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38 Cards in this Set

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describe social confusion in south after civil war
destroyed strucutre of prewar southern society. aristo planter shorn of wealth and power yielded to growing influence of bankers, merchants and small farmers
describe political uncertainity
collapse of confederacy stopped all governemental process in south
how did some want to treat south post reconstruction
some determined that southerners pay crime for secession- since it was illegal. lincoln didnt agree with this bc beleived that right to secede dn exist therefore south did not leave union
what did texas v white decide
union constituaiotally indestrucitble- therefore
what was lincolns 10% plan
1) set up provisional govt in areas where union army victorious2) issued proclamation of amnesty and reconstruction pardoning all who would swear allegiance to govt of US 3) authorized establishment of new govt for any state if 1/10 of qualified voters of 1860 would take oath of loyalty
what did lincoln face in opposition to 10% plan
some feared prez let south off too easy and that former confed officials would immediatley return to political power in their states
wade davis bill
congress passed this 1) provdied that a majoirty of while male citizens had to take loyalty oath b4 a civil govt could be organized in a seceded state 2) excluded from electorate of such states former confed officeholders and soldiers
who seceded lincoln
johnson- war democrat from tn
how did johnson react to former confed
granted amnesty to all former confed who took oath to support union. set up provisional govt in south. ratifired 13th amdendemnt
how did congress react to this
refused to seat senators and reps who had been elected by provisional state govt set up under johnson plan. republicans in congress led by thaddeus stevens created joint committeee on reconstruction with 15 members authorized to examine question of political reconstruction and make new plans for congressional action
who were the raccdical
opponents of johnson plans
what were ttheir motives in opposing johnson plan
1) animosity to johnson 2) fear of exec encroachment on congress 3) resentment over speedy return of ex confed to political power in south 4) determination of repub politicams to create repub party in south 5) humanitarian desire to safeguard norht 6.
freedmens bill
congress created freedmens bureau to protect and provide for newly emancipated blacks
civil rights bill
citizenship to black andassuring equality of treatment b4 law
black codes
conferred some rights of citizenship upon negroes but narrowly restricted econ and political activities
fourteenth amendment
1) citizenship was conferred on every person born or naturalized in US and state laws abridging civil rights 2) states whoch deprived negro of ballot were to suffer reduction of representation in congress proportionate to number denied right to vote 3) ex confed barred from holding office 4) confed debt was repudiated and validity of US debt affirmed
reconstruction acts
military reconstrcution act: 10 states still unreconstructed to be divided into 5 military districts w/major general in command of each; constitutioanl conventions elected by blacks and loyal whites to frame constitutions providing for black suffrage ; qualified voters to elect state legislatures to ratify 14th amdenemtn; with radification of 14th amendment states could apply for representation to congress
what did enactment of reconstruction acts show
marked beginning of reign of radicals was far more significant than an attempt to punish south for failure to ratify 14th amdendment.
why was repbu party created
as political protest against slavery
why did the repub try to impeach johnson
congressional leaders of radical faction were hindred by inablity to control prez office. so tried to humiliate him nd thus remove any constitituional check on policies
tenure of offfice act
congress forbade the prez to remove federal officeholders w/o consent of senate
why was johnson impeached
violated tenure of office act
describe johnson's trial
argued that tenure of office act was unconstitutional and was saved
waht did policy of military reconstruction do
pushed viguoruosly by radicals and hastened changes in econ and social life of the southand took political power from upper classes
immediately after reconstruction act where there more black or white voters
black
fifteenth amendment
forbade any state to deny suffrage based on race color or previous condition of servitude
why were the enforcement acts necessary
kkk- enforecement acts imposed heavy penalties for violation of 14th and 15 amendments, congressional elections under control of authorities, kkk gave prez miltary powers to suppress violence in southern states
general amnesty act
restored to confed political priveleges and hastened collapse of governements based on black votes
withdrawal of federal troops
federal govt under hayes withdrew troops from sotuh; state govt in south under repub fell to dems
waht did the supreme courty pass in 1873
restricted application of 14th amdenement saying that it only protected US citizenship not civil rights in gen
1875 civil rights act
prohibited racial discrimination in public places- act never enforced and then in 1883 waws declared unconstit
what did the south beleive ab out the repub
most south beleived that repub party was party of blacks and corrupt whites who despised south. result= many areas in former states knew only one party system
bourbons
within one party sys of south (dem) leaders of dem called bourbons.
how did dem reduce blacks power w/o violence
reduced number of blackls who could meet qualifications for suffrage
what were devices used to reduce black suffrage
literacy and educational tests which most cn pass, poll taxes and other property requirements, application of grandfather clause which granted suffrage only to those whose fathers/ grandfathers had voted b4 1867
desccribe how south was distrubed by reconstruction
plantation sys was disrupted (had to reduce size of plantations), rise of merchant, rise of industrial dev
describe social tensions in soiuth
brief period of powerr for blacks led to backlash in white supremacy, resentement over excess of military reconstructiuon, inseccurity for jobs for blacs (exploitation) small farmers vs large farmers
what were problems as the new indust south gained prominence
southern econ not escaped control from north financiers, southern political leaders more interetsed in sectional than in national prob, too many white as well as negro farmers still lived in poverrty, most southern voters refused to accept tax programs which would provide funds for social service