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60 Cards in this Set

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(21) Describe Lucy and compare her to modern humans.
Lucy had a smaller brain than modern humans and was only 3 1/2 feet tall. However, Lucy walked upright like modern humans. Lucy was about 25 years old when she died.
(28) What did Cro-Magnons look like?
Cro-Magnons looked very much like present-day man.
(25) How did toolmaking cause groups of Homo sapiens to interact with each other?
Homo sapiens exchanged tools for ornaments.
(21) Neanderthals
had bony ridges above eyes; broad noses; big, strong chests; lived from about 230,000 years ago to 30,000 years ago
(21) Lucy (early human ancestor)
an exceptionally complete australopithecine skeleton, found by Don Johanson and Tom Gray in 1974 in Hadar, Ethiopia
(26) hunter-gatherers
people who get food by hunting wild animals and gathering wild plants, roots, nuts, and berries
(25) Did Homo erectus make a variety of tools?
Homo erectus developed the ax and used it for a variety of purposes.
(21) paleoanthropologist
one who studies the origins and predecessors of the present human species
(21) Why did the Leakeys name the early humans they found "homo habilus"?
These early humans were found with tools which indicated they made and used tools. The name "Homo habilus" means "handy human."
(26) Terra Amata
an archaeological site, on which the city of Nice, France, now stands; Homo heidelbergensis set up a camp here every spring for several years; archaeologist have learned much from this site
(25) How did tools improve the life of Homo erectus?
With better tools, Homo erectus could hunt and dig for roots. Homo erectus was no longer limited to what he could catch with his bare hands.
(21) Homo habilis
meaning "handy human"; early humans who first used tools; lived about 2.5 million years ago to 1.5 million years ago; had larger brains than austrolopithecines
(23) glaciers
a huge, slow-moving mass of ice
(3rd Review) List the developments in human culture from Homo erectus to Cro-Magnon.
Homo erectus used stone tools and controlled fire. Neanderthals used fire to keep warm, had a sense of community, and created more varying tools. Cro-Magnons made and used more advanced tools, lived in even larger community groups, used fire to fire clay, and created art.
(25) What kinds of tools did Homo sapiens make?
Homo sapiens made more sophisticated tools, such as spears points for hunting, scrapers for cleaning hides, carved fishhooks, needles for sewing, and three-pronged fishing spears.
(21) Homo erectus
had a larger brain than Homo habilus; made more complex tools; believed to be the first to leave Africa; believed to have lived about 1.8 million years ago and died out about 100,000 years ago; learned to make fire
(23) Ice Age
a period of time in which glaciers advanced and retreated across the surface of the earth, from about 2.5 million years ago to about 12,000 years ago
(3rd Review) How did early humans begin to migrate?
During the Ice Age, land bridges linked continents and islands and allowed early humans to migrate to new lands, as they followed the animals they hunted. Land bridges allowed early humans to migrate from southern Africa to Europe, Asia, Australia and other islands, and the Americas.
(21) What does "Homo sapiens" mean?
wise humans
(3rd Review) How have we interpreted evidence of early humans?
Answers vary.
(23) How did Homo erectus and Homo sapiens adapt to the climate?
Home erectus learned to make fire. Homo sapiens learned how to sew hides together to make clothing.
(26) Describe Terra Amata.
Terra Amata was a home for a group of people. It had a fireplace or hearth, and several work areas.
(21) Paaleolithic Age
the early part of the Stone Age, which began about 2.5 million years ago and lasted until about 10,000 or 7,000 years ago
(26) Why do you think there was no art during the Neanderthal period?
Answers vary.
(23) geologists
scientists who study the earth
(25) Why is language important?
Language leads to culture, discussion of tools, and hunting strategies, and a sharing of knowledge and techniques.
(21) australopithecine
lived from about 3.75 millions years ago to 1 million years ago; have human-like features, but scientists disagree about their exact relationship with modern humans
(28) Lascaux
Lascaux is a cave in France where paintings were found that were painted by Cro-Magnons.
(23) What characterized the Ice Age?
Huge sheets of ice and snow covered the earth during the Ice Age.
(26) How do we know that Neanderthals had a strong sense of community?
Camps were large which indicated they lived in larger groups. Skeletons indicate a longer life spans even for those crippled with arthritis or having other physical problems, who could only have survived with the help of others. There is also evidence of ceremonial burials to mourn the dead. All of these things indicate that the Neanderthals cared for each other, which shows a strong sense of community.
(21) Where do some think early man originated?
(26) band (of people)
a band is a group of people; a small, loosely organized group of hunter-gatherers, consisting of 20 - 30 individuals
(23) When did toolmaking begin?
Toolmaking began about 2.5 million years ago.
(26) Why did women probably not hunt?
Women had children to care for, food and clothes to make, and baskets to weave.
(21) genus
the large group to which a species belongs
(25) Do we know when early humans first used languages?
No one knows for certain, but scientists have concluded that humans have had an increasing ability to create and use language beginning around 2.5 million years ago.
(21) Don Johanson & Tom Gray
archaeologists who discoverd the bones of a complete skeleton of an early human ancestor, whom they called Lucy (an australopithecine)
(28) What sets their culture apart?
They left behind incredible cave paintings depicting successful hunts, which supported a strong sense of beauty and wonder of nature.
(21) Louis and Mary Leakey
a husband-and-wife team of archaeologists who found the first Homo habilis remains
(25) How did toolmaking and language lead to the development of culture?
Tools helped Homo sapiens make contact with each other because they wanted to trade tools and ornaments. Language also allowed for more interaction with each other because it allowed them to share information and knowledge, to work together, and to pass on their traditions. This led to the development of culture.
(23) Where was evidence of Australopithecus found first?
Taung, South Africa, in 1924
(26) anatomist
one who studies the structure of humans; a specialist in anatomy
(21) What are the first modern humans called?
(21 & 28) Cro-Magnons
Cro-Magnons are Homo sapiens that were the first modern humans, named after the cave in southwestern France where their bones were first found. They looked very much like modern people, used many of the same tools as modern hunter-gatherers, and they created art such as carved figures and paintings on the walls of caves.
(25) How did toolmaking change from the time of Homo habilus to the time of Homo erectus?
The tools used by Homo erectus were more sophisticated.
(26) Why would "group hunting" require organization and communication?
Early man had to work together to organize hunts and to trap large animals. This would require language and coordination among individuals.
(21) Homo sapiens
means "wise human"; the species of bipedal primates to which modern humans belong, characterized by a large brain capacity, dependence upon language, and the creation and use of complex tools
(28) How was the Lascaux cave discovered?
Some boys were playing nearby, when their dog led one of the boys into the cave.
(21) Compare Homo habilis and australopithecines.
Australopithecines were the first upright species and are among the oldest group in the group of human ancestors. They predated Homo habilus. Homo habilus had a larger brain and longer arms, fingers, and toes, which allowed for greater mobility.
(26) What does Terra Amata tell us about Homo heidelbergensis's lifestyle?
They were an organized band that cared for each other and had a sense of community.
(21) Homo heidelbergensis
archaic Homo sapiens; had a brain about the size of modern humans, but with a larger face and larger teeth; lived between 600,000 years ago and 100,000 years ago
(3rd Review) What role did toolmaking play in advancing the human ability to survive?
Early tools allowed humans to catch animals that they could not catch with their bare hands, which gave them a greater food supply. As humans advanced, they were able to make more complex tools that allowed them even greater control over their environment: better hunting, working with hides, and eventually sewing clothes, all of which helped early humans to survive. Tools also helped to create a sense of community by creating a need and desire for trade which led to more interaction, which in turn led to a sharing of knowledge, which would also help all to survive.
(23) What did land bridges allow early humans to do?
Land bridges allowed early humans to follow the animals they hunted to new lands.
(28) What do the paintings depict?
The paintings depict a successful hunt.
(21) When and where did Neanderthals live?
Neanderthals lived in Europe and the Middle East from about 230,000 years ago until about 30,000 years ago.
(28) Describe the lifestyle of the Cro-Magnons.
They were hunter-gatherers.
(23) land bridges
During the ice age, with so much of the earth's water frozen, the level of oceans dropped and land that was previously covered by ocean emerged. Some of this land formed "bridges" from one continent to another.
(21) Who were the first humans to leave Africa, and how do we know this?
Homo erectus was the first to leave Africa. We know this because fossils of Homo erectus have been found in Java, Indonesia.
(23) How have geologists contributed to our knowledge of early humans?
Geologists study the movement of glaciers and their effect on the movement of man.
(23) Has all evidence of early humans been found in the same part of the world?
No, discoveries have been made in many different places.