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42 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Richard Milhouse Nixon
*remembered for Watergate scandal
*biggest strength - detente with communist countries--visited both China and the USSR
*New Federalism
*revenue sharing
*Henry Kissinger, trusted aide
*Resigned from Office
*He overed up the WG break-in
* Nixon tapes
* Nixon felt former Prez Johnson spent too much gov't $ on social programs.

* Nixon felt the federal gov't should cut back it's spending and allow individual states and local governments to do so.
Revenue Sharing
This was Nixon's way to give the state's more power over their spending. This allowed the fed gov't to give $$ to states without telling the state EXACTLY how it should be spent. This empowered individual states
Family Assistance Plan (FAP)
Nixon wanted to reduce the number of people on welfare (and to reduce the $ the fed gov't spent on welfare) so he created FAP

For an unemployed family of 4, the Fed gov would give $1,600. If the adult/s would go to get job training, they would get $4,000 more.

This Bill did NOT pass in the Senate.
Nixon vs. the liberals
Nixon didn't like the wild Vietnam protestors and/or the counterculture movement.
He went so far as to illegally wire-tap Democrats he viewed as extremely liberal.
1968 Election -- Nixon barely won (by less than 1%)

In order to win the 1972 re-election, Nixon to win the support of conservative Democrats.

He did so by implementing his "Southern Strategy" which was a way to win S. democrats' votes. He began to slow down racial integration and promised to put a Southerner in the next Supreme Court opening. While Johnson made huge strides for the Civil Rights Movement, Nixon allowed them to slide backwards.
Forced Busing
This was a movement in the 1970's to make schools more racially balanced. Black students were bused into white schools. Wildly unpopular. Nixon was against this plan.
Nixon's influence on the Supreme Court
In Nixon's first term, 4 out of 9 S.C. justices retired. Nixon was able to replace them with far more conservative judges. He had a huge impace on the Supreme Court by making it far more conservative.
1967 - 1973
high inflation
high unemployment
During Nixon's tenure, the economy took a nose-dive.
OPED = Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries
an organization of Arab nations who control the exporting of oil/gas.

These countries did not like it when the US supported Israel in the Yom Kippur War so OPEC in 1973 cut the U.S. off completely. This lead to a massive gas shortage and prices leapt through the ceiling. In 1974 OPEC began to sell to us again, but the price per barrel quadrupled (up 4x )
Nixon and Foreign Policy
* Nixon's claim to fame was his foreign policy. He eased Cold War tensions considerably by recognizing China. He opened relationships with communist countries -- he was the first president to visit China, and then later, the USSR. See "realpolitik"
realpolitik = "political realism"
Nixon and Henry Kissinger created this and it meant that the U.S. should deal with the most powerful foreign countries. In other words, we didn't need to examine the human rights issues within each country, just its political power. This lead to easing tension with communist countries.
The easing of cold war tensions through improved relationships with communist countries.
SALT I Treaty
A big deal

Nixon met with USSR leader Brezhnev and both countries signed this treaty that lead to both limiting weapons. Again, decreasing the bad feelings and lessening the cold war.
When Congress votes to remove a president from office. Nixon was about to be impeached, but he resigned first.
Watergate Scandal
Top Leaders within Nixon's administration planned to stage a robbery of the DNC's (Democratic National Committee)headquarters.

They were after information that would help Nixon win in the upcoming 1972 presidential election.

Five men dressed as plumbers were caught by a Watergate guard as they attempted to break in to the DNC office.

Their plan was to photograph important documents and to "bug" the office (so they could listen to all the democrats' conversations and strategies).
James McCord
A Republican former CIA agent who was the mastermind behind the plan to break into DNC headquarters.
John Mitchell
Mitchell had been Nixon's Attorney General during his first term, but resigned from that post to run Nixon's '72 re-election campaign.

McCord and Mitchell were the lead men behind the break in attempt.
H.R. Halderman
White House Chief of Staff, meaning Nixon's right-hand man. It was clear just 3 days after the robbery in Halderman's diary that Nixon was already involved in the cover-up.
John Ehrlichman
one of Nixon's most trusted aides, Chief Domestic Advisor
How did Nixon and aides try to cover up the scandal?
by shredding documents, trying not to release the White House tapes (and then deleting key parts when they were released),they tried to get the CIA to pressure the FBI not to investigate the burglary, and they paid off the actual men who were involved in the robbery $450,000.
How did the U.S. public find out about Watergate?
Two journalists who worked for the Washington Post just would NOT give up on this story. They smelled something criminal when they heard somone tried to break into DNC headquarters.

Bob Woodward and Carl Bernstein

"Deep Throat" was a White House insider who gave the reporters the inside scoop.
The Trial of the Five Burglars begins.
Judge John Sirica knew these men had not acted alone.

Days before sentencing, James McCord (the ex CIA agent behind Watergate) wrote the judge a letter and told him that he had lied under oath and that powerful members of Nixon's Administration were involved in the break in.
Who resigns?
and new Attorney General Kleindienst
The Senate investigation
The Senate began its own investigation into Watergate chaired by Senator Sam Ervin.

The hearings were public and the country was glued to the TV watching "all the president's men" testify.
Don't need to flip this one.

John Dean really got things moving when he admitted that Nixon knew about the cover up, and Dean told the Senate about his role and the role of others in the administration to try to activily cover up the botched burglary.
The Saturday Night Massacre
This was over releasing the White House tapes:

Archibald Cox was the special prosecutor trying to get the WH tapes.

Nixon ordered his new Attorney General, Richardson, to fire Cox. Richardson refused and was fired.

The solicitor general Bork fired Cox. The public was outraged.

Cox was replaced by Jaworski who was just a determined as Cox to get the tapes.

This massacre began Congress to talk about impeaching Nixon.
Vice President Spiro Agnew
Nixon's VP was caught accepting bribes and was forced to resign.

You can imagine how the publi was feeling about elected officials.
What was on the tapes?
large chunks of conversation were erased from the tapes, making Nixon look even worse.
How did/has Watergate affected America?
Watergate left Americans feeling very doubtful about the honesty of politicians.

It also rewarded the press for serving as a watchdog over government abuse, so that continues today.

Twenty-five (25!) members of Nixon's administration served prison time.

The disaster in Vietnam followed by Watergate left Americans feeling very betrayed and defeated by their own government.
Committe to Re-elect the President

James McCord and John Mitchell prominent men in CRP and were involved in Watergate.
President Gerald Ford
After Spiro Agnew resigned in shame, Gerald Ford was appointed as Nixon's new VP. Very soon after, Nixon resigned and he became president.

He is often called "the accidental president".
Executive Pardon
Pardon me?

One month after stepping into the Oval office, President Ford issues an executive pardon of Richard Nixon.

Americans were FURIOUS! They wanted Nixon to go before a court for his crimes. Ford felt that a long a public trial would further de-moralize America. He felt the nation needed to let go of Watergate and move on. He felt it would be a waste of gov't time and $ to pursue the trial. At the time, he was demonized for his decision, but history has proven that he made a brilliant decision.
Ford's Presidency
Under Ford, inflation continued to be a huge and growing issue.

Like Nixon before him, he continued the foreign policy of dealing with communist countries.

At the end of his term, Ford was easily defeated by Jimmy Carter. Ford was forever linked to Nixon in peoples' minds so they wanted a change.
President Jimmy Carter
Former governer of Geogia.

He defeated Gerald Ford in the 1976 election.

He had been a peanut farmer.

Was known for his integrity and dignity. He was soft spoken and he promised the American people that he would never lie to them.

The Carter family was viewed as being extremely down to earth.
Carter takes on inflation
Carter felt that our dependency on foreign oil dictated our economy. He urged Americans to reduce their consumption.
National Energy Act
President Carter policy.
placed a heavy tax on gas guzzling cars, gave tax credits for alternative sources of energy (like wind or solar).
Carter and the economy
Despite his efforts to reduce reliance on foreign oil, the economy only worsened under Carter. In 1980, inflation climbed to an all time high of 14%.
Carter and Foreign Policy
Unlike Nixon's realpolitik, Carter felt that a country's policy for Human Rights had to figure into our relationship with them. In other words, Carter did not want to deal fairly with countries that abused their own citizens. This is the opposite of Nixon's plan to only consider a country's power. Carter dismantled Nixon's detente.
Camp David Accords
The BEST event of Carter's presidency. He met with Israel and Egypt's leaders and, for the first time, got an Arab nation (Egypt) to formally recognize Israel's right to exist as a free country. This was a major deal considering all the violence in the middle east.
Crisis in Iran
The US had a good relationship with the Shaw of Iran.

The Shaw, however, was overthrown by muslims within his own country who did not like the Shaw's western ways. The new government was led by the Muslim leader Ayatollah Khomeini.
The Iranian Hostage Crisis
Jimmy Carter allowed the former Shah of Iran to enter the United States in 1979 to undergo treatment for cancer.

The Ayatollah was enraged as he wanted the U.S. to return the Shah.

Radical muslims seized 55 U.S. citizens who worked in the embassy and held them hostage for 444 days -- the Iranian govenment said they would release the hostages after the U.S. released the Shah. Carter wouldn't negotiate with terrorist threats so he did not release him.