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72 Cards in this Set

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Economic growth
increased agricultural production, town growth, creative thought and art
agricultural advances
plows, migration- drained swamps, nobles and freeholders moved, clear forests, build villages, collar harness, 3 way field rotation system
plows
heavier, cut through rich damp soil, produce more crops, cultivate new lands, increased food production
collar harness
replaced ox yoke, horses choked, ox cheap but slow, move weight to shoulders, replaced oxen with horse, faster and more efficient, palnt more crops, plow more land,
trade
rapid expansion, town revival, sea and river routes- connect w/ medd.and east europe and scandanavia, rebuilt and repaired roiman road system, international traders, varied merchandise, trade fairs
venice, Pisa, Genoa
controlled medd. 1200's, silk spices luxury items
Flanders
noth france and south beligum , trade center of norht coast, textiles, traded for silk porcelin and silver
Hanseatic league
towns along baltic coast, control trade b/w east europe and north atlantic
trade fairs
hundreds traders meet convient place, fuedal lords charge merchants fees and taxes on goods and give protection to merchants
champagne
famous trade fair, almost exact center of west europe, 4-6 weeks a year
banking
early merchants barter system- impractical and some merchants only accept money, needed common medium of exchange,
money economy
growth of banking, economy based on money, feudal classes in sqeeze, nobles depend on banks to pay expenses, pay off loans, raise taxes, sell land, demand $, serfs able to buy freedom, decline n feudal system
moneychangers
italians or jews , determined value of various currencies, exchanged money, transferred funds, recived deposits, arranged loans, first bankers,
towns
beside well traveled roads or waterways, faced bandits, walls around towns, wooden fances-> stone with guard towers,narrow winding streets, markets, smelled, shops- owners lived above, limited space within walls, builidings with thatched rooves- fire hazard, no sanitation- diseases,
Bubonic Plague
1348, killed 1/3 population, black death, worst epidemic,
Guilds
business associations, merchants and artisans, member benifits, medical help, unemployment relief, organiszed social and religous life
merchant guild
maitain a monopoly of local market for members, restricted trading by foreignors in thier city, uniform pricing,
craft guilds
regulated work of artisans, carpernter, cobblers, blacksmithsw ect., strict rules- pricing and wages, coulnd't charge more than other guilds or advertise, prohibeted competition, standards of quality,
master
artisans who owned their own shop and employed workers
apprentice
worked for master without pay, learned tricks of trade,
journeyman
paid, only work under master, show masterpiece to other masters, if approved become master himself
Middle Class
towns- burg, Burgesses, Burghers, Burgeoisie, originally anyone in town, people who mande money through money economy, merchants, bankers, turned towns into organized municipalities, councils to administer town affairs, spread money economy- kings depend on the middle calss, loans and income from taxes,
Town Government
city dwellers don't fit feudal system, didn't like taxes or service to the lord, run own affaris, own courts and law, fudal lords feared growth middle class- strict enforcement of laws, MC- money and pwoer to win,
communes
italian towns, groups, political power from money economy, eneded feudal power, independant city states,
charters
documents fiven to townspeople by kings or nobles, give right to control own affairs,
Education
illeteracy, controlled by clergy, monasteries and covents, taught for religious life only, increase towns- need educated government officials, lawyers
universities
guild of scholars organized for learning, rented rooms, books scarce, met regualary, rules b/w teachers and students, degrees- qualify as teacher,
Bologna, Italy
law and medicine, modle
University of Paris
model for north, liberal arts nad theology=
New learning
studied roman law, Aristotle and Muslim writings, jewish scholars, Church opposed aristotles works- threaten chruch teachings, support ideas,
Scholasticism
emphacized reason as well as faith in interpretation of christian doctrine, reconcils classic philosophy with chruch teachings,
Peter Abelard
theology in PAris, Sic et Non- book, statements form bible, both sides of controversial questions, reconcile differences with logic,
Thomas Aquinas
most important, Summa Theologica- book, reason god's gift, in harmony with faith, point to god, catholic church later adoted thoughts,
Beowulf
anglo saxon- 700, earliest surviving, girm battle, gloomy scenery, harshness of life, unkonw poet, warrior defear monester named grendel,
Chansons de geste
songs of high deeds, courage of feudal warriors,
Song of Roland
chivalrous defense of christianity by charlemagne's knights
troubadours
traveling poet musicians, define chivalric knoghts,
Hildegard of Bingen
german abess, spiritual wisdom, music
Herrad of landsberg
Garden of Delgiht- book, encyclopedia of world hisotry
vernacular
language of everyday speech, language of won country, literature to more people,
Dante Alighieri
The divine Comedy- book, trilogy, Dante's Inferno, imaginary journey heaven and hell,
Geofrey Chaucer
Canterbery tales- book, pilgrim on way to shrine of Thomas BEckett,
Romanesque
early chrihces, combined roman and byzantine, thick walls, close set pillars, heavcy arches, small windows
gothic
french, flying butresses- weight off walls, thinner walls, stained glass windows, higher ceilings, open interior,
late middle ages
stronger central governemnt, loyalty of people, limit power of clergy and nobles, gradually educated commoners, onset- violents warefare,
Hundred Years war
Engalnd and France, Egland fought keep french norman land, french want unite lands, Edward III engladn claime french throne,
Major battles
first english winning, longbow, Crecy and Agincourt, firearms
Joan of Arc
peasant girl, french lowest point, reversal, king charles VII, heavanly voices-save france, french victory Orleans, fell captive to england, heresy, burned at stake, led to french victory, port Calais only french in englash hands at end,
Effects of HYW
french suffered more than england, fighting on french soil, french new unity, egland bitterness among nobles, elgand unity- focous on local problems, hastened feudal decline, castle and knight warefare outdated, replacements feudal soldiers, nataional hired armies, matainance expensive, taxes and laons for protection and good government,
France
monarch more power and presitige, Louis XI- son Chalres VII, streanglhen beurocracy, promoted trade and agriculture, unite french feudal lands, Burgundy- Charles the Bold- independant, encourage fights b/w burg, and Swiss, deaht of Charles burgundy b/w mary and french king
Burgundy
europes most properous area,
England
power limited by parliment, taxes and laws, power struggle for throne,
War of the Roses
family symbols, LAncaster- red, York- white, Edward- York, overthrow landcaster,l King Edward IV, streanghten royal government and promote trade, death- no heirs, brother IRchsard take throne, Kill cousins in tower of London, Richard III- no support, overthrown b y Herny Tudor- Lancaster, defeated at Bosworht field, king HEnry VII, first tudor king, diminish royal claimants, avoided wars and increased pwoer over nobles, arose w. streangth and few challenges,
Spain
leading power, Reconquista, muslim areas of Spain, Iberian peninsula, Portugal, Aragon, Castille, Granada- moorish
Isabella- Castilla, Ferdinand- Aragon
married, seperate govern. power limited to local interests, own courts and customs,
cortes
spanish assemblies nobles powerful, review royal policies
Castile
streanghten royal powerofficaals govern towns, special towns with courth laws, surrender garnada, ende religious toleration, Spanards catholic, convert or leave, persecution of jews and moores, Inquisiton, eforced teaching, fear- streangth,
Holy roman empire
German Italian and Slavi lands, no unity, emperor elected by 7 german princes- diet, governen local terripoty, independant rulers, choase sucessor after death, HApsburgs, prestice, Charles V- king of Spain, HRE, most powerful family- Hapsburg,
East europe
kingdoms, B/w germany and russia,Poland and hungry
Poland
wast slavs, Roman Cathloic, fight teutonic knights, near baltic, king Casmir III, strong central government, unified, one largest states, defeated teutonic knoight- battle of tennenburg,
Hungry
south of poland, king Stephen I, Roman Catholic, attacked by Mongols, destruction, rebuild, ottomon turks, defeated by them, Suleiman I- Battle of Mohaes, Hungry under Otts
LAte middle ages
plague and wars, turned to chruch, religious ceremonies multiplied, pilgrimages, temporarily power weakedned, questions, monarchs and national govern.
Babylonian Captivity
Papacy French Monarchs, Clemet V, move to Avignon Freance, escape, apppoint only french cardinals, long period of exile of popes, rome center of chruch fear dominated french monarchs, dislkied increased taxes to make chruch admin. more efficient, corrupted worldy power,
Great Schism
Pope greg, XI- left for rome, death forced elect italian pope, declared invalid, French opoe chosen, neither resign, problem. chirhc counicl- only by popes, neither want to call, divine leaders but 2, reforms, no agreements, Pisa Italy, Constance Germany, weakened churhc politically, loyalty to monarchs,
Pisa, Itlay
unite chruch, 3rd pope
constance germany
resignationall 3, new elected, MArtin V, ended schism,
reforms
people dislike, abuses w/i church, unpopular means raise money, fees for everything
simony
sellign church positions, cost passed to people,
John Wycliffe
scholar- Oxford, criticized wealth, clergy corruption, Bible sole authority, translate latin to englih bible, read it themselves, revolutionary, only clergy interpret gods word,
Lollards
Whycliffe followers, criticized chruch, destroyed images, antipapal feeling, dificult supressing, moderate vies, mild punishment, ideas spread after death,
Jan Hus
slavs of Bohemia- Czech, end german control, bible in Czech, back Catholic chruch reforms, leader reform movement, preacher, professor university of Rague, condemned by church, riots, rebellions, council at constance, safe journey, burned at stake,
Hussites
supporters Hus, resisted chrucdh and HRE, 5 crusades against them, all failed, firerms and moveable walls, compromise, Hussites certain religious liberty, allegiance to chruch, Hus ideas spread, appearance fo chruch sucess