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38 Cards in this Set

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Alfred of Wessex
Partook in the Battle of Edington, 878 and successfully defended against viking raids. Convinced other Anglo-Saxon kings that vikings could be defended.
4 Avenues of Unification:
1. Military Reforms- Needed stronger protection. Burhs, which were border defense. garrisoned, man force. He established the first navy.
2. Legal Code- Create written law code. Laws generated from King (Alfred). Shires, which was the division of administrative units. Reeve, was an administrative police for the division
3. Education- Needed literate men at hand in the gov’t. Monastery was literate
4. Political- Marriage diplomacy, which was a business agreement between royal families. Fixed marriages to unite kingdoms.
Lindsifarne, 793
Vikings attack monastery. Monks are pacifists and are easy to attack. All of the wealth was in the monasteries during this time.
Hugh Capet
France elected the weakest ruler they could find because they didn’t want a powerful king overpowering the local lords.
Otto I
Successor to kingship. Otto centralized power.
955- Battle of Lechfeld. Invaded Magyars. Otto defeats the Magyars. Hold 2 Magyar chiefs and as many as he could, and had them all hanged. The Magyars stopped invading. He becomes Holy Roman Emperor.
Gregory VII
Reform Pope. Main focus is dealing with Lay Investiture. “Freedom of the Church” was his attempted to free the church from secular power and to get back on the right track. Excommunitcated Henry IV
Henry IV of Germany
Got excommunicated by Gregory. He was out of the church, no more sacraments. He released political ties with German as a king. He calls a church council. They drew bishops who were loyal to him to elect a new Pope, but this plan failed. The German nobility revolted and told Henry to work out the excommunication or they would elect a new emperor. He apologized to the Pope and got forgiveness. Once he was crowned again, he did the same thing and is excommunicated.
Pope Urban II
Was at the Council of Clermont in 1095. He preaches 1st crusade about dangers of fallen pilgrims. Told all to join together and fight for God’s will.
4th Crusade
Called the Venetian Crusade. It was called by the most powerful Pope. Venetians negotiate with the crusaders and ended up helping the venetians conquer other Christians.
1140. It outlined church responsibility and authority. Gratian wanted a codified system of law. The Decretum drew upon Biblical law, it compiled papal decrees and writings, used wide variety of Roman Law, and gave church power to try cases that had to do with Christianity. Rome final court of appeals
Pope Innocent III
4th Crusade. Brought in Roman Law for means of authority. The Church has the right to enter if secular ruler does something immoral.
Philip II
A very powerful individual. He doubles the territory and French Monarchy, Quadruples money. Marriage diplomacy and war.
Fredrick Barbarossa
He wanted to restore the empire, ensure authority of emperor, wanted a hereditary reign and makes the title hereditary. This ends creating a new phase of investiture and a crusade gets launched against HRE. He had 3 keys to success:
1. Used Roman Law
2. Feudalism in Germany- according to law, he owned all land and lent it out to others to maintain control of his empire.
3. Intervened in Church Politics- To annex Italy he needs favor of Pope. He helps restore Pope Adrian IV and Adrian crowns him as HRE.
3 key successes
Fredrick II
Wanted to unite Germany and Italy under imperial power. He followed hereditary rule. He granted local lords control of their land again. He inherited Sicily and the Papal States are stuck in the middle of his power. In 1227, Gregory IX excommunicates Fredrick.
Louis VII and Eleanor of Aquitaine
Wanted to build a new power base. He used the church as his ally. He established royal justice which expanded the legal/court system. Now the judicial system was headed by the king and court, they followed Roman Law and united the French under one common law. Was with Eleanor of Aquitaine and couldn’t make a male heir so Louis wanted the marriage to be annulled. She later on married Henry II and gave his the French connection or Normandy, Brittany, Maine, Anjou, and Aquitaine.
King John of England and Isabel of Angeouleme and Battle of Bouvines
Fought over Isabel of Angeouleme. Isabel is the reason Philip ordered John to his court following feudal law and the 12 year war betwen the two nations. From 1202-1214 he was at war. John looses majority of continental holdings. In 1214 was the Battle of Bouvines which was regarding the governing of the territory. King John lost Normandy, Maine, and Anjou.
Chose from middle class, chosen from France. They served as royal agents representing crown’s interest throughout France. They were chosen from Ile de France so their loyalties were to the Capetians and no other lord. This allowed the Capetians to benefit from feudal system instead suffer. Overall important because helps us see the successful expansion of royal power from the Capetian kings.
Battle of Stamford Bridge and Harold Hadraada
1066? Harold Hadraada, King of Norway, attacks Harold Godwinson, Earl of Wessex. Hadraada thought he had a true right to be successor because of his father who was a successor in the past. It was an absolute defeat of Vikings. Hadraada was killed.
Battle of Hastings
1066. William the Conqueror successfully defeats Godwinson. William becomes the new King of England. He successfully separated fiefs so they didn’t create a power base. William the Conqueror internally bleeds from his horse, dies, and explodes while being pushed in coffin.(extra credit).
Thomas Becket
Archbishop of Canerberry. Henry wanted to bring the English Church under his control through political power. If clergy were accused, they went to court, then Royal Court. Thomas Becket said it’s double jeopardy and wanted Henry to stop. Henry says to 4 knights that he didn’t want Becket around, and the knights killed Becket.
Magna Carta
1215. Establish rights for all Lords and all English subject to common law.
University of Bologna
1158. Model based on student interest. Students organized guild and ran the university. The students decided who teaches, how much to pay, and had to keep track of their professors.
University of Paris
1175. Model based upon organization of the masters. Masters wanted complete control of the curriculum. Monopoly for schooling.
Philip IV
Launches a campaign and cuts Rome off from church money collected in France. He begins to collect taxes. Boniface backed down and then Philip began taxing the clergy and brings a minor bishop to a Royal Court to be tried for treason and heresy. Boniface soon excommunicates Philip. But Philip ended up kidnaping Boniface and killed him.
Unam Sanctum
1302. Reiterate that church came first and nationalism is second. It had 2 key points:
1. Temporal authority ought to be subject to spiritual power.
2. If temporal authority errs, it shall be judged by the spiritual power.
Charles Martel’s idea of exchanging land for military service.
Goslar Silver Mines
Rich source of income. Used silver to pay for military service and award loyalty.
1118. Poor soldiers of the Temple. Most trained soldiers of the Crusades. Gained wealth with limitless power. 1307, Phillip IV had them arrested on heresy, because of their power and were put to death.
Battle of Legano
1176. Pope Alexander III defended Lombardy from Fredrick Barbarossa's advances. Barbarossa lost and is unable to gain control of the Lombard's in N. Italy as planned.
Royal Touch
Also known as a Scrofula. Capetian kings granted special healing powers for the Royal Touch.
Great Schism
1378-1417. Election of Urban VI (Roman), said election null/void. Elect Clement VII (Avignon). Council of Pisa (Alexander V), tries to get rid of both Popes, but both refuse. Sigismund calls Council of Constance to end schism with the election of Martin V.
Peter the Hermit
Led the Popular Crusade. It consisted of 40-50,000 people. Very effective leader of the crusades
Louis the Pious'
the Pious's division of Charlemagn'e empire among his sons led to the complete
disintegration of the empire.
Ile de France
island of France, the traditional territory of the Capetians
and the only territory in FRance in which teh Capetians had complete control for
many years.
Council of Constance
1414-1418. the Council called by
HREmperor Sigismund to end the Great Schism - had three main goals 1) end Schism
2)reform the church to prevent another schism and 3) suppress heresy
Electors, 1257
after the end of the problematic rule of Emperor FRederick
II, the seven most powerful German nobles established the Electors in 1257. This
body of noblemen held the power to elect the Holy Roman Emperor from 1257 until
the end of the empire in the nineteenth century. The emperors, beginning with
the Ottonians tried to keep the imperial succession as a hereditary position;
the establishment of the electors ended the yo-yoing back and forth between the
German nobles and the emperors.
Boniface VIII
this is the pope who struggled with French King Philip IV over
taxation and trying clergy in a secular court. He created Unam Sanctum, was
kidnapped by Philip IV. His death set the stage for the Babylonian Captivity (he
should be in your notes for the final Tuesday of classes)
Peace of God
989. laws passed by Capetian King Louis VII in an attempt to stop
the violence done to civilians in times of war - spelled out rules of engagement
so that women, children and clergy were protected. French nobility agreed to
abide by the peace and turned any transgressors over to the king for judgment in
his royal court. First time the Capetians able to exert their authority over all
French beyond the Ile de France.
Albigensian Crusade
1209. Declared by Pope Innocent III, lasted 40 years. Spread of warfare against the people of Languedoc (Cathars). Considered the first genocide. Roman Catholics saw the people as heretics.