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30 Cards in this Set

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Seven Years War
War between the British and the French and Indian alliance in the American colonies between 1756-1762. French and Indians had strong alliance due to longstanding fur trade in French territory. "Empire of Inclusion" dictated French attitude toward Indians. France and Britain longtime enemies, New France was a vast but sparsely populated colony. British continually encroached upon Indian territory, French armed Indians and they often held british colonists captive, encouraged by French. Significant because this war was hugely expensive for British to win, and would later result in the change of attitude in the relationship between the homeland and their colony.
Albany Plan of Union
Proposition of Ben Franklin to the British crown to organize the colonies in opposition to impending war with the French in the colonies. Included a pseudo-federal government, while the individual colonies retained their rights. Included president, an early legislative, etc. in order to form a local, and unified colonial structure to organize against the French. Colonies did not agree upon it, it never happened, unsure if British would have agreed to it. Significant because it was the first proposal for a localized official federal colonial government.
Pontiac's Uprising
Indian that argued that resisting assimilation was not enough for the Indians. He organized an armed resistance of tribes between the Great Lakes and the south, took all colonial forts in the West, the land newly won in the Seven Year's War that had cost the empire so much money).
Proclaimation of 1763
The proclamation which provided that all lands west of the heads of all rivers which flowed into the Atlantic Ocean from the west or northwest were off-limits to the colonists. This excluded the rich Ohio Valley and all territory from the Ohio to the Mississippi rivers from settlement. The proclamation, in effect, closed off the frontier to colonial expansion. The King and his council presented the proclamation as a measure to calm the fears of the Indians, who felt that the colonists would drive them from their lands as they expanded westward. Many in the colonies felt that the object was to pen them in along the Atlantic seaboard where they would be easier to regulate.
Revenue Act/Sugar Act
The Sugar Act reduced the rate of tax on molasses from six pence to three pence per gallon, while Grenville took measures that the duty be strictly enforced. The act also listed more foreign goods to be taxed including sugar, certain wines, coffee, pimiento, cambric and printed calico, and further, regulated the export of lumber and iron. The situation disrupted the colonial economy by reducing the markets to which the colonies could sell, and the amount of currency available to them for the purchase of British manufactured goods. This act, and the Currency Act, set the stage for the revolt at the imposition of the Stamp Act. Most importantly though, it provided for the Writs of Assistance, in which British officals had the right to search any merchant at any time for any reason to ensure that there were no people trying to get around paying the taxes.
Stamp Act
Tax levied upon the colonists by the British which called for official and complicated new system of offical stamps to be required upon any papered goods. The Stamp Act was Parliament's first serious attempt to assert governmental authority over the colonies. This tax, unlike that of the Revenue Acts affected nearly everyone in the colonies, changes the nature of the relationship between the two. Significant because this was a direct tax, did not have the option on whether or not to consume or import things that are taxed, additionally, the new associated laws outlined controls over the press in that anything distributed must include name and location of publishers. Additionally, it resulted in the unprecedented organization of colony wide opposition, stamp act congress, mob violence, and a rise in the faith in the peoples' capacity for political power.
Stamp Act Congress
Meeting of the colonists in response to the Stamp Acts. Declared that it was their duty to express their displeasure of the act, because it would it would eventually harm the entire empire because it will ruin the colonial economy, which will trickle down. Significant because at this point, the colonies officially declared that the system of virtual representation would not work. "Colonists are not, and cannot be represented in Parliment, Britain too far removed both culturally and logistically." Also declared that the British are taking their money without their consent, and giving it to the King.
Townsend Revenue Actus
Colonists no longer ignored British intrusions, put taxes on wide enough variety of goods that nearly everyone affected. Resulted in the nonimportation agreement, and mob activity.
Virginia Stamp Act Resolutions
Patrick Henry, who was a new member to the House of Burgesses undertook a radical move against the authority of Parliament. In coalition with George Johnston, a representative from Fairfax county, elaxed rule that allowed 24 percent of the body to constitute a quorum. That day, only 39 members in attendance. In the absence of the normal, conservative, leadership, all five of the offered resolutions were adopted.
1)All British subjects had set out towards the colonies with the full rights and priveleges of any British subject, and had not relenquished them.
2)By the grant of Charles I this was true.
3)Only taxation of the people by themselves or of their elective representatives can be allowed, which was a distinguishing characteristic of British freedom, without which the ancient constitution cannot exist.
4)Essentially, this is always the way that it had been, and there was no right for the British government to change it.
5)The most shocking, declared that it was only the colonies' own power to tax themsevles, and that it would be a violation of the constitution and a great debtrament to the empire to do otherwise.
Sons of Liberty
(established 1765)
In Boston in early summer of 1765 a group of shopkeepers and artisans who called themselves The Loyal Nine, began preparing for agitation against the Stamp Act. As that group grew, it came to be known as the Sons of Liberty. The first widely known acts of the Sons took place on August 14, 1765, when an effigy of Andrew Oliver (who was to be commissioned Distributor of Stamps for Massachusetts) was found hanging in a tree on Newbury street, along with a large boot with a devil climbing out of it. The boot was a play on the name of the Earl of Bute and the whole display was intended to establish an evil connection between Oliver and the Stamp Act. On that evening it became very clear who ruled Boston. The British Militia, the Sheriffs and Justices, kept a low profile. No one dared respond to such violent force.
Declaratory Act
A proclamation that came out at the same time that the repeal of the Stamp Act came about. This proclamation attempted to assert the subordination of the colonists to the homeland, and attempt to instore in the colonists' minds that the act was not merely repealled because they feared them.
Waltham Black Acts
Declaration by the British that over fifty crimes could now be punishable by death. There was a notable new emphasis on property rights that reflects the newfound intense interests in property rights amongst the British, especially in the issue of slavery in that such violations would now be subject to death. Just as this emphasis on property rights grows, the British begin to threaten them more, they feel less of a sense of responsiveness and representation in the British system. Significant because this is the basis for much of the sentiment that rights to property are one of the inalieable rights a government cannot intrude upon. When relation between colonists and government becomes increasingly strained, much is based on a perception of increased threats upon their property rights.
Tea Act
Act passed by Parliament in which granted the East India Company a monopoly over the importation of tea into the colonies because they had a massive surplus, which actually lowered the cost of tea to the colonists. However, this also created monopolies to certain merchants in the colonies towards who could sell this tea, including several to Hutchen's family, who was hated by the colonists. Colonists refuse to import this tea, because they saw it as an encroachment on their right to choose. Significant because it lead eventually to the Boston Tea Party and subsequent closing of Boston Harbor.
Quebec Act
Part of what the colonists considered the intolerable acts. The Quebec Act restored the former French civil tradition for private law, which had been ended in 1763 and allowed for the Roman Catholic faith to be practiced. It replaced the oath to Elizabeth I and her heirs with one to George III which had no reference to the Protestant faith. This allowed for the majority of the population of Canada to participate in the public affairs of the colony. In other words, for the first time since becoming a colony, French Canadians were able to participate in the affairs of the colonial government. As a result of this Act, the American revolutionaries failed to gain the support of the Canadians during the American Revolution. Finally, the act annexed, to Quebec, the area east of the Mississippi River and north of the Ohio River. Colonists viewed this as an unneccessary concession to the French government. British government had made no intention or effort to express their intentions or reasoning for this to the colonists, which was a very bad PR move. Colonists viewed this not only as a mismanagement, but more importantly, as a conspiracy against them by the British.
Non-importation Agreements
(Post 1766)
Colonial resistance to British control took many forms, perhaps the most effective was the general success of the non-importation agreements. Such agreements appeared as early as 1766. They had a chilling effect on the British Merchants who traded with the colonies. The Stamp Act was repealed, eventually, based on appeals from Merchants who lost money shipping goods to a land that would not receive them. Not incidentally, the customs offices in the colonies could not collect taxes on goods that were either not allowed ashore at all, or were never sold. Non-importation agreements reached ultimate effect in response to the Townshend Revenue Act, when in 1768 Boston passed the act seen below. Every port city and nearly every region would soon adopt acts like this one. Finally, in 1774, the first Continental Congress of the colonies would pass The Association, a colony-wide prohibition against any trade with Great Britain.
Committees of Correspondence
(Post Townsend Act)
Intellectuals in the various cities and regions of the colonies who would regularly gather and wrote their concerns and ideas regarding the state of the colonies, especially in regards to the concerns of Bostonians in the form of the circular letters. These Bostonian writers also included information on how these problems applied all the other colonists too. Implored others to action, because they expressed what they perceived as the British plans to divide the economies, and if they did not act united as colonies, they would develop a heterogeneous set of identities as colonies, and thus be even easier to divide and conquer. Appealled to sense of colonial identity by demanding that colonies unite to confront problems, demanded reponse from the other colonies. Significant because this would eventually be the catalyst for the first Contenintal Congress. Proved that the Boston experience had finally convinced the colonists that they needed a united front, but still had not pushed for their independence
Continental Congress
Twelve of the Thirteen colonies meeting for the first time united to confront the problems of the colonies together in action. Had no real clear-cut agenda, and was attended and respresented by both loyalists and radicals. Passed and submitted petitions to be read by King George III, they did not get read. Additionally, they created "The Association", a more formal version of the nonimportation agreements, unified the structure of this protest. Additionally, they issued a set of rights they assert to have and the British do not have over them. Not a plan of action, but more of an act of drawing a line in the sand, areas in which the British would not be allowed to encroach upon.
Joseph Galloway
Galloway, a loyalist, proposed his Galloway plan of union at the first meeting of the Continental Congress In this, he proposed a sort of colonial government that would still be under the authority of the throne, and subordinate to it. The plan was considered very attractive to most of the members, as it proposed a popularly elected Grand Council which would represent the interests of the colonies as a whole, and would be a continental equivalent to the English Parliament. After a sincere debate, it was rejected by a six to five vote. It may have been the arrival of the Suffolk County (Boston) resolutions that killed it.
Thomas Hutchinson
Was the American colonial governor of Massachusetts from 1771 to 1774 and a prominent Loyalist. His administration, controlled completely by the British ministry, increased the friction with the patriots. The publication, in 1773, of some letters on Colonial affairs written by Hutchinson, which advised the homeland government to use extensive military presence and action against the colonists to gain their submission, and obtained by Franklin in England, still further aroused public indignation. In England, while Hutchinson was vidicated in discussions in the Privy Council, and Franklin was severely criticized and fired as a colonial postmaster general. The resistance of the colonials led the ministry to see the necessity for stronger measures. A temporary suspension of the civil government followed, and General Gage was appointed military governor in April, 1774. The publishing of his correspondence by Franklin was just the evidence that many colonists were looking for in regards to what they perceived as a growing British conspiracy to oppress them and subjugate them to unfair acts by force.
Patrick Henry
Member of the House of Burgesses in Virginia. When they were meeting in April of 1775 to discuss their growing concern regarding the quartering act, and the growth of British military presence. In his now famous speach, "Give me Liberty of Give Me Death," delcared during this meeting that it is their duty and responsibility as free men to resist this military buildup, would become a growing theme and important belief in the buildup towards revolution. Used examples of past to prove his points about the growing impedence the British were having amongst them. Argued that the British were amassing troops in order to impose them into slavery, argued for the development of an American military, that over the past 10 years that they have done enough talking, and they should plan for war because it was inevitable. Few members of the Burgesses, as aristocratic a group of legislators as existed in the colonies, would argue openly for defiance of Gr. Britain. Henry argued with remarkable eloquence and fervor in favor of the five acts, which by most accounts amounted to a treason against the mother country. In 1774 he represented Virginia in the First Continental Congress where he continued in the role of firebrand. At the outbreak of the revolution, he returned to his native state and lead militia in defense of Virginia's gunpowder store, when the royal Governor spirited it aboard a British ship. Significant because it was published and wildly popular in raising American anti-British sentiment, and founding an increasing desire for independence.
Dominion of New England/Glorious Revolution
Charles II and James II buy into the French Absolutism and mercantilism, believe that the colonies should exist to benefit the mainland. Edmond Andros sent by Restoration Monarchs to establish Dominion of New England. The intent of this was to revoke charters, suspend local assemblies, imposes appointed officials (often not native colonists). In doing this, they model themselves after the very efficient Spanish colonies, impose taxes, brings British troops to ensure order, reforms land system, colonists were able to own land, reorganizes to more feudal system in which rents are paid. Protests begin, William of Orange comes to power; decides to loosen control over the colonies. This reflects the colonies essentially had their own Glorious Revolution. This is because it shows that the colonists had grown accustomed to certain expectations of autonomy and were willing to resist the crown. Showed their perogative to practice more engaged and combative style of politics.
Great Awakening (1730')
Led by Jonathon Edwards, a religious movement which emphasized an emotional message for religion; fired by religious zeal through the implementation of fear of damnation. Puritan religious authorities had a ver scientific and technical message about religion that had led to many of the colonists becomming complacent in their faith. This was a new and very American style of religion that replaces the authority of the church from the old society. Provided that individuals could have a role in their own religion, expanded past religious spheres, influenced all other aspects of society. Old society churches had previously been the pillars for society and the church had been the biggest actor in the religion, all this changed.
Virtual Representation
System by which the British government used to legitimate the lack of colonial representatives in Parliament. Through this system, they argued that the colonists and their interests were in fact represented because of the common interests of the time that those in Parliament were naturally inclined to support what was best for the British Empire, and the colonists as subjects, were included. During the phases of salitory neglect practiced by the British government, this system was widely accepted, but this would always be the foundation for any arguement to be based upon any time that the colonists felt their rights were being encroached upon leading up to the revolution. British argued that there was the Unitary Interest of the State, a powerful notion to loyalists in which they had trust in elites to have in their hearts a transcendant interest and desire to operate and work for the interests of all people, not self-interests. Poliitcal elites seen as having capacity for judgement to discern what is good for all British. Less combative and localized interests in political climate, not everyone had to have a vote.
Boston Massacre
The Boston Massacre was a street fight that occurred on March 5, 1770, between a "patriot" mob, throwing snowballs, stones, and sticks, and a squad of British soldiers. Several colonists were killed and this led to a campaign by speech-writers to rouse the ire of the citizenry. A town meeting was called demanding the removal of the British and the trial of Captain Preston and his men for murder. At the trial, John Adams and Josiah Quincy II defended the British, leading to their acquittal and release. Samuel Quincy and Robert Treat Paine were the attorneys for the prosecution. Later, two of the British soldiers were found guilty of manslaughter. The Boston Massacre was a signal event leading to the Revolutionary War. It led directly to the Royal Governor evacuating the occupying army from the town of Boston. It would soon bring the revolution to armed rebellion throughout the colonies.
Writs of Assistance Case/ James Otis
The Writs of Assistance case involved a legal dispute during 1761 in which sixty-three Boston merchants, led by James Otis, petitioned the Massachusetts Superior Court to challenge the legality of a particular type of search warrant called a writ of assistance. Also known as Paxton's Case, the Writs of Assistance case contributed to the Founding Fathers' original understanding of search and seizure law, planted the seeds of judicial review in the United States, and helped shape the U.S. concept of natural law. In addition to fueling the revolutionary spirit in the colonies, the Writs of Assistance case presented the first formidable challenge to general search warrants in the colonies. Otis thought that more restrictions should be placed on the government's authority to intrude upon places ordinarily kept private by homeowners and business proprietors. In America, Otis argued, the law should require that all searches be conducted pursuant to a lawful warrant that is obtained by an official who is placed under oath before a neutral third party and compelled to disclose the precise nature of any incriminating evidence. Any warrant that might be issued should fully describe the person or premises to be searched.
Intolerable Acts
Most extreme of the acts of British control over the colonies that would incite the most backlash from the colonists, results in the committees of correspondence, meeting of Continental Congress, etc. Contains several parts including:

1)Boston Port Bill-Closing Boston Harbor.
2)Mass. Government Act-Suspending Mass. Assembly
3)Justice Act- Declaring that all royal auhtorities were free from the possibility of facing suit from a colonist.
4)Renewal of Quartering Act- Colonists must house and feed the growing presence of British troops.
5)Quebec Act- Gave full rights and religious freedom the to Catholic former French now living in the British colonies.
British troops respond to the stockpiling of armaments by the colonists in Lexington by confronting them with troops. Fighting ensues, the British kill colonists, then decide to move onward to Concord, which they make well-known. Paul Revere rides to Concord warns them that the British are comming. They are prepared, and the birth of the minutemen ensue and force the British troops into retreat, and continue to shoot them as they flee, many more British than colonists are killed. Results in the creation of the first real heroes of the revolution in the form of the minutemen, the colonists that formed a militia resistance to meet the threat of the oncoming British troops in Concord, as well as sort of martyrs in the form of those who are slain. Creates a sensation in the colonies towards revolution. British have no idea how to respond to what happens.
Second Continental Congress
May of 1775, they met because it became obvious that armed conflict was now unavoidable to the colonists, and they had no choice but to organize and raise an army to resist the British. Took several actions in a new direction:
1)Co-opt renegade militia like Ethan Allen's Green Mountain Boys to disrupt the North, take British forts.
2)Appoint George Washington as the commander of the Continental Army.
3)Jefferson and Dickinson write their justifications for armed resistance, the elegant declarations of the colonists reasoning for armed resistance against the British.

All the while, the Continental Army wins a moral victory against the British at Bunker Hill, it is all significant because the colonies prepared for the organizing for a unified armed resistance against the British, formally indicated their justification and desires to the British, and also provided for the momentum towards a widespread colonial anti-british and optimistic fervor in the colonies through the martyrs and heroes created at these two military expeditions. Created a heroic narrative, which would inspire even more to join in the support for the armed resistance of the British.
Thomas Paine
(Dec. 1775,early 1776)
The new colonial immigrant was the author of the groundbreaking pamphlet, "Common Sense"just shortly after his arrival in the colonies. In it, he made the revolutionary claim that the colonists such seek to gain their independence, not because of the endless squabble over taxes, representation, and a perceived imperial tyranny that could be spun and argued upon so many different points of view. Rather, he argued that not only are the British actions that the colonists see as unjust are wrong, but everything about the British government is wrong, because the monarchy form of government is both wrong and unnatural. Additionally, he argued that it was natural and inevitable for the colonies to get their independence from the British empire. Also claimed the then radical viewpoint that the government should exists only to the means that it is more beneficial than harmful to the people, and the it was certainly accountable to the people both in what it could and could not do because they are the ones that give a governing body its authority to rule. Significant because it would prove to be one of the most groundbreaking treatsies on government ever, it was a major catalyst for colonial sentiment, and that it was in nearly every household in colonial America. Additionally, he laid out speculative means by which the colonies could produce a victorious military campaign against the British.
Tea Party
(December 1773)
The colonists were still reeling in anger from the Hutchinson letters released by Bejamin Franklin when the British declared that all tea was to be imported by the East India Company, and sold by only select merchants at British discression, some of which were relatives of the hated Hutchinson. In response, the colonists prevented from shipments of the tea from being imported into the ports. One ship, the USS Dartmouth, came to port anyways, and when they refused to leave without unloading their tea into the colonies, they responded by dressing up like native americans and dumping all this tea to be imported into the American market into Boston Harbor. The backlash would be the British issuance of the Intolerable Acts of 1774, but was a moral victory, if not a bit reckless, for the colonists, and provided for a unifying force for many of them to rally behind.