, Virginia. They were met by confederate troops near a Virginia stream (Bull Run).18,000 troops per side. At first the Union was succesful, but then the South rallied behind General Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson. General McDowell quickly orders a retreat, that sends them back to Washington DC.
Union losses-2900
Confederate losses-2000
Generals were McDowell(North) and Beauregard(South).
South won.
The battle showed that both sides needed training, and that this was going to be long and bloody war, and that they weren't ready.
Southerners didn't want to intermingle with blacks. 75000 troops were volunteered before Bull Run, 1 out of 5 were immigrants.
Women couldn't fight, but blacks could fight.
"Remember Ellsworth" became battle cry. Ellsworth was shot by removing a flag.
Lincoln decides to march his men towards the battle at Richmond in July 1861.
After battle, 1000000 troops were called to volunteer.
George McClellan-
Who was he?
About him-
Anything else?
McDowell was replaced with McClellan who was now in surpreme command. He was known for his skill for training troops, and that was good because he only had 6 months to change the North's troops. In January 1862, Lincoln ordered Union to launch a unified agressive action against Confederacy, but McClellan ignores the order, and remains cautious. In Febuary 1862, Nashville was the first Confederate capital to be captured. Lincoln is furious at McClellan, and removes him from surpreme command, and puts him in charge of the army of the Potomac. Lincoln is now making all of the major decisions.
Monitor and the Merrimac-
What happened?
When?
Describe both ships-
Who won?
Name all the Union and Confederate ships-
Anything else?
The confederacy built ships with iron panels and that had an underwater ram to slam into Union ships and sink their wooden vessels. The confederates took the burned out hull of the USS Merrimac left behind by the Union when they abandoned Newport, Virginia shipyards. Merrimac was first called the CSS Virginia, but finally stuck to the original name.
On March 8, 1862, the Merrimac was complete, and set out for battle. The USS Cumberland (Union ship), fired cannonballs at the Merrimac, but they slid off and did not damage. So the Merrimac rammed into the Cumberland and it sunk. The USS Congress (Union ship) surrendered after that. The Merrimac was going to defeat the Minesota (Union ship), but it grew too dark, so they moved towards a safe harbor for the night. Little did the Confederates know, but the USS Monitor (Union ship) came during the night, which also had iron panels and it was equipped with a revolving turret enclosing 2 cannons so the ship didn't always have to move the ship around to fire.
Next morning, the Merrimac came back which had 10 guns against the Unions 2 guns. John Worden who was the Union captin ordered to fire. The Merrimac rammed inot the Monitor, but nothing happened. Shots hit Stodder disabling him.
2 important points-
-Prevent enemy's projectiles from enetering turret through port holes because of exploding shells.
-Don't fire into own pilot-house.
The Merrimac was leaking badly, and the Monitor was wounded, so the two ships left. Although the 2 ironclads had fought to a DRAW, the encounter rang the death. Knell of wooden ships as fighting vessles.
JOHN ERICSON created the Monitor!!! The Merrimac was bigger than the Monitor.
Merrimac was destroyed by crew in May 1862.
Monitor sank off Cape Hatteras during a gale on December 29, 1862.
Battle of Shiloh-
What happened?
who were the generals?
What was the significance?
Who won?
ANything else?
On April 5th, 1862, Grant took Nashville first, then relaxed. The union was very unprepared for what would happen next. Johnston did a surprise attack on the North. The Union was pushed back, and Confederates held their positions for the rest of the day. Over night, Union reinforcements came, and helped defeat the south.
Generals were Grant (North) and Johnston(South).
North won.
Homestead and Morrill act-
What were they?
Basic points-
Anything else?
HOMESTEAD ACT-
Was approved on May 20th 1862. This act basically says who can apply for land, how much land you can get for how much money, and that you couldn't buy this land if you had fought against the North. You had to stay in this land for 5 years and you were not allowed to profit off of the land. This act told us that they were trying to expand in the West. Any adult citizen who never took up arms against the US governmetn could claim 160 acres of surveyed gorvernment land. Required to "improve" the plot by building a house, cultivating the land. After 5 years, you could own the land for a small registration fee. The title could be bought after 6 months for a price of $1.25 per acre.

MORRILL ACT-
In 1862, The Senate and House of Representatives wrote this act. Each representative was given 30000 acres of land. Congress donates lands that colleges willb e built on. south cannot get this land. States needed more public colleges. This act was sponsered by senatore Justin Morrill of Vermont. Donated land to states/territories for the purpose of Agriculture and Mechanical Arts colleges. 30000 acres of public land for each state to have at least one or more college/university. Helped fund exsisting colleges, and create new ones, such as PENN and CORNELL.
Battle of Antietam-
What happened?
Who were the generals?
What was the significance?
Who won?
Anything else?
The battle of Antietam was also known as the battle of Sharpsburg which took place near Sharpsburg, Maryland. On September 17, 1862, Lee went to find new supplies, and more men in Maryland. Meanwhile, McClellan found a detailed copy of the battle plans of Lee's army wrapped around 3 cigars. It took 18 hours for McClellan to act on this newly found discovery. Lee sent out his army behind Antietam Creek along a low ridge. Jackson defended the lest side, and Longstreet defended the right side. On September 16th, the UNION WINS. The Battle was over at 5:30PM. Though the Union had 12410 casualties, and the Confederates had 10700 casualties. It was the first MAJOR battle to take place on Northern soil. It was a strategic union victory and a turning point of the war because it FORCED THE END OF LEE'S INVASION OF THE NORTH, DISSUADED THE GOVERNMENTS OF FRANCE AND BRITAIN FROM RECOGNIZING THE CONFEDERACY, AND ENCOURAGED LINCOLN TO ANNOUNCED THE EMANCIPATION PROCLAMATION.
North Wins.
Copperheads and Habeas Corpus-
What were they?
Significance-
Copperheads were Northerners who opposed using force to keep the South in the Union.
Habeas Corpus was the right to be charged or have a hearing before being jailed. This right was suspended so the north could jail people when riots brokeout.
Emancipation Proclamation-
What was it?
When did it take effect?
Significance?
The Emancipation Proclamtion took effect on January 1st, 1863, but it was issued on September 22nd, 1862. This proclamation set slaves free, but only a few. It did not apply to slaves in the Border states fighting on the Union side(Missouri, Kentucky, Delaware, and Maryland)nor did it apply to southern states under Union control. But because the rest of the Southern states were rebelling, they ignored it. But this Proclamation showed America that this war was being fought to end slavery.
54th Massachusetts Regiment (Glory Movie)-
What was it?
What happened?
who controlled it?
Anything else?
The 54th Massachusetts Regiment was an all black regiment suggested by Franklin Douglas. This regiment led an attack on Fort Wagner, near Charleston, South Carolina. Under heavy fire, troops fought their way in, and sadly half of the regiment was killed. Their courage helped gain respect to african american soldiers. Sergeant William Carney was one of the first of 16 african american soldiers to win the medal of honor.
Men and Women of the Civil War-
Name different jobs-
Name different accomplishments-
JOBS-
spies, actresses, nurses, doctors, surgeons, lieuteniants

ACCOMPLISHMENTS-
founded the Red Cross, Dressed up as a man to fight, first african american to get the congressional medal of honor, recieved medals, got valuable information, kidnapped people, good at guerrilla warfare tactics, leader of groups, raised the union flag over Virginia, first female surgeon, first female buffalo soldier.
North/South economy-
NORTH-
1st income tax established. War bonds issued, not enough, printed $400 million in paper money. INFLATION- rise in price, decrease in value of money. Farm production rises, "profiteering"- charges governmetn high prices for things.

SOUTH-
Creates income tax, and "tax-in-kind" farmers gave 1/10 of crops to government. high INFLATION. Europe buys less cotton, buys it from other countris. Union blockade causes shortages of supplies and food. South had to create factories and grow food to survive.
PA's contributions to the Civil War-
What were they?
Pa was the leading manufactor center in the North. PA's vast population had tons of manpower, lots of livestock and crops from fertile fields helped feed the army. Polictical and military leaders played key roles kin preserving the Union. More land, people, railroads, factories, and money in the banks. Lots of iron, better transportation. Had 39 regiments. McClellan and Meade cam from PA. Jay Cooke and company helped government raise money.
Seige at Vicksburg-
What happened?
Who were the generals?
What was the significance?
Who won?
Anything else?
1863.Vicksburg sits on a cliff high above the Mississippi Rover. Grant had to fight 7 other battles prior to this. Surprise attack (6), planned. Go to Jackson, then circle back to Vicksburg. 6 week seige(military enforcement of an enemy postition, with blockade/bombs to force a surrender) July 4th, 1863, Confederates surrender, entire Mississippi River was under Union control. Confederacy was now cut in half. Texas, Arkansas, and Louisiana was now cut off from the rest of the South. Half of confederacy had been taken over. North's casualties-10142, South's casualties-9091
North wins
Generals were Grant (North) and Pemberton (South)
Battle of Gettysburg-
What happened?
Who were the generals?
What was the significance?
Who won?
Anything else?
Lee's army rested in Gettysburg.
DAY 1-
July 1st, 1863. Union troops are pushed out of Gettysburg by the confederates. Union regroups near "Cemetary Ridge", with time to gather reinforcements. north has an EXCELLENT position. Lee decides against other generals warnings, that South is invincible and will attack the Ridge. Lee wants to prove a point.
DAY 2-
July 2nd, 1863 Lee orders an early attack, but it doesn't happen until late afternoon (giving the Union more time to prepare). Bitter fighting continues until 10:30PM and Union still holds their postition. Due to vast amounts of dead bodies, a temporary truce is called to collect and bury soldiers from each side.
DAY 3-
July 3rd, 1863. Lee takes a gamble, and decides to attack the ridge in the straight center. BAD GAMBLE! Furious cannon fire back and forth to attempt to break the union position; unseccesful. A young General, George Pickett, looks to lead 12000 men up the ridge to attack the Union. Pickett leads the Confederates up the hill, first with a march, then a charge with bayonets, as they give their "rebel yell". Pickets charge cost the South 7500 men, dead in 1 hour...the gamble failed.
JULY 4th-Lee retreats, Meade stays put, Lincoln is furious because he wants Meade to finish Lee off, but Meade is too wounded.
Generals were Meade (North) and Lee (South). North had 83289 men with 23049 casualties. South had 75054 men with 28000 casualties.
took place in Adams county, PA.
NORTH WINS.
Election of 1864-
Who won?
Canidates?
Anything else?
Against Lincoln (National Union Party) and McClellan (Democrat).
Lincoln Won.
Electoral Vote-
Lincoln-212
McClellan-21

Popular Vote-
Lincoln- 54%
McClellan- 45%
Atlanta, "The March to the Sea"-
What happened?
Who were the generals?
What was the significance?
Who won?
Anything else?
William Tecumseh Sherman is told by Grant to take Atlanta because it's the capital of Georgia. It has more facotires, railroads.
"Total War"-Union will destroy everything that may be useful to the south. Sherman takes Atlanta in September 1864, marches to Savannah, captures the city in December 1864. Causes a long path of damage, 60 miles wide, 200 miles long. Sherman used "scorched earth"-burn crop, kill livestock, consume supplies, destroy factories/homes, wrapped railroads tracks around trees "Sherman neckties" NORTH WINS.
Appomattox Court House-
What happened?
What were the terms?
April 19, 1865, Lee surrendered.
Terms-
-Roll Call of officers
-Men/soldiers are paroled
-All arms and artillery go to Grant
-Men go home
-Officers keep sidearms/baggage/horses
-Men go home

Grant and Lee are old friends. Men fought against friends and even family.
John Crittenden-
Who was he?
Why is he important?
Anything else?
John Crittenden made the last attempt to save the Union. Said we should extend the Missouri Compromise Line, and have an "unammendable ammendment" that the south can always have slaves.
"Stone wall Jackson"-
Who was he?
Why is he important?
Anything else?
When the union thought they suceeded, General Thomas Jackson rallied the Virginia troops to a nearby hill. "Look! There is Jackson standing like a stonewall! Rally behind the Virginians!"
Gettysburg Address-
What was it?
Who wrote/delivered it?
When?
Why was it important?
Lincoln wrote it and delivered it, on November 19, 1863. Dedicates battlefield to soldiers. Tells us we came here expecting freedom, and equal rights.