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59 Cards in this Set

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War with Mexico
America fought with Mexico was due to America’s desire for territorial development. The war was fought under the Polk Presidency who advocated the rights of slave states. Polk wanted to regain control of and the motion created friction between the two nations. In 1845, the U.S. sent 1,500 troops to the border separating Texas from Mexico which led to an attack on an American soldier led by Mexicans.
Gain from Mexican War
The Americans began to spread from coast to coast and soon James Marshal discovered gold just east of San Francisco. Soon the gold rush of 1849 was underway and 200 million dollars worth of gold was found in California.
Frederick Douglas
Frederick Douglas was born to a slave woman but taught to read by his master’s wife, and later taught himself to write. He was an outspoken advocate for emancipation and employed by Garrison’s Anti-Slavery Society. He spoke at conventions, published and wrote his own newspaper, became an advisor to Lincoln during the civil war (petitioned for equal pay for black soldiers), and was eventually made ambassador to Haiti
Underground Railroad
The Underground Railroad was a group of people spread out from the South all the way up to Canada and the Northeast. They aided slaves by giving them shelter, food, and protecting them. Many of the people were Quakers, slaves that had escaped, and white abolitionists. One of the most famous was Harriet Tubman.
Compromise of 1850
A series of bills signed by Millard Fillmore put in place to save the Union (slave debate). The bills were: 1. California was to be admitted as a free state. 2. New Mexico, Texas, and Utah would have no restrictions on slavery. 3. The boundaries of Texas were set and Texas was given ten million dollars for New Mexico. 4. The slave trade was abolished in the District of Columbia (slavery was still permitted). 5. The Fugitive Slave Act allowed federal assistance to slave owners regarding the capture of escaped slaves. Many freed slaves that had new lives were captured and sent back to the South which provoked multiple riots.
Uncle Tom's Cabin
Uncle Tom’s Cabin is a powerful and influential novel that was written by Harriet Beecher Stowe, the wife, daughter, and sister of Protestant clergymen. It is also known as Life Among the Lowly and was first published in the National Era, and abolitionist journal. It was not published as a book until 1852, and 300,000 copies were sold within a year. The character’s (primarily slaves) were exposed as human beings with families; and showed the immorality of slavery.
Republican's New Party
After the Polk administration the White House was filled with a number of dreadful presidents. Then during the Presidency of Franklin Pierce the South and North divided even more, and when the Whigs nominated Winfield Scott, he demolished any hope of a Whig victory. The Whigs and a group of Northern Democrats, both enraged by the political situation, joined forced to create the Republican Party. The Republicans opposed slavery extension and black admittance in the West, which appealed to antislavery groups, and white workingmen.
Bloody Kansas
Kansas was in a debate on whether or not slavery should have been extended into their territory. Kansas was under the line which made it a free state under the Missouri Compromise. Stephen Douglas, looking to gain Southern Support for the upcoming 1856 presidential election, supported the repeal of the Missouri Compromise (which was then carried out). The Kansas-Nebraska Act stated that there would be a popular sovereignty government (regarding slavery), which led to zealous debate between Northerners and Southerners. A town named Lawrence was established as an antislavery hub, and was then attacked by citizens in favor of slavery. Abolitionists retaliated at Pottawatomie Creek and 200 people died.
Dred Scott
Dred Scott was a slave that accompanied his master who served as a surgeon in the army. When his master died he petitioned for his freedom because he was in free states. A county court in St. Louis agreed; but the Missouri Supreme Court overruled their decision and decided that his family (his wife and child included) was to remain slaves. The case went to the Supreme Court and there was a split almost, but eventually Justice Grier joined the majority at the request of President Buchanan. The chief justice, Roger Taney, ruled that blacks were not citizens, and that no white man need respect the right’s of any Negro. He then went further to state that it was unconstitutional to deprive any citizen of their slaves, and that only a state could prohibit internal slavery, not the national government. This relinquished the power of the Northwest Ordinance, the Missouri Compromise, and the Compromise of 1850. The ruling convinced many that had been undecided regarding slavery to join the Republicans, and many people questioned the integrity of the ruling (thought that Buchanan controlled the entire thing, which was true).
Lincoln and Douglas debate
The two were opposing candidates that debated many things, the foremost being slavery. The two had similar views on the subject but Douglas claimed that Lincoln was an extreme abolitionist that wanted to integrate blacks. Lincoln said that Douglas was pro-slavery and supported the Dred Scott ruling.
John Brown
John was an abolitionist that led his twenty-two children in an attack on pro-slavery citizens. A group of wealthy people known as the Secret Six paid for Brown’s plan to arm Southern slaves and unite them in a war against the South. In 1859 Brown led 18 followers to attack Harper’s Ferry and took them hostage. The militia captured him and he was soon hanged. Some viewed him as a martyr, others viewed him as a threat, but it was a fact that he created even more controversy regarding the North and the South.
The Census of 1860
A census that recorded the total population, number of factories, bank deposits, gold, railroad, and the numbers of workers in the Union and Confederacy.
Confederates and the US- The Confederates made their own Constitution that was almost an exact copy of the previous one but there were a few differences. They gave the states more rights, included the word God, allowed certain tariffs, created a Presidency with a six-year term (you could only serve once), allowed the President more economic control (new veto), used the word slavery, and most importantly removed any and all limitations on slavery.
Milestones of the civil war-
• 1861
-South Carolina militia bombards Fort Sumter and Fort surrenders.
-Lincoln asks for 75,000 volunteers to serve. No blacks accepted.
-Virginia secedes, later Arkansas and Tennessee do the same, after them NC secedes.
-Lincoln successfully blockades Southern ports.
-Lee switches to the Confederate army.
-Right of habeas corpus suspended.
-Battle of Bull Run, Confederate General Jackson nicknamed Stonewall. After this congress passes income tax laws to fund the war, and service (army) is extended to two years.
-Union led by Fremont is defeated and surrenders a lot of Missouri. He then states that any slaves in the Confederacy are free but Lincoln removes him.
-Battle of Balls Bluff, 1,900 Union troops killed.
-Lincoln replaces General Scott with McClellan as general-in-chief.
• 1862
-Edwin Stanton replaces Simon Cameron as war secretary.
-Union ship Monitor is launched and Confederate ship, Virginia, is scuttled so that she is not captured.
-Grant (Union) captures Fort Henry and Fort Donelson.
-Nashville surrenders to Union.
-McClellan is made head of the Army of the Potomac and General Halleck replaces him as general in chief.
-Battle of Shiloh. Confederates almost win but reinforcements come and Union drives off Confederacy. 20,000 soldiers killed or wounded.
-Union begins to go after the capital of the Confederacy, Richmond.
-President Davis signs first military draft in America, the Confederate Conscription Act.
-New Orleans surrenders to Union and then the Union captures Natchez, Mississippi (Union Officer: Farragut).
-McClellan takes Yorktown, Williamsburg, and the White House.
-Robert E. Lee takes over the Confederate Armies of Northern Virginia.
-Memphis, Tennessee falls to Union.
-Seven Days’ Battles: Lee attacks McClellan and forces him out of Richmond ending the Peninsular Campaign.
-Second Confiscation Act passes freeing slaves belonging to rebels and allows black army recruits.
-Battle of Cedar Mountain, Stonewall defeats Union troops in Virginia.
-Second Battle of Bull Run: Confederates defeat Union forces. Confederates led by Lee, Jackson, and Longstreet; Union led by John Pope. Union troops had to go to Washington. Pope is then thrown out and McClellan is brought back.
-Battle of Antietam: Errors on the part of the Confederacy keep them from gaining European respect.
-Lincoln publishes an Emancipation Proclamation.
-In God We Trust was added to money.
• 1863
-Emancipation Proclamation formally issued.
-General Order Number 11 Act repealed (expelled Jews).
-New Army of the Potomac General (Joseph Hooker).
-Recruitment of black troops in Mass.
-First Conscription Act Signed (army enrollment).
-Battle of Chancellorsville: devastating for both sides. Stonewall mistakenly shot by Confederate soldier and dies soon after.
- General William and Sherman defeat the Confederates (Confederates were led by Johnston) at the Battle of Jackson in Mississippi
-General Grant and Sherman begin the siege of Vicksburg, Mississippi (a Confederate citadel).
-Bureau of Colored Troops is created by the U.S. War Department to oversee the recruitment and enlistment of colored soldiers.
-Battle of Gettysburg
-Siege of Vicksburg ends
-New York’s draft riots
-Battle of Chickamauga
-Lincoln delivers Gettysburg Address
-Lincoln offers Proclamation of Amnesty
• 1864
-Battle of the Wilderness
-Battle of Cold Harbor
-Battle of Spotsylvania
-Columbia, SC is burned
-Wilmington falls to the Union
-Lincoln inaugurated for 2nd term
-Lincoln shot
-Booth is shot
-Jefferson Davis is jailed and then released on bail
Cost of the Civil War
By 1865 360,000 of 2,324,516 Union soldiers had died. The Confederates had 260,000 deaths (2% of total population dead). There were more than 50,000 civilian casualties. Syphilis spread throughout America. America’s future also suffered because some of the most intelligent men died in the war effort.
The Union and Victory- The Union had great advantages in numbers. The Union blocked Southern ports and kept them from receiving supplies, ammunition, food, and other necessities. Many Southern commanders died early in the war and the South never really gained support from other countries.
Who Killed Lincoln
Lincoln was killed while he was watching a play titled Our American Cousin. A man named John Wilkes Booth, a financial supporter of the South, shot Lincoln and shouted “Sic semper tyrannis!” which means “The South shall live.” Hundreds of people that knew Booth were arrested and Booth was finally found in Virginia where he was shot and killed on his twenty-seventh birthday.
What was Reconstruction
Reconstruction was after the war to restore political and economical issues that the South had. A series of acts were passed to help. In order for any state to be a state, there had to be a state constitution which clearly stated that blacks could vote and be citizens. Others were also put into place.
The Carpet Baggers
Carpet baggers were Northerners that came to the South to exploit blacks for political gain. There are some that argue that they were merely looking for new opportunities and not seeking to exploit anyone.
The Impeachment of Johnson
Johnson was impeached for trying to dismiss Edwin M. Stanton, a War Secretary allied with the Radical Republicans, without the approval of the Senate. The Senate was one vote short of the two-thirds required to remove Johnson from office.
Constitutional Convention
The Articles of Confederation set up a weak government and the economy was terrible. Madison, Washington, Hamilton, Wilson, and Franklin protested until delegates met in Annapolis in 1786. They called for a convention to be held in 1787 to revise the flawed Articles of Confederation. In the Convention the Constitution was written which changed the entire structure of the government. George Washington was elected to lead the Convention and every state (with the exception of Rhode Island) was represented. In the Convention the delegated came to form the Great Compromise, 3/5 Compromise, and Commerce Compromise.
An American political party formed by Alexander Hamilton during the First Party System, who controlled the Federal Government until 1801. The Federalists controlled the federal government until 180 and were even supported by prominent religious leaders. The party supported a strong military and showed no concern for the right’s of each individual state. The party was constructed of nationalists that believed in a nation state. The party advocated the Constitution and appealed to merchants, bankers, lawyers, editors, landowners, and industrialists John Marshall was a member and strengthened the judiciary powers and George Washington supported the ideas and programs (he never officially joined the party).
Anti- Federalist
Those who opposed the Federalists. They wrote the Anti- Federalist Papers to contradict the Federalist Papers.
Three Fifths Compromise
Slaves in the South would count as 3/5 of a person in population census determining how many representatives would be in the House of Representatives.
Articles of Confederation
First organized federal government document in the United States. The Articles of Confederation was written in the summer of 1776 and adopted November 15, 1777. The Articles took away most powers of the President and kept Congress from being able to tax.
Shay’s Rebellion
In Massachusetts against state government. Poor farmers petitioned for paper money and the immediate stop of the foreclosure of their property and debtor’s prisons. Daniel Shays (former Revolutionary Army captain), used force to stop the courts, and the governor sent the militia to stop them. The rebellion was stopped, the leaders were sentenced to death for treason in 1777 (were later pardoned) and Shays ran to Vermont (pardoned in 1788). The rebellion inspired Massachusetts to ratify the Constitution.
Check and Balances
Everyone was fearful of someone else becoming to powerful so for every branch of government, there was equal power in the others. The legislature would check the president; the Supreme Court would check the Congress.
XYZ Affair
John Adam’s sent a peace commission to France to prevent the French trade restrictions on American ships. He sent three unnamed agents (X Y & Z) to tell the US that he wanted $250,000 and a 12 million dollar loan to negotiate with the Americans. The event created a stronger rift between the Federalists and Republicans.
Whiskey Rebellion
Rebellion to the excise tax on whiskey (suggested by Hamilton who was the Secretary of the Treasury at that point.) Hamilton instituted it to finance the national debt and promote less liquor consumption. In 1794 a U.S. Marshal that was handling delinquent taxpayers and summoning them to appear in court in Pennsylvania was attacked. Buildings were burned, tax collectors assaulted, and a flag raised to threaten an independent country. Washington sent armies to control the rebels.
Treaty of Greenville
Washington sent Anthony Wayne to negotiate trade with the Indians of the Ohio Valley. They did not accept and troops were sent in and ransacked villages routing 2000 Indians. He built Fort Defiance and compelled 12 tribes to sign the treaty to manipulate them and end hostilities. The treaty allowed white settlement in the area.
Washington’s Farewell Address
The speech was written for the end of his second term as President of the United States and presented in 1796. The three issues addressed were factionalism in America, the need for unity and religion, and the dangers of foreign alliances.
E Pluribus Unum-
Out of many, one.
Federalist Papers
85 newspaper articles written by Jay, Hamilton, and Madison. The articles sought to sway New York into electing Federalists. They justified the purpose of the constitution (to protect the majority and protect minority rights). It is important because no records of the convention were kept and this is a document with further commentary.
George Washington as President
1789-1797 George Washington was the first President of the United States.
Bill of Rights
12 amendments submitted by Madison in 1789. Repeal could only be made by the states and it guaranteed freedom and rights that were not specifically stated in the constitutions.
• First Amendment – Freedom of religion, speech, press, and peaceable assembly as well as the right to petition the government.
Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances.
• Second Amendment – Right to keep and bear arms.
A well regulated Militia being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the People to keep and bear Arms shall not be infringed.
• Third Amendment – Protection from quartering of troops.
No Soldier shall, in time of peace be quartered in any house, without the consent of the Owner, nor in time of war, but in a manner to be prescribed by law.
• Fourth Amendment – Protection from unreasonable search and seizure.
The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no Warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by Oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized.
• Fifth Amendment – Due process, double jeopardy, self-incrimination, private property.
No person shall be held to answer for any capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the Militia, when in actual service in time of War or public danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same offence to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use, without just compensation.
• Sixth Amendment – Trial by jury and other rights of the accused.
In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the State and district where in the crime shall have been committed, which district shall have been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to have the Assistance of Counsel for his defense.
• Seventh Amendment – Civil trial by jury.
In suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved, and no fact tried by a jury, shall be otherwise reexamined in any court of the United States, than according to the rules of the common law.
• Eighth Amendment – Prohibition of excessive bail, as well as cruel and unusual punishment.
Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.
• Ninth Amendment – Protection of rights not specifically enumerated in the Bill of Rights.
The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people.
• Tenth Amendment – Powers of states and people.
The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the states, are reserved to the states respectively, or to the people.
Census of 1790
Census Act was passed in 1790 to determine how many delegates each state would have in the House of Representatives.
Relationship between Jefferson and Hamilton
The two fought between the proper way to fund war debts and other matter. Eventually Hamilton assisted Jefferson by helping him to win the Presidential election in 1800.
Revolution of 1800
The Revolution of 1800 was really a Presidential Election in which Jefferson beat John Adams. The campaigns were brutal and filled with slander.
Marbury vs. Madison
Marbury was appointed on the last day of President John Adam’s term (to maintain some of his party’s power with the new Republican Government) but the Secretary of State, James Madison, refused to give him his commission under order’s of Thomas Jefferson. Jefferson stated that because the commission was not given during Adam’s term the commission was void.
Louisiana Purchase
In 1800 the Louisiana Territory was returned to Napoleon from Spain in the treaty of San Ildefonso. Jefferson panicked knowing that he would be surrounded by the French and British and might lose trade rights to New Orleans. The French failed to create an empire in the territory and Monroe and Livingston initiated talks with France. While the Americans intended to only Purchase New Orleans and a small portion of its surroundings, Napoleon sold the entire territory for only 15 million. The purchase doubled the size of the US.
Lewis and Clark
Lewis and Clark were sent to explore America. 40 soldiers went with them with 3 boats.
Aaron Burr and Hamilton
Aaron Burr was often slandered by Hamilton. In the election of 1800 Hamilton helped Thomas Jefferson to beat Burr. The two dueled and Hamilton was shot and killed.
The British act of forcing people to serve in the Military or Navy against their will.
Tecumseh and the Prophet
Shawnee Indian chief that led a movement to try to unite Ohio and Indiana tribes against westward expansion. His half brother was “the Prophet”.
Chesapeake Affair
Commodore Barron was commander of the Chesapeake area and refused to let the area be searched for members of the Royal Navy that had deserted their posts. The two sides fought and the British won and searched the other crew for deserters (they found 4). The war may have indirectly led to the War of 1812.
Era of Good Feelings
After war of 1812 when Monroe was President (Democratic-Republican). The Federalist party had dissolved and America was unified politically.
The Battle of New Orleans (and song)
Jackson led the Americans in defeating a British army trying to seize New Orleans. The British retreated to Mississippi and sailed back to Britain soon after.
Treaty of Ghent
Signed in Belgium by the US and Britain and ended the war of 1812.
Sacajawea was a member of the Shoshone tribe and accompanied Lewis and Clark on their expedition. She helped them numerous times in trade endeavors, translating, and served as a guide to the crew.
The War of 1812
The impressment forced the US to go into a war with England. America was not ready to fight and not trained.
Monroe Doctrine
Written mostly by James Monroe’s Secretary of State John Adams. It stated: 1. Avoid European wars unless it was in the country’s best interest. 2. American continents are not subjects for future colonization by any European Power. 3. European attempts at colonization will be considered unfriendly.
Missouri Compromise
The Missouri compromise ended fighting between slavery and anti-slavery activists in Congress. The Compromise prohibited slavery in the Louisiana Territory (excluding Missouri).
The Union of 1821
The 24 states that were in the Union after the Missouri Compromise. Free States: Connecticut, Illinois, Indiana, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, NJ, NY, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont. Slave States- Alabama, Delaware, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, Missouri, NC, SC, Tennessee, and Virginia.
Corrupt Bargain
The election of 1824 was taken to the House of Representatives. Though Jackson had 43.1% of the popular vote and 99 electoral votes, Henry Clay (Jackson’s Rival) swayed the House into electing Adams. After Adams won he appointed Clay as his Secretary of State and people believed that there was a corrupt bargain made in advance.
Jacksonian System
Jackson reformed voting rules so that owning property alone did not entitle anyone to vote. They began to call themselves Democrats. He opened the political process to more people but blacks women and Indians still had no political power. He was a militant leader, condoned slavery, and killed Indians. The spoils system that he is linked with suggests that he instituted patronage positions and gave positions to his friends rather than the most qualified. The system was practiced long before that.
Trail of Tears
In 1838 the Cherokee Indians were forced to move west and desert their land. Around 4,000 Cherokees died on the treacherous journey. The Act was part of the Indian Removal Act which also forced other Native Americans from their territory. The contract was enforced by Jackson who was the President at that time.
A young French man that witnessed the cruelties inflicted upon the Indians and documented them. He was against slavery as well. He came to America in 1831to learn from American democracy and bring its principles back to France and Europe. He wrote a book, Democracy in America, which came out in 1835 and 1840 (second edition). In it he wrote about how he admired the Republican system but also criticized America’s greed. He predicted the future war between the US and Russia.
Nat Turner
A slave born in 1800 that died in 1831. Turner was a preacher and inspired others to rebel (about 70) He led a rebellion in Virginia and killed his master and the masters of his followers. Many scared whites fled the state but eventually a group of whites attacked Turner’s army. Turner tried to fight back and went into hiding for 2 months. He was eventually caught and hanged but remained a legend. Strict slave laws were enforced after his death.
Old Federalists that believed in Hamilton led by Henry Clay and Daniel Webster. They were compiled of the remainder of the Federalist Party, and Western Farmers. They supported a strong central government, a national bank, and paper money. They feared Jackson’s power and called him King Andrew. They nominated 3 for president and slandered the other candidates. They presented their candidate, General Harrison, as representatives of the common people [living in a log cabin (not true)] when really their presidential candidate was from a distinguished family. Harrison won but died a month after he became president and his VP John Tyler took over.
Americans began to settle in Texas (then controlled by Mexico). The Americans tried to succeed (partially because slavery was outlawed in Mexico) but Mexico’s President Santa Anna would not allow it. The situation erupted in war and the Americans took cover behind a mission, the Alamo. The Mexican’s won and everyone was killed and set on fire (including Davy Crocket and more) Only three survived, Susanna Dickenson, her baby and a slave named Joe. The 3 warned the rest and in the Second battle the heated Texans killed hundreds of Mexicans, captured Santa Anna, and the rest were forced to retreat across the Rio Grande. Houston was then made President of the republic and the constitution was ratified. Jackson recognized Texas’s independence and because Texas believed in slavery and the government didn’t want more problems.
Manifest Destiny
The annexing of Texas inspired John O’Sullivan to write an article telling people that it was destiny that people move west and develop the continent in 1845. The motivator in this theory was American greed and rapid Westward Expansion continued with vigor. Trails were created by mass groups of expansionists such as the Santa Fe Trail, the Old Spanish Trail, The Mormon Trail, The Organ Trail, the Oxbow Route.