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17 Cards in this Set

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Speech of Congress to Visiting Iroquois Delegation, 1776
"The king of Great Britain, hearkening to the evil counsel of some of his foolish young men, is angry with us, because we will not let him take away from us our land, and all that we have, and give it to them, and because we will not do everything that he bids us; and hath hindered his people from bringing goods to us; but, we have made provision for getting such a quantity of them, that we hope we shall be able to supply your wants as formerly."
Speech of Congress to Visiting Iroquois Delegation, 1776
"...the indians begged leave to give a name to the president; the same being granted, the Onondago chief gave the president the name of Karanduawn, or the Great Tree, by which name he informed him the president will be known among the Six nations.
Nathaniel Gist of Virginia Addresses the Cherokee Chiefs, 1777
"You know all, particularly the dragging Canoe, that what I advised last year, before you went to war, was for your good, and would have saved the lives of many of your people, and saved your towns from being destroyed. Now I tell you again, this year, it will be much worse than last, unless you now make peace, when the good time is come as it is the last offer of peace you will get from Virginia. So don't blame me when hard time comes gain among you. As I have now told you the truth, advised you for your good, and now offer to shake hands with all my brothers the Cherokees in behalf of Virginia. The bearer hereof of runner sent from you with the white flag, must come to me here in twenty days, that I may know whether you are coming for peace or not; they shall be kindly treated and kept from harm
Southern Indians in the American Revolution pg. ix
"Everywhere the story was similar: Any tribe that had given aid and ocmfort to the British was to be treated as a defeated enemy and must pay spoils to the victors. From the point of view of the whites, the actions of the tribesmen had but confirmed their worst suspicions, for in the minds of many colonials the warriors were only too willing to lift their murderous hatchets in exchange for a blanket or a bottle of rum
Southern Indians in the American Revolution. pg. x
<<On the complexity of the period for the Indians>> "There were two central governments, thirteen individual state governments, two military commands, thousands of warriors and frontiersmen, and dozen of officials in the British and American Indian departments
Southern Indians in the American Revolution. pg. 4
From 1607 to 1755, British Indian policy had been rather haphazard, but in the main relations had focused on matters relating to land or trade. Negotiations had been carried on by the royal governors, who spoke in the king's name but wh ooften were interested in colonial aims too, as well as by special groups such as merchants and traders. Attempts to realize uniform policy during the existence of the atempted intercolonial organizations such as the New England Confederation or the Dominiion of New England and at the time of the Albany Congress had all proved futile."
Southern Indians in the American Revolution. pg. 5
The renewal of hostilities with France in 1755 drove to action an English government already keenly aware of the need for a systematic implemenation of Indian policy.
Southern Indians in the American Revolution pg. 6
"During the Seven Years War, (British) officials were responsible for keeping their Indian charges either steadfastly loyal or so divided that they would not aid the French. In the postwar years, they would be concerned primarily with land and trade."
Southern Indians in the American Revolution. pg. 4
From the time of their first dealings with the Indians, the English had conceptualized the tribal groupings in European terms, referring to them as nations, headed by emperors. The use of such terms was misleading, for although the tribes were united by bonds of language, tradition, custom, and territory, there was little national sovereignty.
Southern Indians in the American Revolution. pg. 12
Since alliances with the European nations relied heavily on the openhandedness of the Europeans, the groupings would change from time to time. As long as the French, British, or Spanish emissaries influenced a few villages within a tribe; it would be hard to get any faction to go to war for fear of reprisal. This factionalism would be used by the Americans after 1775, particularlly among the Creeks
Southern Indians in the American Revolution. pg. 14
"As far as royal military officials were concerned (in 1775), there was no question about calling upon these indian warriors for action; they had been used in other wars, and they would be used in this one; it was rather a matter of time, place, and degree. As British policy on this matter developed, it was understood that the natives would not be encouraged to raid indiscriminately in their horrible fashion, but would be restrained until they could act decisively in conjunction with troops.
Southern Indians in the American REvolution pg. 15
No rational man of the time could have possibly assumed that the Indians would not have taken any decisive action. The threat of Indian attack was a great unknown which had to be reckoned with in defense considerations. Never for a moment could the Patriots assume that the natives would take a passive role. They certainly were not passive in times of so-called peace; they could not be expected to be so in a time of war. Given the advantage of manpower, organization, and experience which the British Indian officials possessed, they Americans could not hope for anything better than a standoff. If they could not win the Indians over, and this seem unlikely, at least they could neutralize them, which was a distinct possibility.
Southern Indians in the American Revoultion pg. 15
From the Indian point of view, the War for American Independence was certainly another case of choosing the wrong ally just as many tribes had done during the Seven Years Way. The old practice of the tribal leaders' playing off one suitor against another did not work. What occurred in the long run was a self-inflicted form of the ancient military adage of divide and conquer, the natives dividing and ocnquering themselves.
Souther Indians in the American Revolution pg. 16
Eventually, the indeciciveness of these tribes, even within themselves would led for the entire tribe to suffer, for the patriots would have their way with one group on the grounds of friendship and with another on the premise that to the victor go to spoils. Defeat for the tribes had meant loss of territory since the first clashes in the seventeenth century and would continue to carry the same meaning through the early federal period into the nineteenth century and on until the massacre at Wounded Knee in 1890
Southern Indian in the American Revolution pg. 110-111.
***Great example of fragmentary nature under the Articles of Confederation***
<<Need for more volunteers on the patriot side to fight, and the desire for the mountain men>> When general Greene's request for levies was received on the fronteir of southwest Virginia, the county lieutenant of Washington county, Arthur Campbell, was ocnfident that his men would volunteer but he was troubled about the possibility of Indian activity in their absense. Perhaps, Campbell thought, a formal treaty with the Cherokee would achieve a period of peace. In his response to Green, Campbell asked for the general's aid. <<Thus, out of neccessity, Greene organized boundaries, treaties, peramaters for prisoner exchange, and even invited several tribes' representatives to visit Congress for official confirmation of any agreements they came to.....all without any authority to do so or anyone knowing>>
Southern Indians in the American Revolution. pg. 117
<<in settling peace>> Hopeful as Greene might be, his commissioners were worried. How could they hope for peace with the Cherokee when Americans daily settled on Indian lands in utter defiance of legality and prudence? At the moment, however, the Cherokee were war-weary. Illegal settlers or no, leaders from the tribe conferred with Joseph Martin in late April. They confessed that they had behaved as "Rouges" to the Americans in following the British. Woudl the Americans please forgive them? The Cherokee promised adherence to any new treaty that was drawn up.
The American Revolution in Indian Country pg. 273
The Peace of Paris recognized the independence of the thirteen colonies and transferred to the new United States of America all land east of the Mississippi, south of the Great Lakes, and north of the Floridas. Wyandot chiefs, who had heard rumors of peace, told Major DePeyster, "We hope your children (he was talking about the Indians) will be remebered in the Treaty." But the peace terms made no mention of the Indian people who had fought and died in the Revolution and who inhabited the territory to be transferred. . The Peace of Paris brought a temporary lull in hostilities, but brought no peace to the Indian country. Rather, by ending open conflict between the non-indian powers, it deprived the Indians of allies and diplomatic opportunities as they continued their struggle for independence against Americans who claimed their lands as the fruits of victory.