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25 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
a group of related families who share a common ancestor
Clans
90% that lived in small rural communities
Peasents
household that was under no obligation to a landlord and owned enough land to support its members in comfort but relatively few achieved that goal
Yeoman
A legal right originating in medieval Europe and carried to the American colonies that extended to a woman following the death of her husband the use of one third of the family’s land and goods during her lifetime
Dower
Religious doctrines inconsistent with the teaching of an established, official Christian church. Some of the Crusades between 1096 and 1291 stand as examples of Christians attempting to crush groups spreading these “unauthorized” doctrines
Heresies
A set of policies that regulated colonial commerce and manufacturing for the enrichment of the mother country
Mercantilism
A small proportion of unfree West Africans who were sold from one African kingdom to another and not considered members of the society that had enslaved them
Trade slaves
The centuries-long campaign by Spanish Catholics to drive African Moors (Muslims) from the European mainland
Reconquista
Spanish “conquerors” veterans of the wars against the Muslims, who followed the first Spanish explorers to the Americas in the early sixteenth century
Conquistadors
Land grants in America from the king given to privileged Spanish landholders in the sixteenth century.
Encomiendas
the sixteenth-century transfer to the agriculture products of the Western Hemisphere-maize, tomatoes, potatoes, manioc-to the people of other continents, and the transfer of African and Eurasian crops and diseases to the Americas.
Columbian exchange
A person of mixed blood, the offspring of intermarriage or sexual liaison between white Europeans and native people, usually a white man and an Indian woman
Mestizo
Indulgences- Catholic Church certificates pardoning a sinner from punishments in the afterlife. In his Ninety-five Theses, written in 1517, Martin Luther condemned the sale of indulgences, a common practice among Catholic clergy
Indulgences
A term that describes the significance of the high rate of inflation in Europe in the mid-1500s resulting from the introduction of American wealth into the European economy by the Spanish, which doubled the money supply in Europe. It brought about profound social changes by reducing the political power of the aristocracy and leaving many peasant families on the brink of poverty, setting the stage for a substantial migration to America
Price revolution
A class of English men and women who were substantial landholders but lacked the social privileges and titles of nobility that marked the aristocracy. During the Price Revolution of the sixteenth century, the wealth and status of the gentry rose while that of the aristocracy declined
Gentry
The laws passed in England in the sixteenth century that gave landowners the right to fence open land for their sheep to graze. This prevented peasants from sharing and farming what traditionally had been open lands and dispossessed many of England’s poor
Enclosure acts
The right of the courts to judge the constitutionality of laws passed by Congress and the state legislatures. This power is implicit within the federal Constitution and was first practiced by the Supreme Court in Marbury v. Madison in 1803
Joint-stock companies
A program begun by the Virginia Company in 1617 that granted the head of a household 50 acres for himself and 50 additional acres for every adult family member or servant brought into the Virginia colony
Headrights
A seventeenth-century labor contract that promised service for a period of time in return for passage to North America. Indentures were typically for a term of four or five years, provided room and board in exchange for labor, and granted free status at the successful completion of the contract period
Indentures
The idea that God had chosen certain people for salvation even before they were born. This strict belief was preached by John Calvin in the sixteenth century and became a fundamental tenet of Puritan theology
Predestination
ideology that celebrated public virtue and serviced to the state and would profoundly influence Europeans and American conceptions of government
humanism
Native American settlements supervised by New England Puritans. In these seventeenth-century settlements, puritans attempted to Christianize Indians, in part, through an Algonquian-language Bible
Praying towns
A system of manufacturing, also known as putting out, used in the English woolen industry
Outwork
township & group of settlers
Proprietors
legal status of land titles in 17th century puritan society, meant that land owners possessed their land outright, free from manorial obligations or feudal dues
fee simple