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83 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What were the 3 types of agriculture after Reconstruction?
cotton, corn, livestock
what is the difference between farms and plantations
the majority of Texans owned farms and had either few slaves or none at all
Where were the plantations located in Texas?
along the coast or in central/east Texas
Who was David G. Mills?
He owned 300+ slaves
What 4 main types of jobs were available in towns?
physicians (doctors)
What was the largest and most diverse town?
San Antonio
Did older towns or newer towns grow more?
New towns
What other 5 big towns were there besides San Antonio?
Galveston, Houston, Austin, Jefferson, Dallas
What were the 4 main industries after Reconstruction?
grist mills
cotton gins
What does a sawmill do?
cut lumber
What does a grist mill do?
grind grain
What does a cotton gin do?
prepares cotton so it can be made into thread and clothing
what does a tannery do?
turns animal skins into leather
Who was Gail Bordon Jr.?
he owned a meat and biscuit factory and made a process for making condensed milk.
What were the roads like after Reconstruction?
muddy and unpaved
Who owned stage coaches?
Rich people - they were expensive
What were the problems with steamboats?
the rivers in Texas were shallow and narrow
Where did the Buffalo Bayou travel?
from Houston to Galveston
Where did the Harrisburg Railroad travel?
Houston to Richmond on the Brazos
What 2 things did the state of Texas give to the railroad companies?
land and money
What were the 3 types of transportation after reconstruction?
roads (stagecoach)
What were the 2 main types of communication after reconstruction?
telegraphs and newspapers
Where was the first line for TX Telegraph Co?
Houston to Galveston
Where did the TX and Red R. Telegraph Co. open and what cities did it run it?
opened in Marshall
to cities in Texas and Louisiana
What were the 2 most influential newspapers?
Telegraph and Texas Register
How much money was set aside for education?
2 million dollars
How was the money for education distributed?
according to the number of children in each county
What 3 colleges had religous affiliations?
Rutersville College (Methodist)
Baylor University (Baptist)
Austin College (Presbyterian)
After the Civil War, what 3 main problems did soldiers have on the frontier?
they were too far apart
lack of supplies
guns were old
what were the 3 main problems with warrior indians?
they knew the land
skilled riders
bows and arrows were fast
What were the 4 parts of the Treaty of Medicine Lodge Creek?
1 N.A. must live on reservations in Oklahoma
2 an agent would give N.A. food and supplies
3 the army was not allowed on the reservation
4 N.A. would stop attacking Anglo settlers
Who was Lawrie Tatum?
a Quaker who wanted fair treatment and education for N.A. (maybe?)
Who were the 3 Native Americans who would not sign the Medicine Lodge Treaty?
1 Satanta - Kiouki chief, orator of the Plains - he needs buffalo to survive
2 Quemah Parker - Comanche chief (half Anglo)
3 Victorio - Apache chief in South TX
What did the N.A. chiefs do that did not want war?
accept the Anglo ways and reservations
Why did the peace policy fail?
General Sherman declared it unsuccessful because of the trial of Satana and Big Tree

General Sherman advises expeditions to destroy N.A. and to force them onto reservations
What would happen if Satana and Big Tree were killed after their trial?
It would set off a war in the plains
Who was the 4th Calvary led by?
Col. Ronald Mackenzie
What 2 N.A. tribes did the 4th Calvary battle?
Comanches (Quanah Parker) in the Plains and
Apaches along the Rio Grande
Why were the N.A. upset about the Anglos hunting buffalo?
they took only the skins and left the rest to spoil
What 3 Anglos started the buffalo hunting era?
Charles Roth
J. Wright Moore (sp?)
John Moore (sp?)
Why did General Philip Sheridan think that the buffalos should be slaughtered?
It was a way to defeat the Indians.
Who led the Battle of the Adobe Walls in 1874?
Quonah Parker
What happened during the Battle of the Adobe Walls?
Quanah Parker attacked buffalo hunting camps in the pan handle of TX - killed 190 people in 2 months
Who led the Red River Campaign in 1874?
Major John B. Jones - the Texas Rangers - Frontier Battalion
What were 3 Frontier Wars that were fought in 1874?
Battle of Adobe Walls
Red River Campaign
Battle of Palo Duro Canyon
Who led the Red River Campaign in 1874?
Major John B. Jones - the Texas Rangers - Frontier Battalion
Who led the Battle of Palo Duro Canyon?
What 3 campgrounds were attacked during the Battle of Palo Duro Canyon?
and Cheyenne Indians
What did Mackenzie do to the campgrounds during the Battle of Palo Duro Canyon?
captured supplies and slaughtered horses

did not capture N.A. but they could not survive without food and horses
What was the last group of Plains Indians that agreed to move to reservations?
Comanches - Quanah Parker in 1875
What did Quanah Parker do in Washington D.C.?
He worked for N.A. rights and settled disputes on the reservation
What were the 4 problems in the south in the late 1870's?
1. Kickapoos give in but the Apaches won't
2. Victoria was in constant warfare
3. "Buffalo soldiers"
4. Victorio is killed
Who killed Victorio?
Mexican and U.S. soldiers
Who were the "buffalo soldiers" and who were they led by?
African AMerican soldiers who were led by Col Grierson
What was the problem with renegades?
they atttacked settlers
What was the problem with the lack of law?
there were deserters and outlaws
What was the problem with the ownership of land and cattle?
since ownership was not clear so the poor people and the Tejanos had land taken away from them
Who were the Texas Rangers led by?
Captain McNelly
What did the Texas Rangers do?
they worked for peace but they were also mistreated
Who was Juan Cortina?
- he worked for Tejano rights
- he was seen as an outlaw because he stole cattle from ranches
- captured in Mexico
What kind of influence did the Spanish have on cattle ranching in Texas?
cattle vaqueros and the use of horses
What was cattle ranching like prior to the Civil War?
-ranching was in south Texas
-King Ranch - owned by Miflin, Kennedy, and Richard King
What were the 4 problems with cattle ranching like prior to the Civil War?
1 - drought
2 - theft
3 - lack of market
4 - Indians
Where did cattle drives and trails come from?
from the railroads and stockyards
Where did the trails go to?
Missouri, Kansas, Wyoming
What were the 4 cattle trails that were used?
1 - Sedalia
2 - Chisholm
3 - Great Western
4 - Goodnight Loving
Name 6 cattle ranches?
1 - King (cattle, horses, sheep)
2 - JA - John Adair and Charles Goodnight(cross breeding)
3 - Shoe Bar - Thomas Bugbee
4 - Matador - owned by the Scottish
5 - XIT
6 - Randodo Hipolito Garcia
What are 2 other ranches other than cattle?
1 - Mustang
2 - sheep - mostly in south Texas, owned by Tejanos
What was the problem between the cattle ranches and the sheep farms (ranches)?
the sheep ate the grass too short
What happened as a result of the problems between the sheep and cattle ranchers?
it was the end of the open range
What did they do to end the open range?
put barbed wire
Who invented barbed wire?
JF Gilden
What were the 2 big cons (problems) with barbed wire?
1 fenced in land cut off others from trails and water
2 it led to fence cutting wars (eventually outlawed)
What were 3 problems with the end of the open range (problems with fencing)?
- overgrazing
- low prices
- weather
Who were 3 other significant people involved in ranching?
1 - Daniel Webster Wallace - slave to trail boss, to ranch owner
2 - Lizzie Johnson Williams - rancher with extensive of cattle and drove her own cattle herds
3 - Henrietta King - ran King ranch
What were the 2 changes made so that farming could take place in dry areas of Texas?
1 - windmills to get water to areas without water
2 - dry farming - plowing to keep water from evaporating from the top soil
What transportation did they use to transport farm goods?
Why were railroads used to transport farm goods?
It was cheaper and more efficient to get crops to market
What were the 7 main crops in Texas in the late 1890's?
sugar cane
What were the 7 main crops in Texas in the late 1890's?
sugar cane
What were the problems with farming in Texas in the late 1800's?
1 - weather
2 - grasshoppers
3 - farmers unfamiliar with the land - what crops to grow where
What was the tenant system after the Civil War?
1st - plantations were divided into small farms
2nd - small farms sold to new owners
3rd - rented to tenant farmers
4th - owners received cash or crops as rent
What were the 4 main problems with tenant farming?
1 - drought
2 - financial panics
3 - overproduction of crops
4 - high rents by landowners

farmers got in debt but the system continued anyway