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29 Cards in this Set

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Franchise
The right to vote. Extended to all adult white males by most new states and most older states as well.
How did Democracy rise?
In the traditional system, people from the low and middle ranks of society deferred to the notable northern landlords to dominate the political system. The first assaults against this came from teh Midwest and Southwest. Once armed with the vote, ordinary citizens in the Western state elected middling men. To deter migration to the western states and unrest at homes, notable accepted a broader franchise. More elections were used instead of appointments. People turned to politics for government assistance and also religious causes.
e for a and first assaults came from Mw and Sw
What were political "machines"
A highly organized political party which was often compared to new technological innovations because of its efficiency and complexity. Martin Van Buren was the advocate of the emerging system of the party government. He organized the "Jacksonian Democrats".
Patronage
The power of elected officials to grant governement jobs to party members to create and maintain strong party loyalties. In the US, patronage was forst used by MVB. MVB used newspapers to promote a platform and drum up the vote.
Pat-(give job) rone (oppp.:maintain strong gov.)
Caucus
An informal meeting of politicians held by political parties to make majority decisions and enforce party discipline. Put into practice by MVB.
What was the Election of 1824 about?
Republican party broke up into competing factions. Candidates were: John Quincy Adams John C. Calhoun, William H. Crawford, Henry Clay, and General Andrew Jackson. All Republicans. As a result of democratic reforms, most states used popular elections rather than a vote of the state legislatures. Clay used the American System as a benefit to win him votes. Jackson had a reputation for being heroic. Calhoun withdrew and then endorsed AJ with a VP for himself.No candidate received an absolute majority, so it went into the HoR which hurt Jackson since they didn't want a "westerner" in the presidency. Clay used his powers as Speaker of the House to keep Jackson out and let Adams in and Adams appointed him Secretary of State. this was conceived as a "corrupt bargain"
5 and all repubs.24 (even,re)24(support) pres uses his powers to keep tapes from getting...(clay from Jackson) So...Adams (adams family) with clay as VP: they sceram
American System
Federal government program to expand economic development through federally funded system of internal improvements (roads and canals), tarriffs, and a national bank. Branchild of Henry Clay and supported by John Quincy Adams in 1824.
1. Iv, NB, and tarrifs baby.
Who was John Quincy Adams? What did he do?
Embraced the American system of National economic development proposed by Henry Clay: 1. a protective tarriff to stimulate manufacturing, 2. Federally subsidized internal improvements to aid commerce, and 3. A national bank to provide uniform currency and control credit. His policies favored the business elite of the Northeast and also assisted entrepreneurs and commercial farmers in the Midwest. Won little support with the Southern planters who opposed protective tarriffs. In 1817, President Madison vetoed a Bonus Bill proposed by Clay and Calhoun that would have used the government's income from the Second Bank to fund internal impr5ovements. Madison said such projects fell in the hands of states MVB joined with the Old Republicans in voting against federal subsidies for roads and canals. Congress defeated most of his proposals for a nationally funded system of economic development.
Bonus Bill (bonus for the IV that it would be paid by..the male) Madison was (mad) and said that states (son) should take care of it.
What was the Tarriff battle.
The most far-reaching battle. The Tarriff of 1816 excluded imports of cheap English cotton cloth, giving control to New England textile producers. In 1824, a new tax had imposed a protective tax of 35% and Adams and Clay had demanded even higher duties. VB and Jacksonian allies took control of Congress in 1826 and supported high tarriffs but not for protecting the industries in Pennsylvania and New England like the previous did. They wanted to win the support of farmers in NY and Ohio and Kentucky for candidacy for Jackson in 1828. Southern opposition, but Northern Jacksonians joined the supporters of Adams and Clay to enact the Tarriff of 1828. The South was enraged because they were the cheapest producer of cotton.
oops: 1828 (ate the media...) north says yay, south says nay.
What was the election of 1828 about?
Southerners blamed Adams for the new act and offended by his Indian policy refused to support his second term. Adams had supported land rights for Native Americans. Van Buren's goal was to recreate the old Jeffersonian coalition, uniting southern slave owners with northern farmers and artisans. Jackson's semiofficial running mate Calhoun brought SC allies in to Van Buren's party and Jacksonains began to call themselves Democratic Republicans and then simply the Democrats. Jackson had a message of equal rights and popular rule. His hostility to Clay's American sysytem won him support in the Northeast . MAny people went to vote for this election. Jackson won and became the first presidennt from a western state. (Tennessee)
28..Jacksonians (jack calls himself both mom and dad but mosyl mom) his hostility to the system also wins him.
What was under Jackson's Agenda?
Jackson relied on his Kitchen Cabinet to decide policy. This was madeu p of influential men. Following VB, Jackson used patronage to create a loyal national party. He advocated for rotation. His main priority was to destroy the American Systtem. He rejected federal support for transportation projects, which he also opposed on constitutional grounds. 1830, he vetoed four internal improvement bills.
Spoils System
Andrew Jackson began this practice in 1829 of awarding public jobs to political supporters to fulfill his campaign promise to introduce the rotation in office and open public service to his supporters.
spoil those who spoil you.
Nullification
Idea supported by many southerners starting in the 1820's that a state convention could declare unconstitutional any federal law. John C. Calhoun based this concept on earlier writings of Jefferson and Madison as published in the Virginia and Kentucky resolutions.
What was the conflict of the tarriff and nullification?
Tarriff of 1828 helped Jackson win presidency but created a crisis. Fierce opposition arose in SC, where slave owners faced prospect of slave rebellion and worried over legal abolition of slavery. The crisis began in 1832 when high tarrif congressmen ignored warning that they were endangering the union and passed legislation retaining the duties imposed by the Tarriff of abominations. A SC convention adopted an Ordinance of Nullification and declared the tarriff of 1828 and 1832 null and void and threatened secession. Their argument rested in the SC Exposition and Protest written "anonymously" by Calhoun which denied that majority rule lay in the heart of the republican gov. He advanced arguments in the Kentucky and Virginia resolutions of 1798 and said that the US Constitution had been ratified by state conventions, and thus a state convention could determine Congressional law to be unconstitutional. Jackson, confronting Calhoun, repudiated his vp's ideas by two years later saying that Disunion by armed force is treason and asserted that nullification violated the Constitution. Congress passed a Force Bill in 1833 which authorized him to use the army and navy to compel South Carolina to obey national laws. He won passage of a compromise Tarrif Act which provided for a gradual reduction in rates. This eliminated another part of the American System. The compromise worked and the SC convention rescinded its nullification.
How did the Bank start?
Second Bank of the US had operated since 1816 and stabilized the nation's money supply. Most American money consisted of notes and paper money from state chartered banks. Second Bank collected these notes and kept state banks from issuing too much paper money and prevented inflation. During the 20's, the Second bank had maintained stability. Restraining and forcing western banks. Many opposed it for having too much power and for wated the specie owned by federal government to be deposited in their institutions rather than the Second bank. in 1832, Jackson opponents in Congress persuaded the President of the bank to recharter the bak early. They hoped to lure Jackson in a veto that would split the Democrats right before the 32 election. Jackson turned the table, vetoed the bill, and became a public hero by declaring that Congress had no constitutional authority to charter a national bank and attacked the Second Bus as eing dangerous and this carried him to victory for the 32 election. He chose VB as his VP. They overwhelmed Clay who headed the National republican ticket. Expansion minded bankers hoped to benefit from this devise and cheered Jacksons attacks on priveleged corporations.
Jackson turned the table in 32(turning the two) and vetoed the bill they wanted him to pass to charter the bank. Then he chose VB as his VP
Specie
Gold or silver coins used by banks to back paper currency. Most American money consisted of notes and bills of credit which were redeemed on demand with specie by the Second Bank of the United States.
How was the Bank destroyed?
Jackson launched a new assult. Appointed Taney as a secretary of Treasury and directed him to withdraw the government's gold and silver from the bank and deposit it in state institutions, claiming that his own reelection represented the decision of the people against the bank, giving him a right to destroy it. In 1834, Jackson's opponents in theSenate passed a resolution by Clay tha t warned of an executive tyranny. In1836, the Bank lost its national charter and became a state bank. Jackson had destroyed national bankong and the American System of protective tarrifs and internal improvements.
Indian Removal
Western states called for resettlement of Indians west ot Mississippi river. Jackson pushed through Congress the Indian Removal Act of 1830, which provided territory in preseny fay Oklahoma and Kansas to Native Americans. When they refused to leave, Jackson sent troops and in the Bad Axe Massacre killed 850 Black Hawks' warriors. Chief Justice Marshall denied the Cherokees claim to national independence in Cherokke Nation v. Georgia. In Worcester v. Georgia, however, Marshall sided with the Cherokees, and Jackson moved to take their territory. US commissioners signed a removal treaty with a minority faction and insisted that all Cherokees abide by it. VB ordered General Scott to enforce it and forced them on to the Trail of Tears..
What was Jackson's impact?
1. Destroyed American System.2. Restrained the reach of the Union government. 3. Expanded the authority of the nation's chief executive.
Jackson appointed Taney after Marshall's death in 1835. Taney persuaded the Court to give constitutional legitimacy to Jackson's policies of antimonopoly and states' rights. His decisions also enhanced the regulatory role of state governments.Between 1830-60, twenty states called conventions to revise their basic charters. brought government closer to people mandating elections instead of appointments. Delegates changed charter from republican governments to liberal regimes. Most Jacksonian-era constitutions prohibited states from granting exclusive charters to corporations or extending loans to private businesses. Jacksonians embrazed a small government and celebrated power of ordinary people to make decisions.
AS Rotug EE. Taney equals opposite Marshall and more states power
Whigs
A British political party with a reputation for supporting liberal principles and reform. They rose in power during the Glorious Revolution of 1688 and favored "mixed government" in which teh House of Commons would have a voice in shaping policies, especially the power of taxation.
Whigs (liberal, loose) principles. Whigs (mix of white and gray) mixed government
What did the Whigs believe in and why?
that "King Andrew I" had violated the Constitution by creating the "Spoils System" and increasing presidential authority. They were a diversge group whose ideal world was dominated by men of ability and wealth, not birth. They welcomed the investments of "moneyed capitalists" as providing the poor with jobs and northern whigs called for a return of the American System. Support in the South was fragmented, Some states' rights Democrats in Virginia and SC became whigs because Calhoun condemned Jackson's crusade against nullification. Calhoun argued for the southern slave owners and northern factory owners to unite against the working class composed of enslaved blacks and propertyless whites. Most rejected his vision.ss But in the election of 1834, the Whigs won a majority in the HoR by appealking to middling groups.
What was the Anti-Masonry Influence?
Many whigs had previously been Anti masons who opposed freemasonry, a secret deistic and republican organization in the eighteenth century Europe. Thurlow Weed lead the Anti Masons after the murderof William Morgan who had threatened to reveal secrets. They attacked the movement as secretive and it collapsed.The theme was temperance, equality of opportunity, evangelical religious value, etc..
What was the Election of 1836 about?
Whig party faced MVB of the Democrat party. He opposed the American System and opposed the whigs.Four other regional candidates ran to oppose VB hoping to make it go in the HoR. The plan failed Vb got a majority vote but the Whig still had an attempt.This election witnessed the cretion of the Second Party System, a closely fought struggle between the Whigs and Democrats that would define American political life for the next two decades.
5 candidates. VB and other whigs, VB won.36 (my fav, valentino)
Explain the working men's parties and the Rise of Unions
Rising prices and stagnant wages had lowered the standard of living of many urban artisans and wage earners who feared the inequality of society and they began to organize politically. The NY working Men's Party vowed to end private banks, chartered monopolies, and imprisonment for debt. Their goal was a society where there would be no dependent wage earners and thus this vision led them to join Jacksonians in demanding equal rights. Taking advantage of the economic boom of the early 1830's, which increased the demand for skilled labors, workers formed unions to bargain for higher wages. Courts argued that contracts like the closed shop agreements violated common law and legislative statutes.
Blacklist
Procedure used by employers to label and identify undesirable workers.
list of blackness
Closed-shop agreements
Labor agreement in which an employer agrees to hire only union members. Many employers viewed these agreements as illegal and worked to overturn them in the courts.
closed shop (shop-union) only to hire
What was the Panic and the Depression about?
Panic of 1837 threw the American economy into disarray. Deprived of British funds from the Bank of England, American planters and merchants had to withdraw specie from domestic baks to pay foreign loans. Falling cotton prices and the drain of specie set of the crisis. In 1839 state governments had increased their investments in canals and an international financial crisis was set from more bonds to finance these investments were from England.American economy fell into a deep depressionOnly two evends improved the prospect of labor movement. The Commonwealth v. Hunt decision ruled that 1. A union is not illegal. and 2. Union members can legally attempt to enforce a shop (strike). In 184o, President VB signed an order establishing a ten hour day for all federal employees.
Explain the election of 1840
*(Whigs blamed Jackson for the depression. The public became angry at VB.His laissez faire view commanded less during the depression. Teh Independent Treasury Act of 1840 delayed recovery by pulling federal specie out of "pet banks" and into gov. vaults.Whigs organized first convention and nominated WIlliam Henry Harrison and John Tyler for his vp.Harrison was a war hero of Tippecanoe. WHigs recognized women to participate. Harrison and Tyler were voted in and the Whig had a mjority in Congress.
40: Whigs blamed everyone else (jackson for depression) BUT, public (other 40) became angry at VB. independent treasury Act: (out of here into flor
Explain the Tyler Administration
Harrison died of pneumonia almost immediately. Tyler was actually a Democrat. He vetoed bills that would have raised tarrifs and created a national bank because hedidnt agree with the American System. He approved the Preemption Act of 1841 which allowed cash poor settlers to stake a free claim to 160 acres of federal land. This split between Tyler and the Whigs allowed the Democrats to develop.
Tyler tried (disagreed with American system but allowed Preemption act (ty,pre) which allowed cash poor settlers to settle on federal land/