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67 Cards in this Set

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Primary Source
A Primary Source is an eye witness account. It is not perfect, it is bias. It is the most reliable resource. Historians like to use pirmary sources becuse they help them figure out past events.
Secondary Source
A secondary source is information from a primary source. It is less reliable than a primary source. It gives a broad picture of an event.
Social Sciences
Social Sciences is the study of humans. 2 groups, Natural Sciences, and Behavioral Sciences. Help historians know an event through each science.
Fact
A fact is something that has been proven. Essential in history. They give proven information to better understand a topic.
Historical Method
Historians systematic way of finding an answer. They do research to try to prove their hypothesis. Historical Method helps you know an event better because of the research you have done. Its goal is to prove your hypothesis.
History
History is a narative of past events selectivly recorded based upon the recorders interpretation, analysis, and biases. It is not an exact science, it evolves over time. History helps with new ideas, and teaches people how to fix mistakes bases on ones already made.
Inquiry
An inquiry is a problem or answer you try to solve. Historians always do inquiry bases research. Inquiries help you help you learn about history.
Generalization
Generalization is a broad perspective. It is a nicer stereotype. Books are filled with generalizations. Helps historians because they are easier to use/understand.
Hypothesis
A hypothesis is an educated guess that you try to prove. Historians use them while researching to not be so broad. Help you narrow your research.
Historical Truth
Something in history that is believed to have happened, but there are no facts towards it. Historians call these things historical truths. Helpfull because historians try to get solid proof on things not proven. Historians make a consesis on information.
Cause and Effect
A cause and effect is when something happens (cause) and because of this, another thing happens (effect). It is important to historians because they can tell what made the effect occur. Important to the future, because they can use the causes from the past to fix the effects in the future.
Objective
An objective is a fact, not an opinion. No humans are objective, because they put an interpretation on things. Objects are objective because they dont have opinions to tell, just the facts.
Opinion
An opinion is what one things about a certain topic, question. It is what you think. In history different events are interpreted differently, you can not depend on ones opinion to truely understand an event, or to answer your question.
Artifact
An artifact is something made by humans from an event. Artifacts are useful because they help you know more about an event. Historians use them to figure out events, what came first.
George Washington
George Washington was the General of teh COntinental Army. He was in the French and Indian war. He was also President of Constitutional Convention. If he was not the General the colonies might have not won the war.
Stamp Act
The stamp act is when teh British put tax on random things. Somethings that they put tax on were, newspapers, stamps, dice. It effected all levels of society. It was a huge event in the causes of the war. Happened in 1765
Treaty of Paris 1783
The trey of paris was the thing that ended the war. The British were forced to remove toops out of America, they had to extend America's land, and give Florida back to Spain. It signifies end of the war. Also it shows that a colony successfully beats its mother country.
Intolerable Acts
The Intolerable Act was the last actions of the British. They taxed colonists for the Boston Tea Party. They said that they wouldnt open the Boston Harbor until they got money. The Intolerable Acts said that the colonists had to go by the British Rules.
Declaration of Independence
The Declaration of Independence declared independence from Britian. It is a huge document in American History. It tells the Natural rights of the Americans, then the complaints that the Americans have. The Declaration of Independence says that the Americans are done with the British.
Battle of Saratoga
The Battle of Saratoga is the turning point of the war. The Americans beat the British. Winning this battle helped the French make their decision in joining the war. The Americans won because the British made many mistakes one of them was that 2 of their leaders that were supposed to bring troops to the battle got lost, only one showed up, but he did not have a lot of troop due to the fact that he had already gotton into a fight with American troops on the way to Saratoga.
Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson wrote the Declaration of Independence.
Ben Franklin
Ben Franklin was very influencial to our country. He was one of the few to move society classes successfully. After being a true British supporter, after the British taxed the Americans for inappropriate reasons, he became pro-American. HE was bery influencial in big decisions like, the Declaration of Independence, the Treaty of Paris. He was also the President of the Consitutional Convention.
Boston Massacre
Nobody really knows what the cause of the BM was. We know that 5 Americans died. The Sons of Libertyused this event to gain lots of support for the war.
Boston Tea Party
THe Boston Tea Party is when the Sons of Liberty dressed as Indians and dumped pounds of tea into the Boston Harbor. They did this because the British had just put tax on tea, and they did not like that. This event was the cause of the Intolerable Acts.
Battle of Yorktown
Was in 1781, last major battle of Revolutionary War. The French blocked off the supplies from the British in by blocking their ships in the water. This event caused the Treaty of Paris.
French and Indian War
1754-1763, fighting over Ohio Valley. It was successful for the British. The British taxed the Americans for the French and Indian war. The taxing of the Americans was probably the biggest cause of the Revolutionary War.
Olive Branch Petition
It was the 2nd Conintental Congress' last attempt for peace between Americans and the British. When they arrived King George did not want to have peace.
Democracy
A Democracy is a government formed by the people. America is a democracy. It is consdered to be a land where everyone is equal. It is also a more liberal way of thinking.
Republic
A republic form of government is a government that the people vote on people to represent them. America is a Republic form of government too. It is less liberal than a democracy.
3/5 Compromise
When 5 black men is the same amount as 3 white men. This was to get taxed the same amount of your population. the north did not want slaves to count in population, but wanted them to count in taxes. The sounth wanted slaves to count in population, but not in taxes.
Constitution
The Consitution is a very big document in American history. This is because it has been useful to us for over 200 years. It does not establish laws, it establishes government.
Bill of Rights
The bill of rights are the first 10 ammendments of the Constitution. if they did not have the bill of rights some states would not have signed the Constitution.
Great Compromise
The Great Compromise was also called the Connecticut Compromise. Its branches of governments were legislative, executive, and judicial. The legislative branch had 2 houses, one said each state got 2 representatives, the other was based on population. This plan would benefit everybody becase the smaller states would still be represented and could help with the country, but the larger states still got more people to help out the government because, the more people in the state the more people you need representing that state.
Federalism
Federalism is a division of power between the National government and the states. People elect state and national leaders. The national leaders make the laws, and state leaders can maintain some of their own laws.
Separation of Powers
The Separation of Powers shows what powers each branch of government has. If one branch had all the powers then people were frightened that the American government might go back to a dictatorship.
Land/Northwest Ordinance
The Land ordinance came first and it was a good thing of the Articles of Confederation. It sold secs of land to people. The Northwest ordinance came later and it showed the people how to govern their land. If they had 5,000 white males they could send 1 non-voting delagate to congress. If they had 60,000 white males they could write up a constitution for stateship.
Consitutional Convention
A meeting held to create a Federal system. Representatives from 12 states (not Rhode Island). Made up of 55 wealthy white men. Discussed different ways of governing like the Virginia Plan, New Jersey Plan, and the Connecticut Compromise.
Articles of Confederation
The Articles of Confederation were written because people believed that they were a good way of governing. The Articles of Confederations biggest fear was that the country was going to be ruled once again by a tyrant, to stop this from happening they gave the central government as least power as the could. They supported a weak congress, would have no executive branch, each states was represented, each state had 1 vote, 2/3 vote to pass a law, unanimus to ammend an article. Said Congress could declare war, regulate foreign trade, and make treaties. Congress could not regulate commerce or collect taxes.
Checks and Balances
Checks and Balances kept each branch from assuming too much responsibility. Said that the legislative branch would make laws, the executive branch was led by the president (law inforcers), and the judicial branch was the law interpreters. All states ratified by 1790.
The Federalist Papers
The Federalist papers tried to convince the colonists that the Constitution was a good thing. They tried to do this because the government needed all 13 states to ratify before they could keep the Constitution.
How did the Articles of Confederation influence the Constitution?
The Articles of Confederation influenced the Constitution because of its mistakes. I mean this by because of the errors in the Articles, the writers of the Constitution knew exactly what they needed to fix. The fact that having a weark executive branch in the Articles made it clear that there should be a stong executive branch. I say this because a weak executive branch was not working at all for the United States. The Iriquios League, Magna Carta, and Enlightenment thinkers also influenced the Constitution.
How do the Social Sciences help understand historical events?
The social science help understand historical events because they go through all of them in depth.
How does ones point of view or bias influence his or her interpretation?
Someones point of view of bias can influence his or her interpretation in a couple of ways. You only hear what you want to hear. This means that if an American was talking about the American revolution to a British person the British person would only pretend to be listening. When we did the JFK reports i would never want t hear another theory because i was scared that i would change my mind on who i thought shot JFK.
What is the responsibility of the government to its citizens?


-intro
Before the Constitution was written many ideas on the responsibility of the government wre thought about, even tried out. As the same thing with all controversial topics many people think different ways on what the responsibility of the government is to tis citizens. Patrick Henry, and a member of the 2nd Continental Congress both think differently on this topic.
What is the responsibility of the government to its citizens?

-2nd para.
Patrick Henry believed that the responsibility of the government to its citizens was to keep them free. He believed in freedom so much that he said, "Give me Liberty or give me death". When Patrick Henry said this he meant that he would rather give up his life than live not in freedom. Patrick Henry's strong words are a symbol of America's struggle for liberty. They are a symbol of liberty because, these words show people now how strong and passionatly people felt about their rights. That a man would rather live in freedom than live.
What is the responsibility of the government to its citizens?


-3rd para.
A member of the 2nd continental congress believed in a weak executive branch. They showed these thoughts in the Articles of confedereation which was written by the 2nd continental congress. The articles of confederation cleary showed that they did not want a strong executive branch because they feared having another dicator that only helped himself. To the 2nd continental congress the responsiblity of the government to its citizens was that it should really have no responsibility. The government would have no responsibility because there was no central government. The states controlled themselves really. The articles of confederation said that the government was not allowed to tax its people, showing that the government could not have responsilbity. In the articles of Confederation the only things that congress could do were declar war, regulate foreign affairs, and make treaties.
George Washington
General of the Continental Army
Francis Marion
The "Swamp Fox"
Ben Franklin
Signed all 4 major documents surrounding the Revolutionary War.
John Adams
2nd President of the United States
Sam Adams
Leader of the Sons of Liberty
Thomas Paine
Wrote the pamphlet, "Common Sense"
Thomas Jefferson
Wrote the Declaration of Independence
Marquis de Lafayette
The French volunteer that hlped the Americans.
King George III
King of England during the war.
Baron von Steuben
Prussian Military General
General Cornwallis
General of the British Army.
John Paul Jones
"Father of the American Navy"
Molly Pitcher
One of the first women to fight in the Revolutionary war.
Patrick Henry
"Give me liberty of give me death"
John Locke
Enlightenment thinker
Paul Revere
He had a midnight ride
Benedict Arnold
British spy, not a good one
Nathan Hale
American spy, not a good one
John Hancock
President of the First COntinental Congress.
Ethan Allen
Led the Green Mountain Boys.
6 Social Sciences
-Economics
-Geography
-Government
-Psycology
-Anthropology
-Sociology