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28 Cards in this Set

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Term coined by Alexis de Tocqueville in 1835 that described Americans as people no longer bound by social attachments to classes, castes, associations, and families. Some observers worried that this was a cause of social disorder; others saw it as liberating...American social order at the time was divided. Social changes brought hardshipsA powerful wave of reform spilled out of these conservative religious channels.
An intellectual movement that espoused an ideal world of mystical knowledge and harmony beyond the world of senses. Proponents included intellectuals such as Emerson and Thoreau, who emphasized individuality, self-reliance, and nonconformity.
What did Emerson do to Transcendentalism?
Emerson was a unitarian who saw people asw being trapped in their ideas. He promoted inner change and self-realization,. The publication of Franklin's Autobiography in 1818 had given many of them a model iof an individual seeking mobility.
American Lyceum
A lecture circuit beginning in 1826 that sent ministers, transcendentalists, and scientists all across the north on speaking tours. The Lyceum movement helped to spread transcendentalism and reform ideas.
Who was Henry David Thoreau?
Published Walden or Life in the Woods in 1854.
Who was Margaret Fuller?
Explored possibilities for Women. Edited the Dial, and in 1844 she published Women in the Nineteenth Century. She inspired a rising generation women writers.
Who was Walt Whitman?
Writer who responded to Emerson's call . Whitman believed democracy assumed a sacred character. Whitman wrote about human suffering with a passion.
What were some of the darker visions?
Emerson's writing influenced two great novelists: Nathanial Hawthorne and Herman Melville. They addressed the opposition between individual transcendence and the legitimate requirements of social order.Merican readers empatically preferred Emerson's personal imp0rovement through spiritual awareness and self-discipline.
Reformers and transcendentalists founded numerous communities to help realize their spiritual and moral potential and to escape from the competition of modern industrial society. The mos famous communal experiment was Brook Farm, founded by Transcendentalists outside of Boston, Massachusetts in 1841.
What was Brook Farm?
A Utopia. Founded in 1841. Supported themselves and had an electric intellectual life with Hawthorne living there for a time. It failed to prosper economically and this faulure made the transcendentalists abandon attempts to fashion a new system of social organization.
Who were the shakers?
Orginated from the Revolutionary era and they were considered shakers because of their ecstatic dances. They venerated Mother Ann as the Second coming of Christ and embraced the common ownership of property and eliminated marriage. They had economic success and they attracted many converts including many women and blacks.
Cooperative work groups in the 1840's organized as part of the Fourierist movement in which all members were shareholders in a community as an alternative to capitalist wage labor.
Who were the Fourierist Phalanxes?
Their rise in the 1840's was one cause of the Shaker's decline. Fourier was a French Utopian reformer who devised an eight stage theory of social evolution. American disciple Arthur Brisbane and Fourier saw the phalanx as a practical alternative to a society based on private property. Brisbane wrote The Social Destiny of Man, in 1840. they had failure in extablishing viable communities but underscored the extent of social dislocation caused by economic depression.
Explain John Humphrey Noyes and the Oneida Community
Noyes believed the Fourierists had failed because of their communities lack of strong religious ethic. He became a leader of perfectionism. Noyes believed the major barrier to achieving this ideal state was marriage. His solution was the complex marraige. Noyes fled to Canada in 1879 to avoid prosecution for adultery, and his historical significance lies in their questioning of traditional social customs.
The religious belief that people could be without flaws, or free from sin, because the Second Coming of Christ had already occured. This evangelical movement attracted thousands of followers during the 1830's.
Complex marriage
John Humphrey Noyes led his Oneida Community in this practice in the 1830's, based on the belief that all members of the community were wedded to one another. Noyes believed complex marriage was liberating for women.
Who was Joseph Smith?
Mormonism emerged from Smith who believed God had singled him out to receive a pecial revelation. In 1830 he published the Book of Mormon. Smith organized the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter day Saints.He placed his goal on a Church-directed society with moral perfection. He was murdered by a mob of anti-mormons.
The practice of a man having multiple wives. Adopted by some mormons in the 1840's and practiced until outlawed in 1890 under pressure from the federal government.
Who was Brigham Young and what did Utah have to do with anything?
Mormons now were leg by Young, who led a migration to the Great Plains. Most Mormons who didn't support polygamy remained in the Us rather than travel to Utah. When the US acquired Mexico's northern territories in 1848, the Mormons petitioned Congress to create a vast new state. President James Buchanan in 1858 sent a small army to eliminate polygamy. The national government did not succeed until 1890.Mormons became prosperous
What was the Slave Rebellion?
The black quest for respectability threatened many whites, who organized antiblack mobs. David Walker published a pamphlet in 1829 which ridiculed the religious pretensions of slaveholders. In 1830, Walker and other African American activists called a national convention in Philadelphia. A slave named Nat turner had staged a bloody revolt in 1831. He was hanged in the end. The Virginia legislature debated a bill providing for gradual emancipation. the bill was rejected.
Who were Lloyd Garrison, Theodore Weld, and Angelina and Sarah Grimke?
Garrison went to jail in 1830 for writing an article that libeled a New England merchant . Then he moved to Boston and found THe Liberator. Weld joined Garrison as a preacher in northern churches about moral responsibility for the denial of liberty to slaves. Grimkes were sisters whose father had a salve plantation and converted to quakers.
What was the American Anti-Slavery Society?
1833 Weld and Garrison met in Philadelphia with sixt delegates and established the American Anti-slavery Society.Formed separate societies also like the women's societies. Abolitionists assisted African Americans who fled from slavery and Harriet Tubban was an escaped slave who helped others reach freedom in the North where they faced an uncertain future. Lastly, the abolitionists sought support among state and national legislatures.Emerson condemned the society for tolerating slavery. Thoreau was more assertive.
What were the attacks on Abolitionism?
Northern opponents to abolitionism turned to violence and mobs. Racial solidarity was strong in the south where whites reacted to abolitionism with fury. President Andrew Jackson approved of SC removal of abolitionist pamphlet s from mail.
Gag rule
Procedure in the House of Representatives from 1836-1844 by which antislavery petitions were automatically tabled when they were received, so that they could not become the subject of debate in the House.
Why and how were there Internal divisions?
Abolitionists were divided among themselves. Some antislavery clergymen denounced the public lecturing to mixed audiences by the Grimke sisters and others for Garrison's advocacy of further social reforms. Garrison broadened his agenda and now supported pacifism and the abolition of prisons and asylums. He recruited more women and his opponents founded the American and Foreign Anti-Slavery Society which focused on the fifth amendment which barred any deprivation of life, liberty, and property. But in the election of 1840, Birney won few votes and the future of the Liberty Party appeared dim.
What are the Origins of the Women's movement?
Prominance of women among the abolitionists. Mary Walker Ostram was an impactal influence. The American Female Moral Reform society grew along with the reform of social institutions, conditions in jails, hospitals...etc. Dorothea Dix was a leader in these efforts. Northern women also played a major role in education.
Abolitionism and Women
Public accomplishments of women and the abolitionist ideas and their own expectations influenced women such as the Grimkes. Women also emphasized with the issues of gender during the 1840's and 1850's. Harriet Jacobs was forced to confess her anguish in her autobiography and Harriet Beecher Stowe charged moral failings against slavery. Thousands of northern women had become firm advocates of greater rights not only for enslaved African Americans, but also for themselves.
What was the Program of Seneca Falls about?
Women tried to strengthen the legal rights of married women, by giving property rights to them. This enacted the Married Women's Property Acts between 1839-1845. Elizabeth Stanton organized a gathering at Seneca Falls in NY where 70 activist women joined. Most men dismissed it as nonesence, but the movement attracted a group of reformers who convened the first national women's rights convention in Massachusetts and to campaign to win a vote for women. The attack by women's rights activists against the traditional legal and social perogatives of husband prompted many Americans to fear that social reform might not perfect their society but destroy it.