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59 Cards in this Set

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John Cabot (Giovanni Caboto)
ITALIAN EXPLORER hired by the English to find a PASSAGE TO INDIA. (Reached Newfoundland, Canada) Later hired by Italy to make the same trip.
What was the importance of Cabot's voyage?
The INFORMATION he brought back about the PLENTIFUL FISHING on the Grand Banks.
Giovanni da Verrazono
ITALIAN EXPLORER who sailed FOR FRANCE to look for a NORTHWEST PASSAGE. Ended up in NEW YORK BAY.
Jacques Cartier
SAILED FOR FRANCE seeking NW passages. GULF OF ST. Lawrence 7 St. Lawrence River. Stopped at MONTREAL.
What was the importance of his trip.
CLAIMED much of the LAND along the St. Lawrence River in the name of FRANCE.
Samuel de Champlain
FRENCH, explored ATLANTIC COAST St.Lawrence River to Massachusetts. Established QUEBEC, FIRST PERMANENT SETTLEMENT IN N. AMERICA.
How does history regard Champlain's activities regarded as?
The BEGINNING of the FRENCH COLONIZATION in N. America.
Who was Henry Hudson?
English man hired by Dutch merchants to find a route to China in his ship the Half Moon.
Where did he explore on his voyage for the Dutch?
The Hudson River in New York.
What is the significance of Henry Hudson's voyage for the Dutch?
His explorations enabled the Dutch settlers to colonize the area later.
Where did he explore on his voyage for the English?
From the Northeast Coast of Canada to the Hudson Bay.
What was Henry Hudson's fate?
He was forced to spend the winter on frozen shores. By spring the food was gone and his angry men set he and his son adrift. Only a few of the sailors made it home.
What was the importance of Hudson's voyages overall?
They finally turned Europe's attention away from finding a passage to Asia and toward the value of the Americas for their own merits.
What was the Reformation about?
It was about people PROTESTING ("Protestants") the financial EXPLOITATION of the people BY PRIESTS. These Protestants wanted to REFORM the church.
What is the meaning of "selling indulgences'?
It was when Catholics had to PAY CASH to be rid of their SINS instead of CONFESSING AND REPENTING their sins (for free).
Who was Martin Luther?
A CATHOLIC PRIEST in GERMANY who nailed the NINETY-FIVE THESES on his Cathedral doors.
What were the Ninety-five Theses?
95 GRIEVANCES against the CATHOLIC CHURCH: Church was RICH & CORRUPT; TOO POWERFUL, asking Catholics for TOO MUCH MONEY.
What role did the printing press play in the Reformation?
It helped CREATE widespread DISSATISFACTION with the Church. It allowed Catholics to OWN THEIR OWN BIBLES which let them see how Christianity should be practiced.
What was the bitter division between Protestants and Catholics?
Catholics ACCEPTED the POPE'S AUTHORITY and Protestants DID NOT.
What was Spain's role in the religious wars that swept through Europe as a result of the Reformation?
Spain USED THE MONEY IT GAINED IN THE AMERICAS to pay for ATTACKS ON PROTESTANTS.
Who were the Huguenots?
FRENCH PROTESTANTS
Why did the French King allow the Huguenots to set up an America colony?
To give them a SAFE PLACE to practice their religion but also to GET THEM OUT of France.
What specific changes did Martin Luther call for in his 95 Theses?
1. SALVATION a GIFT FROM GOD (not earned by good works or serving Church). 2. Emphasized INDIVIDUAL BIBLE STUDY. 3. Right of PRIESTS to MARRY.
What was the Roman Catholic's response to Luther?
The Church EXCOMMUNICATED him.
Why did German princes support Luther? What was the effect of their support?
They wanted MORE INDEPENDENCE FROM ROME. Their support MADE THE CONTROVERSY POLITICAL and started MORE RELIGIOUS WARS.
Who was John Calvin?
A French HUGUENOT (Protestant) who fled to SWITZERLAND and set up a "MODEL CHRISTIAN COMMUNITY".
What was Calvin's doctrine of PREDESTINATION?
He said God had CHOSEN A SMALL GROUP of people IN ADVANCE for SALVATION and the REST OF THE PEOPLE WERE DAMNED even if they lived good lives.
What were the main values of Calvin's community?
THRIFT, HARD WORK, SERIOUSNESS, PERSONAL RESPONSIBILITY. (not the fun-lovers, exactly, but great values if you wanted to be financially successful1)
What was the St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre?
HUGUENOTS tried to SEIZE POWER France but 6000 were KILLED(and more in the countryside).
Why did King Henry IV convert from Protestantism to Catholicism when he took the throne?
The French CATHOLICS WOULDN'T LET HIM RULE.
What was the Edit of Nantes?
King Henry IV created this law to GUARANTEE FREEDOM OF WORSHIP. It didn't mean much since he'd already converted.
Who was the French Admiral Gaspard de Coligny?
The guy who convinced the French government to SET UP HUGUENOT COLONGY in the Americas (Fort Caroline)
Why did the Fort Caroline colony fail?
Gaspard de COLIGNY went back to France for supplies but COULDN'T GET BACK WITH SUPPLIES. The COLONISTS WERE STARVING so they ATE EACH OTHER(cannabalism)until a British ship rescued them.
What happened to the second Fort Caroline colony?
A SPAIN sent AVILES to CRUSH THEM. Aviles then established ST. AUGUSTINE in its place (longest occupied city in America).
How did England become Protestant?
KING HENRY VIII wanted a DIVORCE because his wife couldn't give him a son. The CATHOLIC CHURCH FORBID divorce so Henry LEFT THE CHURCH and DECLARED ENGLAND PROTESTANT.
What was the Church of England?
KING HENRY set up a PROTESTANT CHURCH when he left the Catholic Church and DECLARED HIMSELF HEAD OF IT.
Who was Mary Tutor?
KING HENRY'S DAUGHTER from his failed marriage (the one he couldn't get annulled).
What did Mary Tutor try to do to the Church of England?
She tried to REVERSE PROTESTANTISM and make England CATHOLIC again. She began BURNING PROTESTANTS AT THE STAKE.
How did England become permanently Protestant?
When Mary died, her half-sister, QUEEN ELIZABETH (Henry VIII's daughter by another marriage) vowed to keep England Protestant.
Who was "the virgin Queen"?
QUEEN ELIZABETH, daughter of King Henry VIII. She NEVER MARRIED.
What was the conflict between England and Spain all about?
CATHOLICISM vs. PROTESTANTISM, CONTROL of the NEW WORLD.
What was the source of England's strength during the conflict?
England's - FASTER and more seaworthy SHIPS; smaller but powerful canons. Spain - huge, slow ships to carry huge canons.
Who was Francis Drake?
An English "PRIVATEER" (basically a pirate) who RAIDED SPANISH SHIPS at sea.
Why did the Spanish nickname Drake "the dragon"?
They FEARED him more than anyone - the King offered a reward for anyone who killed Drake.
How did Francis Drake become Sir FRancis Drake
1.He sailed through the strait of Magellan to ATTACK THE SPANISH in the Pacific Ocean. 2.He stole their GOLD and brought half of it to Queen Elizabeth. 3. He was the FIRST ENGLISHMAN to CIRCLE THE GLOBE.
Why did King Phillip of Spain create the Spanish Armada (a giant fleet of warships)?
He was so frustrated at the English raids at sea and at the English going in to Spanish territories, he planned to conquer England and restore Christianty.
What was the fate of the Spanish Armada?
Half of them were either burned by the English Navy or sunk in a huge storm.
Why did the storm that sunk the Spanish Armada called the "Protestant Wind"?
Queen Elizabeth thought the storm was "divine intervention"
What was the result of England's battle with the Spanish Armada?
1.Spain's monopoly in the New World was broken;
2.England remained Protestant.
Who was John Hawkins?
An Englishman who started slave trading with Spain's Caribbean territories.
Why did England's slave trade made Spain so angry?
It violated Spain's prohibition against other countries trading with its colonies (remember "mercantilism" where the mother country conrolled all the colonies' trading).
What was the first English colony?
Ireland - it was Catholic and the English were afraid Spain would use it as a base to attack England from.
What was the first English colony in the Americas?
Roanoke Colony off the coast of North Carolina, founded by SIR WALTER RALEIGH.
How did Humphry Gilbert convince Queen Elizabeth to start an English colony in the Americas?
It would be 1. a place for all the homeless people who'd been driven off their lands. 2. create a military base overseas, 3. raw materials for England and a market for English products; 4. spread Protestantism in America.
What was the fate of the first Roanoke colony?
The croatoan Indians stopped helping the colonists because of their bad treatment. The colonists soon were starving and begging to go home.
Who started the second Roanoke Colony? How was it different from the first?
JOHN WHITE. The colonists brought their FAMILIES, invested their OWN MONEY, got 500 acres of LAND.
What was the fate of the second Roanoke Colony?
It's a MYSTERY. John White got stuck in England trying to bring back supplies for Roanaoke. When he finally got back nobody was there.
What were some of the rumors about the lost colony of Roanoke?
They went to live with the Indians, they were slaughtered by the Indians, they were killed by Spanish pirates.
What lessons did Roanoke teach the English about colonies in the New World?
1. You need a DEEP, PROTECTED HARBOR for boats; 2. you need to put enough PEOPLE, MONEY AND RESOURCES into it to get the colony started.