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30 Cards in this Set

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Explain the situation leading up to the Crittenden plan?
Lincoln elected in 1860. Secessionist fervor in the Deep South.Fire Eaters held conventions. Within a month Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, and Texas had also left the Union with South Carolina. The delegates at the Confederate States of the America meeting named Jefferson Davis as its provisonal president.Union governmend was floundering, in 1860, President Buchanan declared secession illegal but claimed the federal gov. lacked authority to restore the Union by force. South Carolina interpreted this as an implicit recognition of its independence and demanded the surrender of Fort Sumter.
"Upper South"
Eight states of the Union that did not immediately secede following Lincoln's election in 1860. Following the seizure of Fort Sumter, four of these Upper South states (Virginia, North Carolina, Tennessee, Arkansas) joined the Confederacy; the other four remained in the Union. Less secession fervor here than in deep south
What was the Crittenden plan?
Buchanan urged Congress to find a compromise. The one proposed by Senator Crittenden won the most support. It had two parts:It called for a constitutional amendment that would permanently protect slavery from federal interference in any state where it already existed. Also it called for the westward extension of the Missouri Compromise line to the California border. Slavery would be barred north of the line and protected to the south. Congressional Republicans, following Lincoln's instructions rejected this second part. They feared that extending the MC would encourage the South to embark on new imperialist adventures, and the congressmen wanted to uphold the doctrine of freesoil. In his inaugural address, Lincoln promised to permit slavery where it existed but stood firm for free soil in the territories. He stated that the Union was "perpetual" and that secession was illegal and he intended to enforce federal law throughout the Union to preserve the Union.
What was the Seizure of Fort Sumter?
The fort needed supplies. Lincoln promised that they would not land troops or arms unless the rebels disrupted the delivery of food and medicine. Jefferson Davis welcomed this and to take the fort immediately Davis demanded its surrender. Major Robert Anderson refused to comply and the confederate forces opened fire, the next day Lincoln called troops to put down the insurrection. Northerners responded with enthusiasm. Many Northern Democrats were equally committed to the Union cause.
Why was there a contest for the Upper South?
The eight states of the Upper south had to make an important decision in this war. Arkansas, Tennesee, and North Carolina joined Virginia for the Confederacy. Lincoln moved aggressively toward this and ordered General McClellan to take control of Northwestern Virginia. West Virginia was admitted in the Union in 1863 from this. In MD Unionists gained control of the legislature in 1861. In Missouri was controlled by the Union and under the command of Gneral Ulysses S. Grant they drove out the Confederates from Kentucky.
How were objectives and strategies devised and set.
Jefferson Davis after being inaugurated in 1861 for the Confederate cause focused on the defense of the confederacy so that they only needed a military stalemate to guarantee independence. But, theiy commitment to slavery undermined their support from Europe.Lincoln made his first speech to Congress on Union goals on July 4 1861. He frejected General Winfield Scott's plan to use economic snactions and a naval blockade and instead insisted on an aggressive military strategy and a policy of unconditional surrendur to crush the rebellion.
How and why was there the Union thrust toward Richmond?
Lincoln hoped a successful strike against the Confed. capital of Richmond wouldend the rebellion as he dispatched General McDowell and an army of 30,000 men to attack P.G.T. Beauregard's twoops. McDowell's troops retreated after the counterattack to Washington. The rout of the Union army at Bull run illustrated that the rebellion would not be easily crushed. Lincoln replaced McDowell with McClellan and transported boats to the Potomac river. Ignoring Lincoln;s orders to strike quickly, McClellan advanced slowly to Richmond The Confederate army threatened Washington and Lincoln ordered his army to protect their capital but Stonewall Jackson, the Confederate army leader, joined with Lee and they launched an attack that lasted for seven days and McClellan failed to exploit their weakness.
Why did Lee move North?
He went on the offensive and joined with Jackson in northern Virginia for the second battle of Bull run in 1962 and then struck north through western Maryland where he met with with disaster. A copy of his orders fell into the hands of McClellan but he didn't use it to his advantage and allowed their army to occupy a strong position behind Antietam Creek. After the many attacks McClellan allowed Lee to retreat to Virginia. Lincoln declared Antietatm a victory but privately he declared that McClellan should have fought to the finish. Lincoln replaced him with Burnside and then with Joseph Hooker.
What was the war like in the West?
Union forces were more successful here.
Total War
Traditionally armies fought each other and left civilians alone, but as the Civil War progressed, Lincoln and Grant realized that to force the Confederacy to surrender, they would have to break the will of the southern people using this style of warfare. Total war required a struggly that mobilized the nation's entire resources against the whole of southern society, not just against the Confederacy's troops.
How and why was the military draft put into place?
2
Habeas Corpus
Constitutional right that protects citizens against arbitrary arrest and detention. During the Civil War, Lincoln suspended Habeas Corpus to stop protests against the draft and other disloyal activities. Lincoln also transferred cases of disloyalty from civilian to military jurisdiction, fearing that local juries would have been lenient toward Confederate sympathizers.
Commutation
Fees allowed by both northern and southern governments to hire substitutes for the draft during the Civil War. In the North, Democrats and their immigrant supporters attacked the law for favoring the rich at their expense. In the South, poor southern yeomen complained that commutation made it "a rich man's war and a poor man's fight"
How were resources mobilized efficiently?
5
Why was there a force of new economic policies? How did they happen?
6
"King Cotton"
8
How did they raise money in the North?
7
Greenbacks
9
Why did the South resort to inflation?
10
What was the impact of black troops?
1
Explain the events that led to, and the actual event of the Emancipation Proclamation.
1
Contrabands
2
How did new generals take command?
2
Explain the election of 1864
3
What were some of the Crucial July battles and why were they crucial?
3
"War Democrat"
4
What were some political and diplomatic effects?
4
Explain the fall of Atlanta and Lincoln's victory.
5
What was Sherman's Total War?
6
How did the Confederate Collapse?
7