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35 Cards in this Set

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Who was George Grenville?
-British finance minister
-allowed customs officers to obtain general writs of assistance
-Started the Sugar Act
What was the Sugar Act?
-lowered all taxes on molasses imported by colonists [hoped to encourage colonists from smuggling]
-increase Britain's revenues
-Established special courts to hear smuggling cases
Why was Britain so into taxing the colonists?
-French and Indian War left them in a huge public debt
How did the Sugar Act affect the colonists?
-Alarmed the colonists
-Never before had their taxes been used to raise money for British treasury
-Took the rights away
Who was James Otis?
-Young lawyer in Boston
-"Taxation without representation is tyranny."
What was the Stamp Act?
-Placed tax on almost all printed materials
-All printed materials would have to have a stamp
Why did the colonists oppose the Stamp Act?
-Parliament had interfered in colonial affairs by taxing the colonies directly
-Parliament ignored the colonial tradition of self=government
Who was Patrick Henry?
-Member of Virginia House of Burgesses
-Persuaded burgesses to take action against Stamp Act
Who was Samuel Adams?
-Started organization called Sons of Liberty
How did the colonists protest against the Stamp Act?
-Burned effigies
-Ransacked and destroyed houses belonging to royal officials
-Urged merchants to boycott British and European goods
-Merchants, artisans, and farmers signed nonimportation agreements
What affected the Parliament appealing the Stamp Act?
-Merchants in Britain lost so much business so they begged the Parliament to repeal Stamp Act
What was the Stamp Act Congress?
-They drafted a petition to the king and PArliament that colonies could not be taxed except by their own assemblies
-Consisted delegates from nine colonies
What were the Townshend Acts?
-Taxed imported goods [included basic items]
-Courts were set up to try cases under Townshend Acts
Who were the Daughters of Liberty?
-Women who took an active role in the protest against Townshend Acts
What was the Boston Massacre?
-Fight that broke between redcoats and colonists
-Redcoats killed five colonists
Who was Crispus Attucks?
-African American dockworker who some said was the leader of crowd
What did the Boston Massacre lead to?
-Many colonists called for stronger boycotts on British goods --> Parliament only taxed tea
What was the Tea Act?
-Gave British East India Company the right to ship tea to the colonies without paying most of the taxes usally placed on tea
-Gave the company a favorable advantage over colonial merchants
What was the Boston Tea Party?
-When the ships with tea docked in Boston Harbor, a group of men in Boston boarded the ships and threw 342 chests of tea overboard
What were the Coercive Acts?
-A.k.a. Intolerable Acts
-Punished Boston
-Closed Boston Harbor until Massachusetts colonists paid for ruined tea [prevented arrival of food and other supplies that came by ship]
-Took away many rights of Masachussetts colonists
-Forced Bostanians to shelter shodiers in their homes
What was the Continental Congress?
-56 delegates from all colonies except Georgia
-Political body to represent American interests
Who attended the Continental Congress?
-Samuel Adams
-John Adams
-John Jay
-Richard Henry Lee
-Patrick Henry
-George Washington
Why did Britain expect that the Townshend Acts would be more sucessful than the Stamp Act?
-Townshend Acts were indirect taxes [British thought that colonists wouldnt notice the indirect tax]
What was the Declaratory Act?
-Stated that Parliament had the right to tax and make decisions for colonies in all cases "whatsoever"
What did the Continental Congress decide?
-Drafted a statement of greivances calling for repealment of the 13 acts of Parliament
-Boycott all British goods and trade
-Form militias
Who was Ethan Allen?
-Part of Green Mountain Boys
-Captured Fort Ticonderoga
What was the Battle of Bunker Hill?
-1200 militiamen set up fortifications at Bunker Hill and near Breed's Hill
-British decide to drive Americans away
-Tons of people died
What was the Olive Branch Petition?
-Offered Britain one last time to avoid the war
-Assured the king of the colonists' desire for peace, asked the king to protect the colonists' rights
What was the Declaration of Independence?
A document that declared the 13 colonies free and independent from Britain
What was the purpose of the Declaration of Independence?
-To explain the purpose of was against Britain
-To explain why separation was the only fitting solution to long-standing disputes with Parliament and British Crown
What were the parts of the Declaration of Independence?
-Four parts
-Preamble
-Middle two sections declaring rights of colonies and complaints against Britain
-Final section
What did the preamble of the Declaration of Independence state?
People who wish to form a new country should explain their reasons for doing so
What did the middle two sections of the Declaration of Independence state?
-Rights of colonies
-Complaints against Britain
What did the final section of the Declaration of Independence state?
-Proclaims the existence of new nation
List some of the important ideas of the Declaration of Independence
-When one group of people is going to break away from a country to form its own nation, they should explain why they're doing it
-Everyone is equal and has some basic rights that shouldn't be taken away
-Governments are formed to make sure people's rights are protected. A government's power should come from people.
-When a government is treating its people unfairly, then the people have the right to change the government.
-Great Britain has interfered with colonists' rights. --> list of complaints
-Everytime colonists felt like they were being mistreated, they wrote to the king asking for corrections, but recieved more unfair treatment.
-States that America is an independent country with the full power to form alliances, engage in war and trade.