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45 Cards in this Set

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reasons england paid little attention to the colonies until mid 1700s
english people had enough problems at home moving from monarchy to representative government. England fought 4 wars against the French on battlefeilds that stretched across the world- from Europe to India- to Egypt- to the West Indies- to Canada
England made peace w/ France thus turning its attention to prospering colonies
where were most colonial settlements located prior to 1775
America
reasons plantation owners used slaves
abundance of land but shortage of labor
since planters could not fill their labor needs with Europeans they turned to slaves from africa and west indies
contributed to colonies sense of independence
englands war kept government busy
vast ocean father of self government
communication was too slow for the effective government of large areas
each colony had become accostomed to governing itself
provision of treaty of paris 1763
officially ended the french and indian war. britis gained control over the area west of the 13 colonies to the mississippi river. french agreed to no longer support any colonies in north america. spanish had to give up their claim to florida. area of north america to north and east of mississippi was under british. spanish still held west of mississippi and central/south america
goal of navigation acts
regulated trade with other colonies
reason massachussetts bay colony was rebellious toward england
did not have a good view of england
didnt like the navigation act which regualted their tade with other countries causing a loss of profit
revolution
a sudden violent change especially the overthrow of a government
war between american colonies and great britain leading to the United States
declatory act
stated that parliament still had power to make laws for the americans- stopped self govt
place revolutionary war began
in 1775 at lexington massachussetts nearby concord
stamp act: colonial response to
organized town meetings to protest
decided not to buy british goods
formed a secret societ- sons of liberty- to terrorize agents of the british who were trying to sell the tax stamps
similarity between quebec act and proclamation line
one more attck on colonist freedom
extended the province of quebec southward to the ohio river and cut off cllaims of massachussetts, connecticut, virginia, and new york to their western lands
mercanaries
people who were paid to fight for a country other than their own, best trained and most reliable soldiers
loyalists
colonists who remained loyal to england during the american revolution
came from every occupation and every degree of wealth
many kept quiet few went to the west and estblished new life in wilderness, 60,000 became soldiers who fought for british
shunned by neighbors- tarred, feathered, treated as traitors
left america, settled in canada
proclamation line of 1763
where located
appalachain mountains whch ran parallel to the atlantic coast line was used as a temporary barrier to keep the colonists separated from the indians in the west
prevents colonists from settling on the western side of the mountains and the indians settling eastward
samuel adams
signer of the declaration of independence who was also a former governor of massachussetes, constant opponent of british oppression, instigateor in many protests
described as a revolutionary and a patriot, believed in the higher cause of independence he didnt let laws that he thought were unjust stand in his way.
july 4th
sighning of the declaration of independence
declaration of independence
declaring the 13 american colonies independent from great britain. Written by thomas jefferson and declared by the continental congress on july 4, 1776.
Many prominent american signed it like john hancock, john adams, sam adams
great briatins response was to continue war
american movement toward independence
calling themselves the united states of america these people wrote a declaration of independence, defied the authority of their mother country, and ended up winning the war to protect that independednce
revolution ended with the revolutionary war but it began long before that
thomas paine
a radical philospher who strongly supported republicanism and wrote Common Sense convinced thousands to rebel against king george III.
supported trepublicanism and condenmed monarchy
declared an outlaw in england
turning point of american revolution
american victory at saratoga
the french who were already secretly helping americans proclaimed themselves as allies
examples of internal and external tax
internal- stamp tax
externa;- import duties
significance of the battle of bunker hill
defeat was amoral victory
showed that raw colonial troops could face regulars without flinching
british lost more than double men
alternate name for french and indian war
seven years war
william pitt
british statesman who provided crucial leadership during the french and indian war
britain would have lost the war to the french without his leadership
fort lousburg
french island citadel seized in june july 1758french defense was sturdy but british luck fired a lucky shot and hit a gunpowder store and ignited most of the french ships.
battle turned into a seige and french finally surrendered. cut off fresnch reinforcements and allowes british to sail down st. lawrence river to quebec
guerilla warfare
fights by stealth and within small bands that make surprise raids against stronger forces
coercive acts
intolerable acts
closed boston ports
power that was used to appoint the governeor's council was given to the king
declared that govt officials and soldiers accused of crimes punishable by detha could be tried in england or nova scotia
take over taverns and live free of charge in private homes
quebec act
thomas jefferson
virginian planter who eventually becaem president of the us. He wrote the declaration of independence, and 1st secratary of state under george washington
vice to john adams
crispus attucks
1st american to die in the fight for the colonists independence from boston massacre
a black man of giant stature who was the leader of the throng against the british troops.
paul revere
famous silversmith that rode through the country side to warn the americans that the british were coming.
captured by redcoats but his companion got the message through
george washington
virginia planter and militia officer, commander and cheif of the american forces in the revolutionary war.
general cornwallis
british general who won more battles than he lost, surrendered at yorktown
triangular trade system
between europe, west africa, and the caribbean
europe traded rum to west africa for slaves and then europe traded the slaves to the caribbean for sugar to make more rum.
townshend act: provisions
charles twonshend put taxes on american items like glass, paper, lead, paint, and tea
wanted the governor of new york to veto every act of the provinial assembly until new york provided full amount of supplies to the british troops that were there
provisions of the treaty of paris 1783
ended the revolutionary war on september 3, 1783
signed by ben franklin, john adams, john jay.
recognized the united states of america
britain removed all troops.
set new borders for the united states
included all land from the great lakes on the north to florida on the south and from the atlantic ocean to the mississippi river.
not to persecute the loyalists, paid for debts to great britain
sons of liberty
a secret society formed by some of the richest and respectable americans to terrorize the agents of the british selling tax stamps
valley forge
where george washington and his troops settled terrible winter
the army was kept together by baron von steuben drilled the army into a better fighting force
symbolized heroism of the american revolutionaries
trenton and princeton
sneaky attack on christmas night 1776 crossing the delaware, surprised a drunken hessian force, marched on to prince ton and won there too,
encouraged soldiers to re enlist, morale shot up, war would go in
reasons for the british issuing tax stamps
way to pay for war debts
extract american money
organize and regulate trade and improve business in england
albany plan designed to do what
a meeting of representatives from 7 of the north american colonies
connecticut, maryland, massachussets, new hampshire, new york, pennsylvania, and rhode island
to discuss better relations with indian tribes and common defense measures from french
american advantages
fighting on home turf
popular war- were patriots who fought for independence
militia units were close
higher morale
primative form of total defense
everywhere- spread out
american disadvantages
undiciplined militia men who never fought before
often ran away and stopped fighting if they feel like it
unreliable
hard to bring together spread all over
incapable of making or sustaining a serious attack
english advantages
large well organized army
few casualties
only professionals fought
battles have little effect on the kings
strong nation/army/navy
english disadvantages
weapons were crude
small armies
patriotism had little to do with their battles
far from home