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40 Cards in this Set

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feudalism
the social system that developed in Europe in the 8th century; vassals were protected by lords who they had to serve in war
stirrup
Stirrups changed the basic tactics of mounted warfare and made cavalry more important
horse collar
A horse collar is a device used to distribute load around a horse's neck, for pulling a wagon or plow. The horse collar was invented by 400 BC in China, and spread to Europe around the 8th or 9th century. The horse collar was important in the development of Europe, as the replacement of the oxen with horses for ploughing boosted the economy, reduced reliance on subsistence farming, and allowed the development of early industry, education and the arts.
escapement
The escapement drives the pendulum in a pendulum clock, usually from a gear train. The weight or spring forcing the gear to turn pushes against the arm of the escapement which pushes the pendulum back the other way
crank
A crank is a bent portion of an axle, or shaft, or an arm keyed at right angles to the end of a shaft, by which motion is imparted to or received from it; also used to change circular into reciprocating motion, or reciprocating into circular motion. Familiar examples of a crank for manual use include the crank on a manual pencil sharpener and the crankset that drives a bicycle via the pedals.
clepsydra
another name for the water clock.
temporal hours
Hours which form a set division (usually 1/12th) of the period of daylight (and similarly of night). The length of a temporal hour on a summer day will be longer than that for a winter day.
equal hours
Here a complete diurnal or day and night-time period is divided into 24 equal hours.
time signal
a visible, audible, mechanical, or electronic signal used as a reference to determine the time of day.
Su Sung
a Chinese engineer. He invented a water-driven astronomical clock.
House of Wisdom (Baghdad)
library and translation institute. a major intellectual center of the Islamic Golden Age.
astrolabe
a historical astronomical instrument used by classical astronomers and astrologers. It was the chief navigational instrument until the invention of the sextant in the 18th century. Its many uses included locating and predicting the positions of the Sun, Moon, planets and stars; determining local time given local longitude and vice-versa; surveying; and triangulation. Astrologers of the European nations used astrolabes to construct horoscopes.
muwaqqit
a professional astronomer employed by a mosque
Ibn Sina
He was the author of 450 books on a wide range of subjects, many of which concentrated on philosophy and medicine.
Johann Gutenberg
Among Gutenberg's specific contributions were the design of movable type, the invention of a process for making such type, the use of oil-based ink, and the use of a wooden printing press similar to the screw olive and wine presses of the period. His truly epochal invention was the combination of these elements into a practical system.
printing press
a mechanical printing device for making copies of identical text on multiple sheets of paper. It was invented in Germany by the goldsmith and printer Johannes Gutenberg in 1447.
Nicolaus Copernicus
the astronomer who formulated the first modern heliocentric theory of the solar system.
heliocentrism
heliocentrism is the belief that the Sun is at the center of the Universe and/or the Solar System.
epicycle
was a geometric model to explain the variations in speed and direction of the apparent motion of the Moon, Sun, and planets.
deferent
the planets are assumed to move in a small circle, called an epicycle, which in turn moves along a larger circle called a deferent. Both circles rotate counterclockwise and are roughly parallel to the Earth's plane of orbit (ecliptic
equant point
a point about which the angular velocity of a body on its orbit is constant.
Nova of 1572
marked the beginning of the end of Aristotelian cosmology and provided the defining moment when the young Tycho Brahe became a professional astronomer.
Tycho Brahe
best known today as an early astronomer, though in his lifetime he was also well known as an astrologer and alchemist. He is credited with the most accurate astronomical observations of his time, and the data were used by his assistant Kepler to derive the laws of planetary motion.
Johannes Kepler
He is best known for his laws of planetary motion. Kepler's laws would be the foundation of Isaac Newton's theory of universal gravitation.
conic sections
is a curve that can be formed by intersecting a cone (more precisely, a right circular conical surface) with a plane.
Starry Messenger
is a short treatise published in Latin by Galileo Galilei in March 1610. It was the first scientific treatise based on observations made through a telescope. It contains the results of Galileo's early observations of the Moon, the stars, and the moons of Jupiter.
Galileo Galilei
His achievements include improvements to the telescope, a variety of astronomical observations, and effective support for Copernicanism. He has been referred to as the "father of modern astronomy," as the "father of modern physics", and as the "father of science". The work of Galileo is considered to be a significant break from that of Aristotle.
accommodation
is a theological principle linked to divine revelation within the Christian church. Also called condescension, the principle of Accommodation is that God, while being in his nature unknowable and unreachable, has nevertheless communicated with mankind in a way in which humans can understand and respond.
Book of Nature
Galileo's famous metaphor of the "book of nature", which he used to defend the work of scientists from religious authorities. Nature, he wrote, is a book written in "the language of mathematics". If we cannot understand that language, we will be doomed to wander about as if "in a dark labyrinth".
natural history
used to refer to all descriptive aspects of the study of nature
Andreas Vesalius
was an anatomist,physician, and author of one of the most influential books on human anatomy, De humani corporis fabrica (On the Workings of the Human Body). Vesalius is often referred to as the founder of modern human anatomy.
William Harvey
was an English medical doctor, who is credited with first correctly describing, in exact detail, the properties of blood being pumped around the body by the heart.
Francis Bacon
was an English philosopher, statesman and essayist but is best known for leading the scientific revolution with his new 'observation and experimentation' theory which is the way science has been conducted ever since.
experiment
is a set of actions and observations, performed in the context of solving a particular problem or question, to support or falsify a hypothesis or research concerning phenomena. The experiment is a cornerstone in the empirical approach to acquiring deeper knowledge about the physical world.
Great Instauration
Bacon’s brainchild is his Great Instauration, a project he conceived for the step-by-step restoration of a state of paradise upon earth, but coupled with the illumination of mankind. In other words, whereas mankind was innocently ignorant in the original paradise, in the future paradise all human souls will have reached a state of knowledge of truth.
New Organon
This is a reference to Aristotle's work Organon which was his treatise on logic and syllogism. In Novum Organum, Bacon details a new system of logic he believes to be superior to the old ways of deductive reasoning.
Scientific Revolution
The standard theory of the history of the scientific revolution claims the seventeenth century was a period of revolutionary scientific changes. It is claimed that not only were there revolutionary theoretical and experimental developments, but that even more importantly, the way in which scientists worked was radically changed. Some claim that at the beginning of the century, science was highly Aristotelian, while at its end, science was mechanical, and empirical.
Robert Boyle
Boyle's great merit as a scientific investigator is that he carried out the principles which Francis Bacon preached.
primary qualities
are properties that do exist in the external world the same way humans perceive them, like shape, size, distance, hardness, and volume.
Secondary qualities
do not exist in things themselves. They depend on the mind. These include colour, taste, texture, smell, temperature, and sound.