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117 Cards in this Set

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How did England finance its colonies in North America?
Joint stock companies
Explain joint stock companies.
business organizations that pool the money of many investors. Each investor bought shares of stock.
What were the Virginia Company of London, and Virgina Co. of Plymouth?
Joint stock companies that had a charter from the King to set up colonies. Each colony had a monopoly on trade within its colony. VCL was given the southern part of England's land; Plymouth charter gave them the northern part.
Who did the Virginia Co. of London send to N.America to set up their colony?
100 volunteer men and boys who thought of themselves as conquistadors. John Smith was in charge of supplies.
Why were the colonists going to hang John Smith?
John Smith annoyed them with his arrogance. They changed their minds because he was so big and tough.
Where did the Virginia Co. ship land and where did they settle?
The Chesapeake Bay and then settled near the mouth of the James River.
What kind of hardships did the settlers find in Jamestown?
Poor site - swampy, mosquitos
Sickness - drinking water made them sick.
Fear - afraid of Powhatan and his Algonkian Indians.
GREED - wanted gold, not build homes or grow food.
WRONG TYPE OF SETTLERS - aristocrats (wimps) & unskilled people instead of craftsmen.
SPAIN'S LEGACY - brought disease to area, Powhatan wanted to expand and trade.
How many settlers made it through the first summer at Jamestown? How many died in the first ten years?
38 the first summer; over next ten years, 1/2 to 1/3 of all died within their first year there.
What problems did Smith deal with when he took control of the new colony?
DEFENSE - built wall around community.
FOOD - convinced Powhatan to trade corn.
LABOR RULE - NO WORK=NO EAT
What was Powhatan's relationship with Jamestown?
He mistrusted the English but respected John Smith until Smith started plundering food from surrounding tribes and lost the Indians' assistance.
Why was John Smith sent home after two years in the Jamestown colony?
He was BADLY INJURED in a gunpowder explosion.
What kind of settlers came in the second wave after Smith went home?
Families and people who were religious and "morally superior."
Why was the winter of 1609 extremely harsh for the settlers?
Because Powhatan stopped trading with them for food (thanks to John Smith). They started eating rats, starving or cannibalism. Only 60 of the 800 new ones survived.
What did the Virginia Company do to make sure Jamestown survived?
Kept on sending NEW SETTLERS;
committed to WAR WITH INDIANS;
held DAILY RELIGIOUS SERVICES;
STRONGER LEADERS to control the colonists.
How did the colonists begin to have success with the Powhatans?
TREATY with Indians;
POCAHONTAS converted and married JOHN ROLF
Why did Powhatan abdicate his rule to his brother Opechancanough?
He was so SAD that POCAHONTAS DIED OF TB.
How did the colonists learn how to fend for themselves?
1. INDIANS TAUGHT THEM how to grow CORN, FISH, trap WILD FOWL.
2. The colonists learned to grow TOBACCO. (John Rolf developed a HYBRID form popular with the English.)
What did Jamestown's ultimate success hinge on?
TOBACCO CROP SUCCESSES
Why were the colonists so successful with tobacco?
LONG GROWING SEASON;
FERTILE SOIL;
Easy ACCESS for SHIPS.
What was the downside of succcess with tobacco?
The colonists kept EXPANDING INTO INDIAN TERRITORY.
How profitable was Jamestown to the Virginia Company's investors?
The company made TEN TIMES more profit than they paid out in salaries to colonists.
What new benefits did the Virginia Co. give the colonists
A HOUSE and FOUR ACRES of land to farm. They could also BUY A WIFE from the Company.
What did the Virginia Co. do to attract new settlers?
They offered 50 ACRES OF LAND if they could PAY THEIR OWN WAY.
How did people who couldn't pay their own passage get to Jamestown?
They came as INDENTURED SERVANTS. The DUTCH also brought AFRICANS as indentured servants too.
What were "freedom dues"?
CLOTHING, TOOLS, GUN, SPINNING WHEEL, A LITTLE LAND, FOOD were given to indentured servants AFTER THEIR TERM was completed.
What rules did the Virginia Company Governor make for the colonists?
1. The BEATING OF THE DRUM summoned them to work, church and home (they slept on dirt floors infested with vermin). 2. they couldn't GO BACK TO ENGLAND without permission; 3. LETTERS CENSORED and edited if too bleak; 4. DEATH PENALTY for anyone who CRITICIZED THE COMPANY.
How did the Company govern the colonies?
Elected representatives called BURGESSES met once a year in a COLONIAL ASSEMBLY. (The FIRST REPRESENTATIVE ASSEMBLY in the American colonies!)
Between 1619 and 1625, how many settlers came to Virginia and what happened to them?
5000 came because of the NEW CONCESSIONS (land, representative government) but most DIED from EPIDEMICS of TYPHOID FEVER, leaving only about 1000.
Why did the King dissolve the Virginia Company?
Because it was SO SUCCESSFUL he made it A COLONY OF ENGLAND under his rule.
Describe life in the Colony of Jamestown under King James.
NO COMMUNITY (scattered in lonely shacks along rivers, growing tobacco); NO time to build CHURCHES, SCHOOLS; FEAR & COMPETITION; pushed further & further into Indian territory, IGNORING & ANGERING THE INDIANS.
What was the Good Friday Massacre?
A SURPRISE ATTACK by INDIANS that killed 300 settlers. Started a WAR that lasted TEN YEARS.
Why did the English call war with the Indians a "just war"?
Because the INDIANS ATTACKED FIRST, the English said they had the right to DESTROY THE INDIANS and TAKE THEIR LAND.
In addition to war, what was also taking a toll on the Indian population?
DISEASE. In 20 years, the Algonquin population was CUT IN HALF to 10,000.
How did the war end?
The colonists CRUSHED THE INDIANS in 1645 and the INDIANS SIGNED A TREATY that restricted them to SMALL RESERVED TERRITORIES.
What were the populations of the colonists vs. the Indians by the 1670's?
COLONISTS - 40,000, INDIANS - 2000. (Today about 1500 Algonkian descendents live in Chesapeake Indian communities in VA.
What is a pilgrim?
A person who makes a JOURNEY for RELIGIOUS REASONS.
Who were 'the Pilgrims'?
RELIGIOUS SEPARATISTS who broke from the CHURCH OF ENGLAND because the KING WAS TOO "POPISH".
Why did King James (and later King Charles) persecute the separatists in England?
Their accusations against the Church THREATENED THE KING'S AUTHORITY as head of the church and the state.
Why did the separatists go to Holland?
Holland was a TOLERANT country where they could worship freely.
Why didn't the separatists like living in Holland?
They missed their English FARMING culture and wanted their kids to SPEAK ENGLISH.
How did the Pilgrims get to America from Holland?
They petitioned the VIRGINIA CO. OF PLIMOUTH to send them in 1620.
Who led the Pilgrims to America?
WILLIAM BRADFORD
Why did the Pilgrims land at Cape Cod?
They were extremely OFF COURSE. They were supposed to land in what was called VIRGINIA but were too far North.
What was the Mayflower Compact?
WILLIAM BRADFORD'S DOCUMENT of SELF-GOVERNMENT to KEEP ORDER in the new colony. LAWS agreed upon BY THE COLONISTS.
What was the first winter like?
Extremely harsh, little food, LESS THAN HALF SURVIVED.
Who was Samoset (also called Squanto)?
A PEMAQUID INDIAN who HELPED THE STARVING PILGRIMS in the first spring. Spoke ENGLISH. Taught them to PLANT CORN.
What was Squanto's fate with the Pilgrims?
Taken as a SLAVE to England. RETURNED years later to become a TRANSLATOR between the colonists and Indians.
Who was Massasoit?
“SACHEM” or LEADER of WAMPANOAG who RESCUED PILGRIMS in exchange for an ALLIANCE AGAINST the NARRAGANSETT Indians.
How did the Plimouth colony support itself?
By TRADING FURS with Indians and SENDING LUMBER to England to PAY BACK the PLIMOUTH CO.
When was the first Thanksgiving?
A 3 DAY FEAST in 1621 to appreciate the first GOOD HARVEST.
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Why did they need the Mayflorwer Compact?
They were outside the VA co. territory so those rules didn't apply. Non-Pilgrims were in the minority and wanted their rights protected
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how was life for the colonists and Plymouth?
very difficult. people worked hard and RESENTED having to share the work for everyone, esp. women who had to cook and wash for men who weren't their husbands
how did Bradford handle the colonists' resentment?
he decided to give each family a piece of land for its own use. the switch to PRIVATE PROPERTY led to greater success for some and benefited the colony as a whole
how long was Bradford Governor?
for 30 consecutive terms
how did the Plymouth Colony change over time?
by mid-century it had dispersed into 11 seperate communities
Describe life for the colonists at Plimouth.
HARD WORK shared by EVERYONE. RESENTMENT at having to work for the COMMUNITY rather than just for ONE'S OWN FAMILY. (Women had to iron men's shirts, even if not married)
How did Bradford lessen the colonists' resentments?
Gave each family a PIECE OF LAND for its own use (PRIVATE PROPERTY).
For how long was Bradford Governor of Plimouth Colony?
30 CONSECUTIVE TERMS
How did Plimouth Colony evolve over the next 25 years or so?
It DISPERSED into 11 SEPARATE COMMUNITIES.
Who was Thomas Merton?
left Plimouth to start his own colony of MERRYMOUNT where people were freer and could TRADE GUNS with the INDIANS.
What eventually happened to Thomas Merton?
The ANGRY Governor Bradford and Plimouth colonists SHIPPED HIM BACK to England where he couldn't trade guns with the Indians.
What was causing unrest in England at that time?
KING CHARLES was acting very much like the POPE and the CHURCH OF ENGLAND had become like the CATHOLIC CHURCH. PURITANS wanted to PURIFY the church by going back to the SIMPLER WAYS OF WORKSHIP in the Bible.
Who was John Winthrop?
A LEADER OF THE PURITANS. Led the GREAT MIGRATION of separatists to America.
How did King Charles try to get rid of the Puritans?
By DISSOLVING PARLIAMENT so he could get rid of its PURITAN MEMBERS.
Who started the Masschusetts Bay Colony/
A group of WEALTHY ENGLISH PURITANS to got a charter from King Chrles for a colony named SALEM.
What was John Winthrop's "Arbella Sermon"?
He described the 'MODEL CHRISTIAN COMMUNITY' he expected them to create. Like a FAMILY with the father as the head and GOALS & RESPONSIBILITIES for everyone.
What was "The Great Migration"?
From 1629-1643 20,000 PEOPLE LEFT ENGLAND. 2/3 went to CARRIBEAN and IMPORTED SLAVES for SUGAR PLANTATIONS.
What was John Winthrop's COMMONWEALTH PRINCIPLE?
Working TOGETHER for the GOOD OF THE WHOLE. MA settlers believed they had a covenant with God to build a HOLY SOCIETY.
What was the Congregation in New England Colonial towns?
The BASIC UNIT, the MEMBERSHIP OF THE CHURCH.
What were the basic parts of a colonial New England town?
COMMON (shared grazing), MEETING HOUSE (Church - mandatory attendance for all- & town meetings - laws, decisions, etc)
What was "the New England Way"?
Strict Puritan RULES for MA Bay Colony. based on BIBLE (all must learn to read): DUTY, HARD WORK, GODLINESS & HONESTY. NO DANCING or GAMES.
Why was Harvard College foundedin 1636?
To TRAIN MINISTERS for the future.
What was the first Constitution in the American Colonies?
FUNDAMENTAL ORDERS OF CONNECTICUT, written by THOMAS HOOKER for his new colony there.
How did the Puritans make sure that their religion had control of the community?
Only FREEMEN - ADULT MALE CHURCH MEMBERS W/ PROPERTY could VOTE. All OTHER RELIGIONS (Anglican, Baptist, Quakers) BANNED.
Who was Roger Williams?
A MINISTER from Salem who was banished to England for saying the government had NO RIGHT TO GIVE AWAY INDIAN LANDS OR CONTROL RELIGIOUS MATTERS.
How did Rhode Island get its start?
ROGER WILLIAMS ESCAPED the Puritans, HID with the Narragansett Indians, got a CHARTER to found Rhode Island Colony in 1636.
What was THE BLOODY TENENT OF PERSECUTION?
A BOOK by Roger Williams in which he said, "FORCED WORSHIP STINKS IN GOD'S NOSTRILS."
Who was Anne Hutchinson?
A colonist who angered the Puritans by claiming people could FIND INNER TRUTH & DIVINE GUIDANCE WITHOUT MINISTERS. She was tried for TREASON and banished. She went to Rhode Island.
Who was Samuel Gorton?
Another DISSENTER, BANISHED from MA Bay Colony w/his followers.
Who were the Quakers and why were they persecuted by the Puritans?
Also PURITANS from ENGLAND who said people could have a DIRECT RELATIONSHIP WITH GOD. No ministers or Bibles needed.
What forced Mass. Bay Colony to tolerate disserters finally?
By ORDER OF KING CHARLES. Forced a NEW CHARTER on the colony and APPOINTED the GOVERNOR. ALL PROPERTY OWNERS COULD VOTE.
How did the colonists' relationship with the Indians change over time?
In the beginning, colonists DEPENDED ON INDIANS for survival - learned farming, traded for furs. As colonists got MORE SELF-SUFFICIENT, they PRESSURED INDIANS TO GIVE UP THEIR LAND.
How did the Indians' and the English view ownership of land?
English - INDIVIDUALS or GROUPS COULD OWN LAND; Indians - NOBODY OWNED LAND; everyone had UNLIMITED ACCESS to this natural resource.
What was the Pequot War?
Ten years of war between COLONISTS & PEQUOT INDIANS in CONNECTICUT VALLEY. Pequots ("destroyers") successfully resisted Puritan attempts to invade their land (actually it was the Narragansett Indians' land!) but MOST PEQUOTS were MASSACRED.
What was King Philip's War?
WAMPANOAG'S AGAINST PURITANS. KING PHILIP = METACOM'S English name. Deadly: 1/6 of all males killed; half of all towns wiped out
How did the English colonists finally defeat the New England Indians?
BURNED the Indians' CORN FIELDS, STARVED them into submission.
What happened to the Indians after the war?
METACOM'S HEAD on a stake in Plymouth; 500 Indians SOLD into slavery; rest forced onto RESERVATIONS or became LABORERS.
How was Maryland started?
Established in 1634 by LORD BALTIMORE as a REFUGE FOR CATHOLICS. Needed more settlers so PROMISED RELIGIOUS TOLERANCE to PROTESTANTS.
How was New Netherland started?
DUTCH WEST INDIA CO. in 1626 along HUDSON VALLEY, NY to DELAWARE RIVER.
How did the Dutch West India Co. turn New Netherlands into "a proper colony"?
Encouraged many different types of settlers to come: PATROONS;also welcomed AFRICAN INDENTRED SERVANTS & PURITANS.
What was a patroon?
A person who BROUGHT 50 SETTLERS with him in exchange for large Land GRANT. Like FEUDAL ESTATES: PATROONS had SPECIAL PRIVILEGES and POWER over other settlers.
Who was Peter Stuyvesant?
"Peg leg Peter", GOVERNOR of New Netherlands; INTOLERANT of NON-CHRISTIANS; SEIZED NEW SWEDEN to expand his territory.
What was the Civil War in England about?
PURITAN REBELLION against King Charles. PURITANS beheaded Charles I and DECLARED ENGLAND a COMMONWEALTH in 1649; ruled until KING CHARLES II RESTORED IN 1660.
Who was Sir Oliver Cromwell?
RULED ENGLAND during Puritan control.
How did the Civil War end?
KING CHARLES II OUTLAWED RELIGIOUS PERSECUTION in 1661.
How did New Netherlands become New York?
King Charles II wanted his brother, DUKE OF YORK, to DRIVE OUT the DUTCH.
How were New Jersey and Pennsylvania started?
Duke of York GAVE FRIENDS, SIR gEORGE cARTERET & lORD JOHN BERKELEY each PROVINCE.
What were Restoration Colonies?
The NAME FOR COLONIES established by King Charles II as gifts to individual owners who HELPED HIM DURING THE CIVIL WAR: Maryland, Carolinas, Georgia.
How was Pennsylvania started?
GIFT from King to WILLIAM PENN in REPAYMENT OF DEBT to Penn's father. Penn founded Pennsylvania in 1682 as REFUGE FOR QUAKERS. OPEN-DOOR POLICY to all made PA richest colony.
How was Delaware started?
WILLIAM PENN, gift from DUKE OF YORK.
How did the Carolinas get divided into North and South Carolina?
KING TOOK OVER land from the PROPRIETORS and divided it.
How was Georgia founded?
JAMES OGLETHORPE, opportunity to establish MODEL SOCIETY with STRICT RULES (lasted 8 years before people complained and started using slaves to grow rice and indigo - colony grew rapidly after that).