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498 Cards in this Set

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King of England 1042
Edward the Confessor
King of England 1042
Edward the Confessor
-Married Edith, daughter of Goodwin, Earl of Kent
Edward the Confessor
-Elevated to sainthood following death
Edward the Confessor
King of England 1042
Edward the Confessor
-Married Edith, daughter of Goodwin, Earl of Kent
Edward the Confessor
-Elevated to sainthood following death
Edward the Confessor
King of England 1042
Edward the Confessor
-Married Edith, daughter of Goodwin, Earl of Kent
Edward the Confessor
-Elevated to sainthood following death
Edward the Confessor
Shipwrecked 1063 and acknowledged William’s rights to the throne
Harold Godwinson
-King of England January, 1066 (King for 10 months)
Harold Godwinson
-Crowned by StigandàArchbishop of Canterbury and Winchester; married
Harold Godwinson
-No blood rights to throneàopposition from brother, Tostig, and Harold Hardrada, King of Norway
Harold Godwinson
-Won the Battle at Stamford Bridge in September, 1066àHardrada and Tostig killed
Harold Godwinson
-King of Norway
Harold Hardrada
-Opposed Godwinson
Harold Hardrada
-Invaded England September, 1066àdefeated royalist forces at the Battle of Gate Fulford
Harold Hardrada
-Duke of Normandy
William the Conqueror
-Cousin of Edward the Confessor
William the Conqueror
-Promised succession to the Crown by the Confessor
William the Conqueror
-Victory at the Battle of Hastings in October, 1066àGodwinson killed
William the Conqueror
-King of England December, 1066àcrowned by Stigand
William the Conqueror
-Itinerant King—traveled back & forth b/w England and Normandy
William the Conqueror
-Domestic and foreign opposition—constant warfare during reign
William the Conqueror
-Dismissed Stigand in 1070 and replaced him with Lanfranc of PaviaàArchbishop of Canterbury
William the Conqueror
-From 1070 on practiced Normanization of England
William the Conqueror
-Invaded Scotland in 1072 and made Malcolm III realize his lordship
William the Conqueror
-Eldest son is Robertàjoined rebels and opposed his father
William the Conqueror
-Other 2 sons: William Rufus & William Henry (Henry Lackland)
William the Conqueror
-Domesday Survey in 1086/1087
William the Conqueror
-survey of landholdings in England and used to discover the value of land for the purpose of taxation and to discover who owned what
William the Conqueror
-Relied on advisors, the Witan (Anglo-Saxon name)—Curia Regis (King’s Court) in Norman
William the Conqueror
-adult male members of the royal family
William the Conqueror
-met on religious holidays
William the Conqueror
-most important minister: Lord Chancellor; 2nd important: Lord Treasurer
William the Conqueror
-Ritual to wear crown 3 times yearly
William the Conqueror
-1/2 brother, OdoàBishop of Bayeux
William the Conqueror
-commissioned Bayeux Tapestry (depicted the Norman Conquest)
William the Conqueror
-Death in 1087àRobert became Duke of Normandy, William Rufus became King of England, William Henry received 5000 silver crowns
William the Conqueror
-The Conqueror’s achievements:
William the Conqueror
-Normandy highly organized
William the Conqueror
-Based himself upon Anglo-Saxon monarchy
William the Conqueror
-Brought England into new financial economyàmoney now for purchasing rather than bartering & took authority over issuance of coins
William the Conqueror
-Brought England into the mainstream of European government—Latin became the language (as well as Norman French)
William the Conqueror
-Normanization of England
William the Conqueror
-Largest land redistribution England would ever see
William the Conqueror
-Introduced first system of national taxation in Europe
William the Conqueror
-Established principle that no appeal could be made to Rome without royal license and clergy could not go abroad without royal license
William the Conqueror
-Built the White Tower
William the Conqueror
-King of England October, 1087
William Rufus
-Crowned as William II by Lanfranc in Westminster Abbey
William Rufus
-Goal was to reunite his father’s possessions
William Rufus
-Sought to gain money from the church
William Rufus
-Emergence of rudimentary democracy
William Rufus
-Unpopular (some looked to his brother, Robert, instead)
William Rufus
-Feudal rebellion in 1088 led by king’s uncle, Odoàjealous of Lanfranc’s position
William Rufus
-Robert urged to seize the English crown but Rufus victorious
William Rufus
-King’s chief advisor was Rannlf Flambard (an illiterate priest)àwas made Bishop of Durham
William Rufus
-Archbishopry of Canterbury vacant following Lanfranc’s death (1089)àking collected revenues while it remained vacant
William Rufus
-Anselm of Bec was clergy’s candidate to replace Lanfrancàafter illness from 1092-1093, king appointed Anselm, promised to restore lands/positions/possessions to Canterbury, promised that Anselm would be his chief advisor, and promised to recognize Urban II as Pope in Rome
William Rufus
-Took war against Robert to Normandy from 1089-1091
William Rufus
-conquered & obtained parts of Normandy
William Rufus
-resulted in both brothers turning against Henry
William Rufus
-Made Malcolm of Scotland acknowledge his precedence
William Rufus
-Council in Clermont (France) forbade lay investiture (Bishop’s absolute allegiance to the Crown rather then the Pope)
William Rufus
-Embarked on 1st Crusade to save Jerusalem from Muslim conquest
William Rufus
-Death in August, 1100 (shot/killed with arrow by hunting partner)
William Rufus
-King of England August, 1100
William Henry
-Unpopular
William Henry
-Issued charter to grant regress of grievances which formed a precedent for the Magna Carta
William Henry
-Threw Flambard into prison
William Henry
-Invaded Normandy in 1105
William Henry
-Defeated and took captive Robert at the Battle of Tinchebrai in 1106
William Henry
-Thought of himself as “Lion of Justice”
William Henry
-Standardization of measuresàmade possible by institution of the Assizes Court
William Henry
-Jury consists of 12 people
William Henry
-2 legitimate children: William & MatildaàWilliam died as a teen, question of if woman could control the crown
William Henry
-Decided Matilda would succeed him
William Henry
-Death in 1135
William Henry
-Duke of Normandy
Robert
-Mortgaged Normandy to William Rufus for 3 years time while engaged in the 1st Crusade
Robert
-Flambard escaped prison and became Robert’s chief advisor
Robert
-Invaded England in August, 1101àagreed to leave for payment of 3000 pounds by Henry
Robert
-Death in 1134
Robert
-Empress in Germany
Matilda
-2nd Marriage: Geoffrey of Anjou
Matilda
-1st son: Henry IIàseemed to ensure that would become Queen
Matilda
-Unpopular
Matilda
-Cousin Stephen seized control of Crown and Normandy
Matilda
-Landed in England with ½ brother Robert, Duke of Gloucester in September, 1139
Matilda
-Episcopacy ready to abort Stephen and country ready to accept Matildaàresult was state of anarchy throughout the country
Matilda
-Recommended as Queen by Church council in April, 1141àlasted less than 3 months due to made wholesale appeal of all the concessions Stephen had made and allies turned against her
Matilda
-Run out of England by mob of Londoners in September, 1141
Matilda
-Civil War 1135-1154à”Time of Troubles” (between him & Matilda)
Stephen
-King of England 1135
Stephen
-England became financial powerhouse
Stephen
-Recognized by Pope and French monarchy
Stephen
-Made concessions for the support of others
Stephen
-Granted rights of self-government to London
Stephen
-Challenged by Geoffrey of Anjou over rights to Normandyàcompleted conquest of Normandy in 1145
Stephen
-Roger le Poer was Bishop of Salisbury and Lord Treasurer
Stephen
-Nigel le Poer was Bishop of Ely and Chancellor of Exchequer(àthe department to audit the treasury)
Stephen
-Dynastic warfare in 1138 against Stephen and for Matilda
Stephen
-Arrested the Le Poers
Stephen
-Met Robert of Gloucester in battle in February, 1141, and Stephen captured
Stephen
-1141-1146 continuous warfare between supporters of Stephen (now released) and supporters of Matilda
Stephen
-1 son: Eustace (died 1153)
Stephen
-Death 1154
Stephen
-Son of Geoffrey of Anjou
Henry II
-Succeeded father as Duke of Normandy and Anjou
Henry II
-Married Heiress Eleanor of Aquitaine in 1152
Henry II
-Mounted invasion of England in 1153 and began to raise support against Stephen
Henry II
-Following Eustace’s death, Stephen’s resistance was removed and he and Henry signed a treaty at WinchesteràStephen would remain king for his lifetime and then would be succeeded by Henry II
Henry II
-King of England 1154
Henry II
-Born and reared in France
Henry II
-Itinerant king
Henry II
-Soldier (through & through)
Henry II
-Goal was to re-establish the system of William the Conqueror
Henry II
-Appointed Thomas of Becket as Lord Chancellor (1155-1162)
Henry II
-Formalized stateàWrit: formal summons issued by Crown to attend council; Letters Patent: signed/sealed documents that granted money/office/status; Enrollment: formal register in Chancery of Write and Letters Patent
Henry II
-Small council was Corum Rege (responsible for administration and dispension of justice)
Henry II
-Great council was Magnum Concilium (heard great feudal cases)
Henry II
-Privy Seal: King’s private seal—great seal could not be used without the privy seal
Henry II
-New system of taxation in 1159: Donum=Shires; Auxillium=Towns; Scutage=Clergy/Lay Nobles
Henry II
-Archbishop of Canterbury, Theobald, died 1162 and Becket replaced himàresigned as Lord Chancellor and warned King that conflicts would arise. He stood firm for complete independence of church courts from Crown control
Henry II
-Great Council at Westminster in 1163àKing proposed defendants be tried in church courts by the bishop with a royal as witness—Becket opposed and stated no man should be tried twice for the same crime
Henry II
-Great Council at Palace of Clarendon in 1164àKing renounced former agreements and stated nothing could be done without royal license (set of new rules to govern the Church in England)—result was Constitutions of Clarendon—Becket appealed to Pope Alexander III to dispense him from this agreement, refused to appear before any lay court, and forbade all English bishops from sitting in judgment against him
Henry II
-At Council of North Hampton, the king issued a charter for Becket’s arrest and Becket fled
Henry II
-King and Becket met at Freteval in 1170 and made agreement that Becket could return to England if he accepted Henry III (king’s son)àreturned and excommunicated the bishops involved in Henry III coronationàBecket murdered in his cathedral—later sainted and his tomb became a center of pilgrimage
Henry II
-Inquest of Sheriffs in 1170
Henry II
-Conquest of Ireland in 1171—the Pale became under English control as self-protection
Henry II
-Henry, “the young king”, rebelled against his father in 1172 and was encouraged by King Louis VII of FranceàRichard, Geoffrey, France and Scotland joined in the rebellion
Henry II
-Treaty of Falaise in 1175àgreater control over Scotland, William the Lion paid homage to King as his feudal supervisor
Henry II
-Named son, John, Lord of Ireland in 1177
Henry II
-Court of Common Pleas in 1178—heard civil cases and did not directly involve the Crown
Henry II
-Sons: Henry (“the young king”—death 1183), Richard (“the lionhearted”), Geoffrey (died before father but had son, Arthur), John (father’s favorite)
Henry II
-Church had only 2 punishments—degradation (rarely applied) and imprisonment (also rare due to too much work)
Henry II
-Muslim armies captured Jerusalem and began occupation in 1187àcall for the 3rd Crusade—Henry II, Phillip Augustus, and Richard took up the Cross
Henry II
-Saladin Tithe: tax on moveable goods—1st property tax; purpose to raise money for an army for the Crusade
Henry II
-Death in 1189
Henry II
-King of France 1180
Phillip II (Augustus)
-Son of Louis VII
Phillip II (Augustus)
-Responsible for the Angevin empire (most deadly enemy of the Angevin dynsasty)
Phillip II (Augustus)
-Enemy of Henry II, Richard, and Johnàencouraged Henry II sons to rebel against him
Phillip II (Augustus)
-Expelled Jews from France in 1182
Phillip II (Augustus)
-Took up the Cross for the 3rd Crusade in 1187
Phillip II (Augustus)
-Returned to France in 1192
Phillip II (Augustus)
-Conquest of Normandy in 1204àloss of Normandy greatest blow to England since Norman Conquest
Phillip II (Augustus)
-King of England 1189
Richard
-National Hero (“the lionhearted”)
Richard
-Of the 10 years he was king, he only spent 5 months in England
Richard
-Exiled brothers Geoffrey and John from England
Richard
-Absolved Treaty of Falaise
Richard
-Made William of Longchamp Lord Chancellor, Bishop of Ely, and Sole Regent (he was the Duke of Aquitaine)
Richard
-papal representative for Church in England
Richard
-Widespread violence against Jews at this timeàAngevin monarchy depended on Jewish money, King placed Jews under protection
Richard
-Usury: charging of excessive rates of interest—this was condemned by the church and thus they considered Jewish bankers foul
Richard
-Longchamp unpopular so King appointed Co-Regent: Coutances, Archbishop of Rouen
Richard
-Meeting in London in 1191 (King on Crusade) to replace Longchamp with Coutances and John recognized as successor to the Crown
Richard
-Went to France in 1189 to consolidate his position and develop an army for the Crusade
Richard
-Responsible for the defeat of the Muslims and the capture of Acre in 1192
Richard
-Made return to England by land rather than sea (through Hungary, Austria) and was arrested by the Holy Roman Emperor, Henry VI, and imprisoned for 2 yearsàransom of 100,000 silver marks and thus 25% income tax in England and Normandy to raise ransom
Richard
-Richard released in 1194 and returned to England, then left England in May of that year, never to return
Richard
-Death in 1199 (no childrenàquestion of succession)
Richard
-Justiciar (1199)
Hubert Walter
-Archbishop of Canterbury
Hubert Walter
-Lord Chancellor
Hubert Walter
-1st minister given free reign
Hubert Walter
-Responsible for raising taxation
Hubert Walter
-Encouraged/permitted self-government
Hubert Walter
-Standardization of rates and measures
Hubert Walter
-Warned John that loyalty to the king depended on good government
Hubert Walter
-Death 1205
Hubert Walter
-King of England 1199
John
-Able/efficient administrator but emotionally unstable
John
-Not trusted
John
-Permanent resident in England rather than itinerant
John
-Goal to regain Normandy, Maine, and Anjou
John
-Son: Henry III
John
-Confronted by opposition from nephew Arthur and from Constance of Brittany
John
-Continued war with Phillip AugustusàTreaty of Le Goulet—Phillip recognized John’s rights
John
-Arthur captured in 1202—disappeared, belief that was murdered per John’s instructions
John
-Held areas around Rouen in Normandy
John
-Run out of Normany in 1203
John
-Following Walter’s death, the archbishopry of Canterbury was vacantàJohn’s candidate was John Degray, Bishop of Noridge; Canterbury’s candidate was Reginald; Pope Innocent III refused both, his candidate was Stephen Langton
John
-John refused to accept Langton and put armies around Canterbury
John
-Pope imposed interdict in 1208 (priests were forbidden to administer sacraments other than baptism of infants and confessions for the dying)
John
-Pope excommunicated John in 1209
John
-Threatened to invade Scotland in 1209 and made William the Lion accept his demands
John
-Attempted several expeditions to try and conquer Normandy, Maine, and Anjou—failed each time and not supported
John
-Made settlement with Pope in 1212 and the Pope became John’s supporter (excommunication reversed)àJohn accepted Langton as Archbishop of Canterbury and his Chief Advisor
John
-Nobles captured London and Westminster in 1215 and John took refuge at Windsor Castleàforced to sign the Magna Carta at Runneymede
John
-Magna Carta: written definition of what the law was; clear guideline for the future; based on Henry I charter; series of grants by King to clergy and lay nobility
John
-4 Principles: all fines should be proportionate to the offense for which levied; no man was to be brought to trial on suspicion alone—must be witnesses; no man was to be punished without fair trail by jury of peers of equal social rank; justice should not be delayed, nor sold, nor denied to any man
John
-Subject to supervision of 25à24 lay nobles and 1 Lord Mayor (no ecclestiasticals)
John
-Moved into western England in September, 1216 and lost his baggage train in quicksand—it included the crown jewels
John
-Death in 1216
John
-Son of Phillip Augustus
Prince Louis
-Lay barons of England appealed to France in 1215 for Prince Louis to come to England and seize the crown from John
Prince Louis
-Sailed to England in 1216 and did not face resistance in southern England—welcomed in London
Prince Louis
-Entered Winchester (John only held Windsor and Dover in Southeast England)—the capture of Winchester caused an anti-French reaction among the natives and favor began to return to John
Prince Louis
-King of England 1216
Henry III
-1st time rule of primogenitor really applied due to Henry only 9—1st minority/regency in English history
Henry III
-Great builder, incompetent politician, high morals, loved flattery, pious
Henry III
-Devotee to Cult of St. Edward the Confessor
Henry III
-Determined to rebuild Westminster Abbey
Henry III
-Erected the Palace of Westminster on the Thames
Henry III
-Constructed the Tower of London
Henry III
-Regent: William Earl Marshall
Henry III
-Governor: Gualo
Henry III
-Regent after Marshall’s death: Hubert de Burgh
Henry III
-Pandulph placed in charge of King’s education and development (1218-1221)
Henry III
-Established control over the treasury; Unpopularàrecalled to Rome in 1221
Henry III
-Civil war in 1223 between des Roche and de Burghàdes Roche and his army outnumbered, excommunication threatened, rebellion collapsed
Henry III
-Broke with de Burgh in 1229 due to de Burgh wouldn’t support him for an invasion of FranceàHenry embarked anyway but failed
Henry III
-Bribed Pope to prevent unsatisfactory candidate after Langton’s death
Henry III
-Had de Burgh arrested/imprisoned in 1232
Henry III
-Ruled by foreign favorites—mostly from Poitou
Henry III
-Had to agree to Baron’s demands in 1234 to expel foreign favorites
Henry III
-Married French Princess, Eleanor of Provence, in 1235
Henry III
-Foreign Favorite arises: Simon de Montfort, a Norman—became Earl of Leicester and married King’s wife’s sister in 1238
Henry III
-Fell out with Montfort in 1239
Henry III
-Intended to capture Normandy in 1242, not backed by Council, persisted and was defeatedàfinal break between English and French aristocracies
Henry III
-Seized properties of French nobles in Englandàend of Anglo-Norman aristocracy
Henry III
-3 estates of Society: Church (land-owning ecclesiasticals); Lay Aristocracy (also land-owning); Smaller Landholders (men of wealth but not enough land for aristocracy)
Henry III
-Estates divided between 2 houses: House of Lords (Church and Lay Aristocracy) and House of Commons (Smaller landholders)
Henry III
-Parliament evolved from Great Council
Henry III
-Council at Oxford in 1258àParliament—derives from French word “parler” (to speak, become) and “parley” (to negotiate)àdiscovered that problems are sometimes due to they system rather than the King
Henry III
-Articles of Complaint in 1258: things gone wrong during King’s reign and remedies to thoseàProvisions of Oxford: basic, fundamental reforms to destroy absolutism and replace aristocracy with oligarchy
Henry III
-New council with 15 members and Parliament with 12 barons elected by the nobility-àwould meet with council 3 times yearly
Henry III
-Son: Prince Edward
Henry III
-Renounced control over Angevin empire but retained duchy of Gascony
Henry III
-Shut Queen and himself up in the Tower of London in 1260
Henry III
-Appealed to Pope to absolve the oath of the Provisions of Oxford in 1261and abolished Provisions of Oxford in 1262àshort civil war between Montfort/Barons and KingàKing, Queen, Prince Edward, and Eleanor took refuge in the Tower of London
Henry III
-Accepted demands in 1263 that all castles & garrisons should be under the barons’ control and all alien advisors should be expelled and he should obey the Provisions of Oxford
Henry III
-Captured by Montfort at the Battle of Lewes in 1264àMontfort became the ruler of England until August of 1265àevolution of the House of Commons
Henry III
-Death 1272
Henry III
-Regent
William Earl Marshall
-Served Henry II, Richard, and John prior to Henry III
William Earl Marshall
-Defeated French in the Battle of Lincoln (“Streets of Dover”)
William Earl Marshall
-Lambuth Treaty: Prince Louis and his army would retreat and amnesty would be granted to those involved the rebellion
William Earl Marshall
-Death 1219àfollowing his death: Church/Papacy—representative was a Leget who resided in England; Foreign Adventurers/Mercenary Soldiers led by des Roche; Native Loyalists/Nobility headed by new Regent: Hubert de Burgh
William Earl Marshall
-Mise of Amiens in 1264: ruled in favor of Henry III and cancelled the Provisions of Oxford and established the right of the king to hire whomever he wanted
Louis IX
-Son of Henry III
Prince Edward
-Married Eleanor of Costille
Prince Edward
-Outstanding military commander
Prince Edward
-Victory at the Battle of EveshamàHenry III escaped, Montfort killed, and royalist government re-established. Provisions of Oxford again revoked
Prince Edward
-King of England 1272 (Edward I)
Prince Edward
-Completed Conquest of Wales in 1284
Prince Edward
-Attempts to conquer Scotland were unsuccessful/disastrous
Prince Edward
-Great legislator
Prince Edward
-Pioneered use of law to establish new policies
Prince Edward
-Ranks at top as Monarch
Prince Edward
-Last of the Crusader Kings
Prince Edward
-Personal Badge: Leopard & Lion
Prince Edward
-16 children
Prince Edward
-1st cousin to the King of France
Prince Edward
-“Model” Parliament in 1295: 2 Houses—House of Lords and House of Commons—House of Commons included 2 knights of shire from every county and representatives from the Burroughs
Prince Edward
-Eldest son, Edward, born in Wales and given the title the Prince of Wales
Prince Edward
-Development of the Household (Wardrobe)àcentered on the person of the king—Lord Steward was head of the Household and managed affairs and scheduled appointments (King’s personal secretary)
Prince Edward
-Parliament held in great regularityàtwice yearly—after Easter and Michelmas
Prince Edward
-the “English Justinian”: realized statute law was fast/secure means of establishing royal policy and changing existing law if Crown so desired
Prince Edward
-2 statute laws: Statute of Mortmain in 1279àdesigned to curb the wealth of the church and Statute of Quo Warranto in 1290àdesigned to eliminate feudal courts and establish supremacy of Crown courts (relied on commissioners to carry out these statutes)
Prince Edward
-Treaty of Brigham: Margaret of Scotland should be married to Edward, Prince of Wales—Scotland had to remain an independent kingdom for the Scots to agreeàwithin a couple of months of the treaty, Margaret died
Prince Edward
-Robert Bruce and John Balliol were Scottish noblemen who claimed royal succession following Margaret’s death
Prince Edward
-Rewarded Scottish crown to Balliol in 1292àexpected Balliol to follow him but Balliol aligned with Franceàwar between England and Scotland
Prince Edward
-By 1296 England had captured much of Scotland and Balliol was imprisoned in the Tower of London—also captured the Stone of Scone which was incorporated into the coronation chair to symbolize England’s lordship over Scotland
Prince Edward
-Death in 1307
Prince Edward
-Entered priesthood
Robert Burnell
-Entered Edward I service before he became king
Robert Burnell
-Became King’s principal minister
Robert Burnell
-Lord Chancellor in 1274
Robert Burnell
-Bishop of Bath and Wells in 1275
Robert Burnell
-Death 1292
Robert Burnell
-Active, successful Monarch in Scotland
Alexander III
-All of his children died before him—surviving heir was granddaughter Margaret of Scotland
Alexander III
-Death in 1286, Margaret only 3àRegency formed with the permission of King Edward I
Alexander III
-King of England 1307
Edward II
-Continual war with both Scotland and France
Edward II
-Government in debt
Edward II
-Reliant on foreign bankers for loans
Edward II
-Married Isabella of France (sister of the French King, Charles IV) in 1308
Edward II
-Wasn’t close to wife but they had at least 4 children—as time went on he called her the “she-wolf of France”
Edward II
-Friendship with Piers Gavestonàresented by aristocracy and became scapegoat for opposition against the King
Edward II
-4 distinct periods of reign: Period of Lord’s Ordainer (1307-1318); Period of Middle Party (1318-1321); Period of Royalist Reaction (1322-1326); Period of Edward’s Overthrow and Murder (1326-1327)
Edward II
-Forced to send Gaveston to Ireland as temporary exile in 1308 (he returned in 1309)
Edward II
-Parliament in 1310: King forced to Committee of 21 magnates to draw up set of rules for running of government—2/3 Lay, 1/3 Ecclesiastic—drawn entirely from the House of Lords
Edward II
-Evil counselors should be exiledàGaveston again exiled (but returned later)
Edward II
-Ordinances of 1311 centered on establishing accountability of the government (King & ministers) to ParliamentàKing couldn’t leave, declare war, or resume grants without permission of Parliament
Edward II
-Statute of York in 1312: order to sheriffs to enforce ordinances—as long as they weren’t prejudicial to the king’s interests
Edward II
-Gaveston was excommunicated by the Archbishop of Canterbury (later killed)
Edward II
-Battle of Bannockburn in 1314—King defeated by Scottish (led by Robert Bruce)—(still celebrated today as holiday in Scotland)
Edward II
-Earl of Lancaster became King’s principal advisor (King hated him)
Edward II
-Middle Party emerged in 1316—made up of Nobles who were discontented with King and Lancaster
Edward II
-Pembroke head of the Middle Party—replaced Lancaster
Edward II
-Drastic fall in price for wheat
Edward II
-New set of royalist favorites: Hugh Despencers (Father & Son, both same name)
Edward II
-Parliament exiled Despencers and King brought them back and defeated Lancaster at the Battle of Borroughbridge
Edward II
-Next parliament in 1322: policy of aristocracy reversed & loyalty to the Crown and King are the same—King recognized as final court of appeal
Edward II
-Recognized Bruce as King of Scotland
Edward II
-Wife had affair with Roger Mortimer—to save themselves from penalty for treason, planned to overthrow King—arrived in Norfolk in 1326 and arrested/imprisoned the king—King’s abdication demanded in 1327
Edward II
-Murdered at Berkeley Castle in 1327
Edward II
-King of England 1327
Edward III
-Mother Isabella Regent for next 3 years
Edward III
-Rebelled against mother in 1330àMortimer arrested/hanged and Isabella sentenced to (luxurious) exile
Edward III
-Five periods:
Edward III
1. Regency pd. (1327-1330)
Edward III
2. Adult reign (1330-1377)
Edward III
3. Pd. Of royal settlement (1330-1340)
Edward III
4. Pd. Of royal government (1341-1370)
Edward III
5. Crises; king senile (1370-1377)
Edward III
-Order of the Garter
Edward III
-modeled on round table
Edward III
-26 knights
Edward III
-Wife: Philippa
Edward III
-Sons: Edward (the Black Prince), Lionel of Antwerp (Duke of Clarence), John of Gaunt (Duke of Lancaster), Edmund of Langley (Duke of York), and Thomas of Woodstock
Edward III
-Hundred year’s war (1337-1361)
Edward III
-Crisis of 1341
Edward III
-Statute of 1341
Edward III
-reconfirmed Magna Carta
Edward III
-no peer of realm to be brought to judgment except by parliament
Edward III
-any minister who infringed Magna Carta must answer to parliament
Edward III
-new ministers must be accepted by parliament
Edward III
-1343: question of who was judge of lex terrae (law of land)
Edward III
-Conceded to lay nobility with the treason act (1352)
Edward III
-treason=direct act against king, queen, royal family (rebellion, not political opposition)
Edward III
-Dependent upon Commons due to financial needs.
Edward III
-1362: King addressed parliament in English for first time.
Edward III
-Alice Perrers is king’s mistress after Philippa dies.
Edward III
-1376: the “good” parliament—introduction of process of impeachment.
Edward III
-Control of Gascony (major trade port).
Edward III
-Interest in Flanders, Netherlands (cloth-manufacturing town).
Edward III
-Private contracts with noblemen to raise and furnish soldiers in return for a feeàdevelopment of the crossbow.
Edward III
-Victory at the Battle of Crecy in 1346 (first phase of Hundred Years War)
Edward III
-1348: Black Death/Bubonic Plague.
Edward III
-Treaty of Britigny.
Edward III
-gave king full sovereignty of SW portion of France.
Edward III
-Laws of Praemunire
Edward III
-limit papal jurisdiction in England
Edward III
-prevent appeals to Rome without royal license
Edward III
-Death in 1377
Edward III
-Edward IIIs oldest son.
Black Prince (Edward)
-Victory at Battle of Poitiersàcaptured king of France, John II.
Black Prince (Edward)
-Governed Gascony
Black Prince (Edward)
-Son: Richard II
Black Prince (Edward)
-Death in 1376
Black Prince (Edward)
-Dismissed/imprisoned/received cruel letter by King
De Stratfords
-Reconciled with king after were banned from attending parliament.
De Stratfords
-Present in Avignon (1305-1370)
Papacy
-Lived sumptuouslyàpalaces & warfare.
Papacy
-Urban VI: Rome’s pope.
Papacy
-Clement V: cardinals withdrew from Rome, returned to Avignon, and elected Clementàcaused Great Schism.
Papacy
-Edward IIIs son
John of Gaunt
-Emerged as principal minister (acted as king during his father’s senility in the 1370s)
John of Gaunt
-Born in Ghent (Netherlands).
John of Gaunt
-Duke of Lancaster.
John of Gaunt
-Dissolved “good” parliament.
John of Gaunt
-Backed Wycliffe
John of Gaunt
-Dominated Richard II political life
John of Gaunt
-Son by Blanche of Lancaster: Henry IV
John of Gaunt
-Sons by Katherine Swynford (mistress): John Beaufort and Henry, Cardinal Beaufort
John of Gaunt
-Death in 1399
John of Gaunt
-King of England 1377
Richard II
-Edward IIIs grandson
Richard II
-Son of “Black Prince”
Richard II
-Age 11 when became king
Richard II
-Minority from 1377-1381
Richard II
-Excluded John of Gaunt and Edward IIIs 2 other sons from great council at Londonàcontinual council of 12 to act as King’s regents, later from 12 to 9 (Gaunt’s supporters removed)
Richard II
-1381: Peasant’s Rebellion
Richard II
-Wat Tyler is principal leader
Richard II
-catalyst is imposition of poll taxà1 shilling by each man regardless of rank
Richard II
-burned palace of Gaunt (the Savoy) to the ground
Richard II
-met by Richard II at Miles Endàconcessions made, but weren’t kept, peasants slaughtered
Richard II
-Reign has parallels with Edward II (great grandfather)
Richard II
-Political life dominated by Gaunt
Richard II
-Married Ann of Bohemia (both age 15)àAnn died, no children
Richard II
-Parliament demanded him to dismiss his treasurer and lord chancellor
Richard II
-Agreed to committee of reform
Richard II
-Opposition to king: appellantsàparliament became known as Merciless Parliament due to execution of three of King’s ministers
Richard II
-Married Princess Isabella of France (age 8) for truce/dynastic alliance
Richard II
-Arrested/murdered Thomas of Woodstock (Edward IIIs youngest son) and other appellants
Richard II
-Unlawfully seized Gaunt’s estates after his death
Richard II
-Left for Ireland to consolidate/expand the Paleàtook Henry Bolingbroke’s eldest son
Richard II
-1399: forced to abdicate
Richard II
-Exaggeration of papal demands for taxation
John Wycliffe
-Born in Yorkshire (but lived most of life in/near Oxford)
John Wycliffe
-Orthodox priest until 1370’s
John Wycliffe
-Backed by John of Gaunt
John Wycliffe
-Anti-clericalism
John Wycliffe
-Reformer/propagandist
John Wycliffe
-Church found him heretical
John Wycliffe
-After death, buried 3 different times (final time bones burned)
John Wycliffe
-His followers: Lollardsà1st English translation of the Bible
John Wycliffe
-Son of John of Gaunt
Henry IV
-Earl of Bolingbroke before became king
Henry IV
-Richard II first cousinàenemy due to had been an appellant
Henry IV
-exiled by Richard II (father died while exiled)
Henry IV
-invaded England and backed by aristocracyàimprisoned/murdered Richard II
Henry IV
-King of England 1399
Henry IV
-1st time monarch chosen by parliament in the absence of clear-cut heir
Henry IV
-House of Lancaster
Henry IV
-De Heretico Cumumberendo
Henry IV
-punishment for heresy: burned at the stake
Henry IV
-Short/uneventful reign
Henry IV
-Cooperated with aristocracy & church
Henry IV
-Sons: Henry V; John, Duke of Bedford; and Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester
Henry IV
-After death (1413) passed on to son (Henry V) a kingdom with remarkable tranquility and expanded economy
Henry IV
-King of England 1413
Henry V
-Most popular of English Monarchs
Henry V
-Son: Henry VI (Henry of Windsor prior to kingship)
Henry V
-Determined to revive claim to the French Crown
Henry V
-War with France was the centerpiece of his reign (Charles VI was King of France and he was mentally unstable and thought was made of glass)
Henry V
-Met French Army in 1415 at the Battle of Agincourtàvictory for the English and the French of the defensive thereafter
Henry V
-Peace Conference in 1420 at Troyes
Henry V
-King dictated the terms: he would marry Princess Catherine of Valois and he would become Regent of France and would succeed Charles VI following his death
Henry V
-Death from dysentery in 1422 (death great disaster and anarchy ensued)
Henry V
-Illegitimate son of John of Gaunt and Katherine Swynford (later legitimized by Henry V)
Henry Beaufort
-Beneficiary of father’s wealth
Henry Beaufort
-Bishop of Thanken and then Bishop of Winchester
Henry Beaufort
-Wanted to be elevated to Cardinal, possible Pope
Henry Beaufort
-Lent government much moneyàby 1422 government owed him over 20,000 pounds and thus he was rewarded with customs-revenues of the Port of South Hampton
Henry Beaufort
-Split with nephew, Humphrey Duke of Gloucester, in 1425
Henry Beaufort
-Elevated to Cardinal in 1426
Henry Beaufort
-To establish peace with France arranged marriage for Henry VI to Margaret of Anjou
Henry Beaufort
-King of England 1422
Henry VI
-9 months old when became king
Henry VI
-His mother, Catherine, was unqualified to be his Regent because she was young and knew very little Englishàshe was sent to an obscure retirement in the country and married a Welshman, Tudor
Henry VI
-John, Duke of Bedford, his uncle, was formerly designated by Henry V to be his Regent (the Great Council did not allow his other uncle, Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester, to be Regent but made him Protector)
Henry VI
-Officially crowned King in England in 1429 and crowned King of France in 1430 (age 8)
Henry VI
-In 1429 peasant girl, Joan of Arc, experienced voices and visions and stepped forward for liberation of France. She convinced Charles VII to allow her to lead an army to break English control of Orleans and claimed victory. Charles VII was crowned King of France in 1429 at Reims. She was later captured by Burgundians and sold to English allies and then taken to Rouen for charges of heresy. She was burned at the stake in 1431.
Henry VI
-Peace conference in 1435 attended by the English, French, and BurgundiansàJohn, Duke of Bedford, agreed to allow Charles VII to maintain those territories which he already had.
Henry VI
-Bedford suffered a heart attack and died, Burgundians aligned with the French, and Charles VII entered Paris
Henry VI
-English driven out of Normandy in 1450 and then out of Gascony. By 1453 the English were driven entirely out of France except for the city of Calaisàend of the Hundred Years War
Henry VI
-Jack Cades Rebellion in 1450àpolitical rebellion—protest against corrupt officials and noble pressures. Representatives from every social strata below Knight. Defeated Royal Army and entered London without much opposition. Pardon was granted and guarantee given that grievances would be reversed. Cade killed 10 days later.
Henry VI
-Married to Margaret of Anjou (she was subject to nullification and abuse because she was a foreigner)
Henry VI
-Son: Edward, Prince of Wales
Henry VI
-Established the College of Our Blessed Lady in 1440àcollege for boys without money
Henry VI
-Established King’s College Cambridge in 1441
Henry VI
-His mind collapsed in 1453 and he was indifferent to everything
Henry VI
-He snapped out of his illness in 1454 and dismissed York and his supporters and replaced them with LancastriansàWar of the Roses (1455-1485)
Henry VI
-The Battle of St. Albans in 1455àvictory for York
Henry VI
-4 months later he lost his mind again—more or less permanently—became a puppet
Henry VI
-Lost English crown in 1461 to Edward IV, son of York
Henry VI
-Death in 1471
Henry VI
-Descended from 2 sons of Edward III (Lionel, Duke of Clarence, and Edmund Langley, Duke of York)
Richard, Duke of York
-Had better claim to the crown than Henry VI
Richard, Duke of York
-Married into wealthy, powerful familyàCecily Neville is wife
Richard, Duke of York
-Attractive as potential heir because had children (Edward IV, George Duke of Clarence, and Richard III) and Henry VI did not at the time
Richard, Duke of York
-After Henry VI did have a son, Edward Prince of Wales, Council recognized York as his Regent and Protector
Richard, Duke of York
-Dismissed by King in 1454 which resulted in the War of the Roses
Richard, Duke of York
-The Battle of St. Albans in 1455àvictory for Yorkàtook power and established Yorkist administration
Richard, Duke of York
-Again recognized as Protector for Edward Prince of Wales
Richard, Duke of York
-His most important supporter was his brother-in-law Richard Neville Earl of Warwick (“the Kingmaker”)
Richard, Duke of York
-Conflict from Margaret of Anjou in 1459 at the Battle of Ludford BridgeàLancastrian victory
Richard, Duke of York
-Fled to Ireland and Richard Neville Earl of Warwick fled to Calais—death punishment would be imposed if they returnedàthey returned and claimed victory at the Battle of North Hampton
Richard, Duke of York
-Was given Wales and promised succession after Henry VI death
Richard, Duke of York
-War with Margaret of Anjou at the Battle of Wakefield in 1460àYork killed
Richard, Duke of York
-Son of Richard Duke of York
Edward IV
-Battle of Towton Moor in 1461àLancastrians defeated and all had to leave for Scotland
Edward IV
-King of England 1461
Edward IV
-Transition from medieval monarchy to modern monarchy
Edward IV
-Very popular, good military commander, tall, attractive
Edward IV
-Most important advisor was Richard Neville Earl of Warwick
Edward IV
-Attempts by many to arrange his marriage—some wanted to ally with Burgundians through his marriage rather than France
Edward IV
-Secretly married a widow: Elizabeth Woodville
Edward IV
-Woodvilles and Nevilles became competitorsàthis caused estrangement from the king to Richard Neville because the king showed favoritism to the Woodvilles
Edward IV
-Richard Neville rebelled against the kingàcaptured/imprisoned the king
Edward IV
-Released in 1469 and defeated Richard Nevilleàhe went to France and negotiated with Margaret of Anjou by promising to marry his daughter to her son, Edward Prince of Wales, thus re-establishing the Lancastrian party. He invaded England in 1470, defeated the king, and released Henry VI from the Tower of London
Edward IV
-Defeated Richard Neville in 1471 at the Battle of Barnet (Neville killed)
Edward IV
-Defeated army led by Margaret of Anjou at the Battle of TewkesburyàEdward Prince of Wales killed
Edward IV
-Henry VI murderedàend of Lancastrian line
Edward IV
-Henry Tudor taken abroad to live in exile
Edward IV
-Growth in political power, greatly improved finances, more efficient use of machinery of government
Edward IV
-Signet Seal—King’s personal seal—limited Chancellor’s authority
Edward IV
-Diminished role of Parliament—no longer met twice yearly—used Parliament for publicity, a stamp for decisions already made
Edward IV
-No major foreign wars although continual struggle with Scotland
Edward IV
-Customs Duties increased (major part of royal income)
Edward IV
-Peaceful foreign policy
Edward IV
-Increased use of benevolences—loans to government
Edward IV
-Executed his brother George Duke of Clarence in 1478—gave him choice of method of death—chose liquor (Clarence swung both Lancastrian and Yorkist sides)
Edward IV
-Death in 1483
Edward IV
-Youngest brother of Edward IV
Richard III
-Duke of Gloucester before became king—was loyal to Edward IV
Richard III
-Married his cousin Anne Neville
Richard III
-Head of the Council of the North to bring order/peace to the Scottish borders
Richard III
-Last Yorkist after Edward IV death
Richard III
-He had immediate coronation to avoid a regency—Edward IV son Edward V was sent to Welsh Marchesàhe was to be brought back to London but was met by Richard and Richard took control of him and was brought to the Tower of London for his residence—his mother, Elizabeth Woodville, fled
Richard III
-Executed much of his opposition
Richard III
-Priest stated Edward IV marriage to Elizabeth Woodville was null and void and that any children were illegitimateàParliament stated that Edward V could not claim crown and Richard became king
Richard III
-King of England 1483
Richard III
-Portrayed negatively in order to make Henry Tudor look good—no favorable comments on him could be printedàShakespeare’s “Richard III” portrayed him as born as a hunchback with a full set of hair and teeth
Richard III
-Edward V brother sent to live with him in the Tower of Londonàeventual disappearance of both (rumors of murder by king and later excavations found bodies of boys under stairs—controversy)
Richard III
-Duke of Buckingham rebelled against King due to the exile of Henry Tudor
Richard III
-Death in 1485
Richard III
-Pledged to marry Edward IV eldest daughter, Elizabeth of York to combine Lancaster and York families
Henry Tudor
-Sailed to England in 1485—his army met army of King Richard III near BosworthàKing attacked Tudor directly but he lost his horse and was stranded and killed—his body was stripped and carried nude on the back of a horse
Henry Tudor
-King of England 1485 (as Henry VII)
Henry Tudor