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38 Cards in this Set

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Humanism
An intellectual movement of the Renaissance that emphasized study of the art and civilization of ancient Greece and Rome.
Secularism
Being more concerned with earthly matters than spiritual ones.
Rationalism
Reliance on reason as the best guide for belief and action.
Individualism
Belief in the primary importance of the individual and in the virtues of self-reliance and personal independence
Baldassare Castiglione
Italian diplomat and writer best known for Il Cortegiano (1528), which describes the perfect courtier.
Condittieri
A leader of mercenary soldiers. Had more direct power over the soldiers than the king did.
Oligarchy
Government by a few, especially by rich families.
Medici family
Italian bourgeois family that ruled Florence and later Tuscany from c. 1430 to 1737. Provided several popes.
Sforza family
Italian family that ruled Milan (1450–1535).
Charles VII
King of France (1422–1461). He ended the Hundred Years' War (1453) by driving the English from most of France.
Niccolo Machiavelli
Italian political theorist who wrote The Prince.
Cesars Borgia
An Italian politician of the late fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries, known for his treachery and cruelty. He was the brother of Lucrezia Borgia.
Petrarch
Italian poet, scholar, and humanist who is famous for Canzoniere, a collection of love lyrics.
Lorenzo Valla
Italian humanist, philosopher, and literary critic.
Pico della Mirandola
Italian Neo-Platonist philosopher and humanist famous for his 900 theses on a variety of scholarly subjects (1486).
Hermeticism
Modernist poetic movement originating in Italy in the early 20th century.
Leonardo Bruni
A leading humanist, historian and a chancellor of Florence. He has been called the first modern historian.
Sandro Botticelli
Italian painter who is known for Primavera and Birth of Venus.
Donato di Donatello
Italian sculptor, major innovator in
Renaissance art, b. Florence.
Filippo Brunelleschi
Italian architect who built the dome of the Florence cathedral.
Leonardo da Vinci
Italian Renaissance painter, sculptor, architect, and scientist.
Raphael
Italian painter whose works exemplify the ideals of the High Renaissance.
Michelangelo
Italian sculptor and painter who created the paintings on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel.
Donato Bramante
Italian architect and perspectivist painter.
Jan van Eyck
Flemish painter who pioneered modern techniques of oil painting.
Albrecht Durer
German painter and engraver.
Guillaume Dufay
Flemish composer regarded as the first great composer of the Renaissance. He is well known for his Mass compositions.
Taille
A tax imposed on each household and based on how much land they held.
Louis XI
King of France (1461–83).
Henry VII
King of England (1485–1509) and founder of the Tudor dynasty.
Court of the Star Chamber
An English court of law at the royal Palace of Westminster.
Ferdinand and Isabella
A king and queen of Spain in the late fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries.
Hapsburg Dynasty
A royal German family that provided rulers for several European states.
Charles V
Holy Roman emperor (1519–56) and king of Spain.
John Wyclif
Church reformer who translated the Bible into English.
John Hus
Czech religious reformer who was excommunicated for criticising the corruption of the clergy.
Julius II
The pope who hired Michelangelo for the Sistine Chapel.
Leo X
A Medici Pope who excommunicated Martin Luther.