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38 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Who were the Patriots?
Americans who supported the war
Give the advantages that the British had over the Patriots.
-Had the strongest navy in the world & experienced, well-trained army
-Wealth of an empire
-Larger population
Give the advantages and disadvantages that the Patriots had.
-Patriots were fighting on their own land
-Very determined to win [while British hired mercenaries]
-George Washington lead the Patriots

-Patriots lacked regular army w/military experience & strong navy
-Weapons & ammunition in short supply
-Not all Americans supported war
Who were the Loyalists?
Americans who remained loyal to the British and opposed the war for independence.
What were some slaves offered during the war?
Slaves who fought on the British side would be freed
Who was Nathan Hale and what were his famous words?
-A Patriot who disguised himself as a Dutch teach and spyed on British troops.
-"I only regret that I have but one life to lose for my country."
What was the effect of THE CRISIS which was written by Thomas Paine?
-Paine's words in THE CRISIS encouraged colonists & inspired them to fight.
-Washington read it to the soldiers
How were African Americans used during the war?
-Enlisted in Continental Army
-Washington favored using slaves as soldiers
-Most states enlisted 5000 African Americans [against opposition]
-Rhode Island had an all-African regiment
Tell about the American victory at Trenton.
-Washington lead his troop on Christmas night 1776, surprised the British troops at Trenton
-Captured 900 Hessians at Trenton
What happened at the Battle of Saratoga?
-British planned a three-pronged attack w/ General Burgoyne w/8000 people south from Canada, second force move east from Lake Ontario, third force meet at Albany and destroy Washington's troops
-Green Mountain Boys defeated Burgoyne's army
-Battle of Saratoga: General Burgoyne expected to find his two other troops, but they were stopped or still traveling
-Patriot army about three times as large as his own attacked
-British lost --> Burgoyne surrendered
Why was the American victory at Saratoga important?
-Marked a turning point in war
-Lead to trade agreement and alliance
-European nations [especially France] realized that America might actually win the war
What did France, Spain, and the Netherlands each do to help the Americans?
-France: provided money, equipment, and troops
-Spain: Supplies and captured five Britsh forts in Mississippi valley
-Netherlands: Sent money
-Spain & Netherlands both declared war on Britain
Describe the conditions at Valley Forge for Washington and his troops during the winter of 1776.
-Winter of terrible suffering
-Lacked decent food, clothing, shelter
-Many men deserted
Who was Marquis de Lafayette?
-French nobleman who was filled with enthusiasm for ideas expressed in Declaration of Independence.
-Trusted aid to Washington
Who was Friedrich Von Steuben?
-Former army officer from Germany who drilled the Patriot troops and taught them military discipline.
-Turned Continental Army into more effective fighting force
How did the Americans pay for the war, what did it lead to, and what did Congress do as a result?
-Congress printed millions of dollars of paper money
-Lead to inflation
-Stopped issuing paper money
Describe what it was like to be a loyalist in America during the war.
-Shunned by neighbors
-Victims of mob violence
-Loyalists who actively helped the British could be arrested and tried as traitors
-Executed a few Loyalists, but that was unusual
Tell about some of the attempts to rid the colonies of slavery.
-Boston town meeting had voted to condemn slavery
-Vermont, New Hampshire, Massachussetts, and Pennsylvania all attempted to end slavery
Explain why more Native Americans sided with the British.
-British seemed less of threat because Americans continued to push westward
Why did more Native Americans side with the British than with the Patriots?
-British seemed less of threat, because Americans continued to push westward, threatening the Native American way of life
Who was Henry Hamilton and why was he called the "hair buyer"?
-Commanded main British base in Detroit
-Paid Native Americans for scalps of settlers
Who was George Rogers Clark and what did he set out to do in 1778?
-Colonel in Virginia militia
-Set out to end the British attacks on Western settlers
How was the American position finally strengthened in the West?
-Clark and his troop forced Hamilton and British to surrender
-Strengthened American's position
What was the purpose of the British Blockade?
-Prevent supplies and reinforcements from reaching the Continental Army
What were privateers, and what were they authorized to do?
-Privately owned merchant ships equipped with weapons
-Authorized to attack enemy shipping
Who was John Paul Jones?
-Owned a ship called Bonhomme Richard [given by Benjamin Franklin]
-American naval officer who raided British ports
-Defeated Serapis, but his own ship sunk
-"I have not yet begun to fight."
What was the strategy the British used in 1778 for finishing the war and bring the colonies back into the empire?
-Concentrated their offensive in the South, where there were more Loyalists
-Hoped to use British sea power and supposrt to win decisive victories in Southern states
What happened to the American army at Charleston, S.C. in 1780?
-Worst American defeat
What was guerilla warfare, and who was Francis Marion?
-Technique that caught enemies off-guard
-Francis Marion was known as the Swamp Fox
-Also a guerilla leader in South Carolina
Who was Nathanael Greene and what did he accomplish in the South in 1781?
-Won Battle of Cowpens
-Inflicted heavy damage on British
What did General Cornwallis do in April of 1781, and where did he go?
-Retreatd north to Virginia
-Troops carried out saids, nearly capturing Governor Thomas Jefferson and Virginia Legistature
Why did Washington change his plans in 1781?
-Knew that Admiral Francois de Grasse was heading toward Chesapeake Bay instead of New York
-Decided to advance on Yorktown instead
What were the three groups that would meet at Yorktown?
-Anthony Wayne's troops, Washington's troops, French fleet under Admiral de Grasse
What happened on October 19th, 1781?
-Cornwallis surrendered
What did King George III decide as a result of the American victory at Yorktown?
-Appointed new ministers who were prepared to give America independence
Who were the American representatives at the Treaty of Paris?
Benjamin Franklin, John Jay, John Adams
What were the terms of the Treaty of Paris?
-Britain officially recognized America as an independent country
-Northern boundary: Great Lakes/Canada
-Southern boundary: 31 degrees north - Spanish Florida
-Western boundary: Mississippi River
-Spain got Florida back plus southern parts of Alabama and Mississppi
-Britain would remove its armies with spped
-America promised not to seize property from Loyalists
-Congress would urge states to give back Loyalist properties seized during the war [most was never returned]
-America agreed that British merchants could collect prewar debts owed by Americans
-Britain gave America the right to fish in waters off coast of Canada
Why did the Americans win the war?
-Americans fought on their own land, while British had bring troop and supplies across the Atlantic
-British depended on support from the sea --> ships were blocked, cut off from supplies and reinforcements
-British sucessfully occupied American cities, but had difficuly controlling the countryside
-Americans knew the land and were able the fight using guerrilla tactics that the British had difficulty defending against
-America received help from other nations [FRANCE: $, supplies, troops SPAIN: supplies and attacked British in Mississippi Valley NETHERLANDS: $]
-Washington's leadership skills played critical role in American victory
-American Revolution was a people's movement. Outcome depended on determination and spirit of Patriots