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165 Cards in this Set

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Civil War
Lasted from 1861-1865 and cost 65,000 lives
Reconstruction
The responsibility of the victors of the war. It means the defeating side's army stays behind after the battle is won and ensures that the area they defeated has a better version of government and other factors that make up a land. It's taking responsibility for their changes and making sure that the changes actually take place
Thirteenth Amendment
Ratified in December 1865 and abolished slavery throughout the Union
Fourteenth Amendment
Was a Civil Rights Act that passed on June 16, 1866 and was ratidied on July 28, 1868. It reaffirmed state and federal citizenship for persons born or naturalized in the States and forbade any state the right to abridge the priveledges of citizens or deny them life, liberty, or property without due process of law
Fifteenth Amendment
Ratified in 1870 it forbade the states to deny any person the vote on the grounds of race, color, or previous condition of servitude
Homestead Act
1862-- Authorized Congress to grant 160 acres of public land to western settler, who had only to live on the land for 5 years to establish title
Freedman
former slave
Freedman's Bureau
Reconstruction agency that established in 1865 to protect the legal rights of former slaves and to assist with their education, jobs, health care, and landowning
Lincoln's 10 Percent Plan
any rebel state could form a Union in government whenever the number equal to 10% of those who had voted in 1860 took an oath of allegiance to the Constitution and the Union and had received the presidentail pardon
Radical Republicans
Senators and congressmen who, strictly identifying the Civil War with the abolitionist cause, sought swift emancipation of the slaves, punishment of the rebels, and tight controls of the former Confederate states after the war
Sic Semper Tyrannis
Thus Always to Tyrants - what John Wilkes Booth siad when he assassinated Lincoln it was the motto of W.V.
Andrew Johnson
The man that took over after Lincoln was assassinated; he was a War Democrat who had been put on the Union Ticket as a gesture of unity
Black Codes (1865-1866)
Laws that were passed in the southern states to restrict the rigths of former slaves, to combat the codes, Congress passed the Civil Rights Act of 1866 and the Fourteenth Amendment and set up military governments in southern states that refused to ratify the ammendment
Carpetbaggers
Northern emigrants who participated in the Republican governments of the Reconstrution South
Scalawags
Southern white Republicans - some former Unionists - who served in tReconstruction South
Klu Klux Klan
prototype of the terrorist groups; established in 1866 by some young men from Tenessee it was meant to be a social club with costumes, secret ritual, they were a group of pranksters for some time but became the intimidation of blacks and white Republicans
Ulysses S. Grant
president through the collapse of the Republican rule in the South, little political experience but had a good record as a war leader, was a Republican
Election of 1876
Hayes - the Republican candidate from Ohio (3 time governor from there) he had a name as a civil service reformer and was offensive to neither side
Tilden - The democratic candidate who was a millionaire corporation lawyer and reform governor form New York who had directed a campaign to overthrow the notorious Tweed Ring controlling New York politics and the CAnal Ring of Albany
bloody shirts
comes from the Republicans, it means they engaged in verbalk assaults on former COnfederates and the spirit of rebellion
Compromise of 1877
Deal made by a special congressional commission on March 2, 1877 to resolve the disputed presidential election of 1876; Republican Hayes, who had lost the popular vote, was declared the victor in exhange for the withdrawl of federal troops form the south, end of Reconstructiomn
Redeemer/ Bourbon
Conservative white Democrats, many of whom had been planters or businessmen before teh Civil War, who reclaimes control of the South following the end of Recon.
New South
Atlanta Constitution Editor Henry W. Grady's 1886 term for the prosperous post - Civil War South that he envisioned: democratic, industrail, urban and free of nostalgia for the defeated plantaion south
Henry Grady -
Supported the idea of the New South, he was the editior of the Atlanta Constitution and used his newspaer to convince people to work towards the New South nd gave many sppeches to that end
Duke Family
key to the rise of the tobacco industry; the father figure of this family had nearly nothing to his name at the close of teh Civil War but bought a barnful of tobacco and prepared it and sold it and the family wealth grew generation to generation
Pittsburgh of the South
Birmingham, Alabama because it was full of factories and industrial, had great iron and steel factories
Tenancy
renting of farmland by workers who owned their own equipement, tenant farmers kept a larger percentage of the crop than did sharecroppers
convict lease
system developed pot Civil War South that generated income for the states and satisfied planters need for cheap labor by renting prisoners out, the convicts were often treated poorly
Jim Crowe Laws
mandated public segregation of blacks
Poll tax
tax that must be paid in order to be eligible to vote, used as an effective means of disenfranchising black citizens after the Civil War, since they often could not afford the modest fee
grandfatehr clause
loophole created by southern disenfranchising legislatures of the 1892 for illiterate white males whose grandfatehrs had been eligible to vote in 1867
Plessy vs. Fergesun
US Supreme court decision supporting the Jim Crowe Laws that permitted or required seperate but equal facilities for blacks and whites
Ida Wells
One of the most outspoken black activists, born into slavery, orphaned at the age of six by the yellow fever, filed a suit after being denied a seat on the railroad, worked against lynchings and was a journalist
Booker T. Washington -
tried to get rights for blacks, no social rights though, rebuilding from ground up, wanted economic strength
W.E.B. Du Bois
from the North, born free, recieved a PHD from Harvard came up with the idea of the talented tenth , acheieved a lot bu the main acheivemnets happened after his death
Great Amercian Desert
Frt Smith, Arkansas to California border no one lived there unless they were running form something
exodusters
a group of african americans who imigrated west to make their exodus out of segregation and to get away from racism and poverty
buffalo soilders
mostly civil war veterans who came from Kentucky or Lousiana and built forts, mapped vast areas of the Southwest, strung hundreds of miles of telegraph lines , protected railroad construction cres, subdued hostile Indians
Comstock Lode
mine that produced gold and silver and was excavated and earned the miners more than 300 million
1867 report on the Condition of Indian Tribes
led to an act to establish an Indian Peace Commission charged with ending the Sioux War and removing the causes of Indian wars in general. It was kind of a gatehring of evidence on the grisly wars and massacres
Cheif Joseph
the cheif of Nez Perce who tried to avoid war by fleeoing and was eventually caught thirty miles short of the Canadian border and exiled to Oklahoma with the Indians
Geronimo
A chief of the Chiricahua Apaches who had fought white settlers for 15 years and his capture led to end of a generation of Indian Wars
Ghost Dance
ceremonial dance that was supposed to bring the Indians Some one to save them from the terrible apoycolipse they were experiencing. It was to bring the revival of Indian ways
Wounded Knee
last accident of the Indian Wars took place in 1890 in Dakota Territory where the US calvary killed over 200 Sioux men, women, and children who were in the process of surrender
Dawes Severuty Act
an act that permitted the president to divide the lands of any tribe and grant 160 acres to the head of each family and lesser amounts to tothers. The property would be owned by the government for 25 years and then become the property of the person who had worked it
Gustavus Swift
developed a way to keep meat cold
Joseph Glidden
Illionois famer who created barbed wire
Range Wars
cowboys vs. cowboys or cowboys vs. settlers lasted for decades and killed men
Frederick Jackson Turner
a historian who wrote the familiar thesis that guided serval scholars in their understanding of the distinct characteristics of American history
The Second Industrial Revolution
involved three related developments which were the creation of an interconnected national transportation and communication network, the use of electrical powere, and the application of scientific research to industrial processes
Union Pacific
one of the train compoanies that Lincoln had build a railroad from Omaha to Sacremento. The Union Pacific was pushed through quickly so the job was done less than well and would have to be redone later but they built more of the railway had a crew of ex-soliders and blacks and Irish people and they had bad conditions but they won the race
Central APcific
mainly Chinese workers lured by the Californai gold rushes and only did 689 miles of the railway
Coolie
single males intent upon accumulating money and then returning to their homeland where they could afford to marry and buy land
robber barons
ruthless individuals, tended to be very conscious of the economy, tended to see things that others didn't, tended to be very good at recognizing telent
Alexander Graham Bell
creator of the telephone which was patented in 1876
Thomas Edison
invented the phonograph and the light bulb
George Westinghouse
professional inventor, solved the problem of stopping trains - neumatic braking - makes it easier to run the trains faster
Battle of the Currents
Conflict in the late 1880s between inventors Edison and Westinghouse over direct versus alternating electric currents, westinghouse's alternating current the winner allowed electricity to travel over long distances
Standard Oil
owned by Rockefellar it cut out the middleman
Vertical integration
Company's avoidance of middlemen by producing its own supplies and providing distribution of its product
The Gospel of Wealth
Carnegie - if you defeat your business opponent then you should do what you can to create a ladder so that others may climb financially
Investment Bacnking
loaning money so that another person may satrt a business and will eventually benefit you
Investment Bacnking
loaning money so that another person may satrt a business and will eventually benefit you
Investment Bacnking
loaning money so that another person may satrt a business and will eventually benefit you
Sears, Roebuck, and Company catalog
conicopia of goods could be sent to your home
Sears, Roebuck, and Company catalog
conicopia of goods could be sent to your home
Molly Maguires
Irish group that was incited by dangerous working conditons in the mines and the owners brutal efforts to suppress union activity
Molly Maguires
Irish group that was incited by dangerous working conditons in the mines and the owners brutal efforts to suppress union activity
Great Railroad Strike
first major strike in American history that came after wages had been cut because of the impending depression
Sears, Roebuck, and Company catalog
conicopia of goods could be sent to your home
Great Railroad Strike
first major strike in American history that came after wages had been cut because of the impending depression
Sand Lot incident
the Snad Lot was a meeting to express sympathy for the strikers but ended in attacks of the Chinese ans they all joined a group
Molly Maguires
Irish group that was incited by dangerous working conditons in the mines and the owners brutal efforts to suppress union activity
Sand Lot incident
the Snad Lot was a meeting to express sympathy for the strikers but ended in attacks of the Chinese ans they all joined a group
Knights of Labor
Founded in 1869,the first national union picked up many memebers after the disastrous 1877 railraod strike but lasted, under the leadership of Terence V. Powderly, only into the 1890s; supplanted by the American Federation of Labor
Great Railroad Strike
first major strike in American history that came after wages had been cut because of the impending depression
propaganda of the deed
brought by the anarchists
Sand Lot incident
the Snad Lot was a meeting to express sympathy for the strikers but ended in attacks of the Chinese ans they all joined a group
Knights of Labor
Founded in 1869,the first national union picked up many memebers after the disastrous 1877 railraod strike but lasted, under the leadership of Terence V. Powderly, only into the 1890s; supplanted by the American Federation of Labor
Haymarket Affair
Riot during an anarchist protest at Haymarket Square in Chicago on May 4 1886 over violence during the McCormick Harvester Company Strike, the deaths of 11, including seven policemen, helped hasten the demise of the Knights of Labor, even though they were not responsible for the riot
Knights of Labor
Founded in 1869,the first national union picked up many memebers after the disastrous 1877 railraod strike but lasted, under the leadership of Terence V. Powderly, only into the 1890s; supplanted by the American Federation of Labor
propaganda of the deed
brought by the anarchists
American Federation of Labor
Founded in 1881 as a federation of trade unions, the AFl under president Samuel Gompers successfully pused for the eight hour workday
propaganda of the deed
brought by the anarchists
closed shop
hiring requirement that all workers in a business must be union members
Haymarket Affair
Riot during an anarchist protest at Haymarket Square in Chicago on May 4 1886 over violence during the McCormick Harvester Company Strike, the deaths of 11, including seven policemen, helped hasten the demise of the Knights of Labor, even though they were not responsible for the riot
Haymarket Affair
Riot during an anarchist protest at Haymarket Square in Chicago on May 4 1886 over violence during the McCormick Harvester Company Strike, the deaths of 11, including seven policemen, helped hasten the demise of the Knights of Labor, even though they were not responsible for the riot
American Federation of Labor
Founded in 1881 as a federation of trade unions, the AFl under president Samuel Gompers successfully pused for the eight hour workday
union preference shop
could hire otehrs if union members were not available
closed shop
hiring requirement that all workers in a business must be union members
American Federation of Labor
Founded in 1881 as a federation of trade unions, the AFl under president Samuel Gompers successfully pused for the eight hour workday
closed shop
hiring requirement that all workers in a business must be union members
union preference shop
could hire otehrs if union members were not available
homestead strike
violent strike at the Carnegie Steel Company near Pittsburgh in 1892 that culminated in the disintegration of the Amalgamated Association of the Iron and Steel Workers, the first steelworkers union
union preference shop
could hire otehrs if union members were not available
homestead strike
violent strike at the Carnegie Steel Company near Pittsburgh in 1892 that culminated in the disintegration of the Amalgamated Association of the Iron and Steel Workers, the first steelworkers union
pullman strike
strike against the Pullman Palace Car Company in the town of Pullman Illinois on May 11 1894 by the American Railway Union under Eugene V. Debs the strike was crushed by court injunctions and the federal troops 2 months later
homestead strike
violent strike at the Carnegie Steel Company near Pittsburgh in 1892 that culminated in the disintegration of the Amalgamated Association of the Iron and Steel Workers, the first steelworkers union
pullman strike
strike against the Pullman Palace Car Company in the town of Pullman Illinois on May 11 1894 by the American Railway Union under Eugene V. Debs the strike was crushed by court injunctions and the federal troops 2 months later
pullman strike
strike against the Pullman Palace Car Company in the town of Pullman Illinois on May 11 1894 by the American Railway Union under Eugene V. Debs the strike was crushed by court injunctions and the federal troops 2 months later
Mother Jones
most colorful and beloved agitator worked for better conditions in the workplace
Mother Jones
most colorful and beloved agitator worked for better conditions in the workplace
Industrial Worker of the World
Wobblies - Radical Union organized in Chicago in 1905 and nicknamed the Wobblies, its oppostition to WW1 led to its destruction by the fed. government under the Espionage Act
Mother Jones
most colorful and beloved agitator worked for better conditions in the workplace
Industrial Worker of the World
Wobblies - Radical Union organized in Chicago in 1905 and nicknamed the Wobblies, its oppostition to WW1 led to its destruction by the fed. government under the Espionage Act
Industrial Worker of the World
Wobblies - Radical Union organized in Chicago in 1905 and nicknamed the Wobblies, its oppostition to WW1 led to its destruction by the fed. government under the Espionage Act
Otis Elevator company
in 1889 they installed the 1st electric elevator making it possible to build taller buildings
Streetcar Syburbs
middle class resided in quiet tree lined streets, traveled to city for work
dumbbell tenements
6-8 stories tall, jammed together, two feet in between, looked like dumbell from the air
Ellis Island
reception center in new york city Harbor through which most European immigrants to America were possessed from 1892 to 1954
Angel Island
West Coast counterpart of Ellis Island six miles form San Fran mostly Asian immigrants over 30% denied and detained
patrones
hiring agents who would give immigrants whiskey and a job and get a chunk of their wage
Little Italy, Little Hungary, Chinatown
immigrant enclaves that served as transitional communities practicce religion, customs
American Protective Association-
Nativist, anti-Catholic secret society founded in Iowa in 1887 and active until the end of the Century
Chinese Exclusion Act (1882)
halted Chinese immigration to the US
Buffalo Bill's Wild West
touring extravaganza had cowboys and Indians romanticized the American west
Vaudeville
a play accompianed by music featuring comedians, singers, blackface ministrels, farcical plays, animal acts, jugglers, gymnasts, dancers, mines, magicians
Frederick Law Olmstead
designer of New Yorks Central PArk - sought to create and oasis os culture that would promote social stability
safety bicycle
wheels of equal size and axles with ball bearings - safer to ride
Coney Island
popular plae to hang out on the weekends, swimming, vaudeville shows, dance pavilions, restaurants, boardwalks
Saloon Culture
kind of public homes that offered food and fellowship, possible jobs, mail letters, gossip, refuge for poor
Women's Christian Temperance Union
anti-liquor society charged that saloons tributed to alcoholism, divorce, crime and absenteeism from work - wanted the saloons closed
Dr. James Naismith
inventor of basketball nailed two peach baskets to the walls of the YMCA - wanted to create a new indoor game to be played in the winter
national pastime
baseball, most democratic sport in America - people form all classes play
Vassar College
had basketball, opened in 1865 - 1 st womens college to tach by the same standards of the best manes schools
John Hopkins U.
Baltimore 1867 made graduate work its chief concern students worked under supervisoon of an experienced scholar
William James
wrote pragmatisism : a new name for some old ways of thinking, Prfesser of Philosophy and Psychology at Harvard - believed that truth came from testing out new ideas
Local Colonists -
expressed the nostalgia of people moving from rural to urban movement
Literary naturalism
young literary rebels who imported scientific determinism into literature, viewing poeple as part of the animal world, prey to natural forces and internal drives without control or full knowledge of them
Social Gospel
preached by liberal Protestant clergymen in the late 19th century and early 20th century - advocated the application of Christian principles to social problems generaated by industrialization
YMCA
came from England in the 1850s, grew rapidly, acted as a response from the church of human needs
Salvation Army
founded in 1876, came to the US in 1880 another response to human needs
Jane Addams
had a Hull House with Ellen Starr, reciever of the Noble Pecae Prize award
Susan B.Anthony
demanded that the 14th amendment guarentee the vote for both women and black males president of NAWSA
Laissez faire calues
ended in 19th century
Gilded Age
Mark Twain and Dudley Warner's 1873 novel, the tilte of which became the popular name for the period form the end of the Reconstructiont o the turn of the century
Civil Service Reform
Hayes pushed for it
Stalwarts
supported Grants, a Radical Southern policy and the spoils system
Halfbreeds
during the presidency of Hayes, 1877-81, a moderate Republican party fation led by senator James Blaine that favored some reforms of civil service reform and a restrained policy toward gthe degfeated South
the Pendleton Servic Act (1883)
established the Civial Service C ommission and marked the edn of the spoils system
James Blaine "the continental liar"
senator form Maine who ran against Cleveland, part of a chant by the Democrats
Ma,ma, where's my pa?
the first half of a chant from the Republicans to conter continental liar
Party of Rum, Romanism and Rebellion
what a protestant minister catergorized the democrats as, Blaine let it go which may have impacted the vote
Wabash Railroad vs. illinois
Reversing the Supreme Courts ruling in Munn vs. Illinois, the decision disallowed satae regulation of intertstate comerce
Interstate Commerce Commission
reacting to the supreme courts ruling in Wabash Railroad v. Illinois, Congress establsihed the ICC to curb abuses in the railroad industry by regualting rates
tariff
federal tax on goods
Sherman Anit-trust act (1890)
first law to restrict monopolistic and business combinations; extended by the Clayton Anti-trust act of 1914
The grange
began as a social and educational response to the famrmers isolation, grew to promote farmer-owned cooperatives for buying and selling of crops, be free from conventional marketplace
the famers alliance
two seperate organizations (northwestern and southern) of the 1880s and 1890s that took the place of the grange, worked for similar causes and attrracted landless, as well as landed farmbanks - allow them to exchange crops for household items
people party (populists)
political success of the farmers alliance candidate encouraged the formation in 1892 of the national peopl's party, active until 1912, it adopted a variety of reform issues including free coinage of silver, income tax, postal sacvings, regulkation of railroads, direct election of US sebators
Mary Elizabeth Lease
a lawyer who took up public speaking on behalf of various causes joined the Alliance and Knights of Labor
Depression of 1893
worst depression of the century, set off by railroad failure, too much speculation Wall Street, low agricultural prices
coxey's army
protest grouped by Jacob S. Coxey - demanded that the federal government provide employment for the unemployed -- meaningful work
silverite
people for currency to be made of silber
goldbug
people for currency to be made of gold
William Jennings Bryan
Democratic candidate 1896 election - prosilver --lost
Cross of Gold
part of bryans infamous speech that was thought to have made him win the election even though he lost to McKinley
William McKinlye
Republican candidate of the 1896 election symbolized the mainstream of Republican values WON
Manifest Destiny
imperialist phrase first used in 1845 to urge the annexation of texas, used thereafter to encourage American settlement of Europearn and colonial Indian lands in the Great Plains and Far AWest
Henry Cabot Lodge
a Senator who was in a small group that agreed to embracde the idea of overseas possessions, regardless of other implications
Alfred Mahan
same as abocve (except he was a naval officer) in 1890 published Th eInfluence of Sea Upon History in which he argues that national greatness and prosperity flowed from maritime power an imperialist wannted america to own the Caribbean
Seward Folly
William Seward was Secretary of Satte and he believed that Ameica needed to dominate the Pacific o. when alaska went up for sale he lept at the opportunity and America purchased it. critics believed this to be folly but it turned out well
jose mearti
leader of the cuban revolt against spanish rule
reconcentrado
another word for the dtention centers the cubans were housed in
yellow journalism
sensationalism in newspaper publishing that reached a peak in the circulation war between Joseph Pulitzer New York World adn William Randolph Herst New York Journmal in the 1690s the papers accounts of events in Havana harbor in 1898 led directly to the Spanish american war
u.s.s. maine
battleship that exploded in Havana Harbor on February 15, 1898 resulting in 266 deaths, the American public suuming the Spanish has mined the ship clamored to war and declared 2 moths later