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45 Cards in this Set

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the bitter state of indirect conflict that existed between the U.S. and the Soviet Union for more than four decades after the end of WWII.
- It developed out of long-standing disagreements b/w the two nations. After the Russian Revolution of 1917, the U.S. had refused to recognize the new communist nation until 1933. Also U.S. was angry at the Soviet Union when they signed a nonaggression pact with Germany in 1939.
Cold War
what FDR referred to Stalin.
Uncle Joe
the nation hoped to share with the world this. The essential elements are liberty, equality, and representative government.
Democratic life
the soviet working-class men and women
Stalin created this dictatorship in which the central gov. ruled by terror and held absolute control over its citizens’ lives.
the first postwar clash b/w the U.S. and the Soviet Union. It called for a new Polish gov. influenced strongly by the Soviet Union but including a few representatives sympathetic to the West.
Yalta Agreement
George Orwell’s novel that was published in 1949, it described a frightening future world in which a totalitarian state, represented by the ever-represent face of “big brother”, monitors and controls every aspect of people’s lives.
the new battlefront of the cold war that sharply divided the capitalist West from the communist East
Iron Curtain
„³ founded in 1945 which ignited new hope for international peace and understanding. Deep differences between the Western democracy and communism made it difficult for the UN to fulfill its great promise.
- Delegates from 50 nations met in San Francisco to adopt a charter which set down official rules for the new org. The UN charter pledged that member countries would seek to settle their disagreements peacefully. Also to stop wars from occurring and to end those that did break out.
United Nations
„³ Cold war policy of the U.S. intending to prevent communist power from expanding beyond its geographical boundaries after WWII.
a statement to Congress made by Truman that he said he believed that it must be the policy of the US to support free peoples who are resisting attempted conquering by armed minorities or by outside pressures. Congress responded by appropriating 400 million for Turkey and Greece.
Truman Doctrine
called for nations of Europe- including the Soviet Union and other communist countries- to draw up a program for economic recovery from the war. The US would support the program with financial aid.
- The Soviet Union and its Easter European neighbors refused to participate.
- It also called the European Recovery Plan Program.
Marshall Plan
it benefited from the Marshall Plan. The French, British and American zones formed Western Germany and introduced a West German currency in the western part of Berlin (which was located in the Soviet zone).
- The Soviets reacted by blockading all ground and water routes to West Berlin in June 1948.
West Germany
moved supplies into West Berlin by plane. Food, coal and other vital supplies were flown into the city ever day for over a year.
- The Soviets finally ended the blockade in May 1949 , and the airlift ended the following September.
. Berlin Airlift
in 1949 the US helped establish this. A 12 nation alliance of Belgium, Britain, Canada, Denmark, France, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal and the US- that vowed that one attack against one would be viewed as an attack against all
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)
gained control of China with his communist followers.
Mao Zedong
spelled out American policy in a document known as NSC -68. It was created in 1947 to develop broad policy concepts on which the President could build specific strategies.
National Security Counsel
outlined several policies that the US might adopt in light of the current state of international affairs. It stated that the US should triple its defense budget- and some leaders suggested quadrupling it from $13 billion to $50 billion annually. According to this policy, only a vigorous defense effort could keep communism in check and ensure the survival of the free world.
Secretary of State under Eisenhower in 1953. He was a deeply religious person who hated communism because it denied the existence of God. He proposed a policy of liberation, to roll back communism where it had already taken hold.
. John Foster Dulles
countries controlled politically and economically by the Soviet Union.
Satellite Nations
After WWII allied forces took over Korea, the Soviets in the North and the US in the south. Both countries set up and supported their governments in each area. Both the N and S wanted to unify the country, but each wanted to so on its own terms. In June 1950, the North Korean army moved across the 38th Parallel. Truman went to the UN asking to restore the peace. MacArthur drove the North Koreans out of South Korea by cutting off supply lines. But once they reached China’s border, the Chinese warned them from going any further. They soon entered the war in Oct 1950 and the NK and they pushed the UN forces back into the south. The conflict dragged on for two more years until a truce was signed in 1953.
Korean War
the latitude line that runs through Korea at 38 degrees N; North Korea- the Soviets controlled, South Korea- the US controlled.
38th Parallel
part of Southeast Asia that France had long controlled, which had fallen to Japan in WWII. Vietnam, one part of Indochina, sought independence and started another war.
the leader of the Indochina Communist party. He was sympathetic to the principles of communism; he was really more of a Vietnamese nationalist than a Soviet sympathizer. He used the American Revolution War as his model for independence.
Ho Chi Minh
Ho’s political organization which established the Democratic Republic of Vietnam in 1945.
Viet Minh
an outpost in northern Vietnam, where the Vietnamese defeated France in this major battle in 1954.
Dien Bien Phu
this theory compared countries to dominos and held that “you have a row of dominos set up, you knock over the first one, and what will happen to the last one is the certainty that will go over very quickly.” Thus, if one country in Indochina fell to communism, other countries in the area would soon follow.
Domino Theory
Vietnam would be divided along this line, like Germany and Korea. Ho Chi Minh would hold power in the north and an anti-communist government in charge in the south.
17th Parallel
The UN divided Palestine into an Arab state and a Jewish state in 1948. Zionist Jews had hoped for this and in May 14, 1948 a Jewish state was made, Israel. Israel was soon invaded by surrounding Arab states, but it defeated those states and annexed most of the Palestinian territory.
revolutionary leader who overthrew a long-standing dictatorial regime in Cuba. He seized American property in Cuba, the US responded by severing diplomatic ties and cutting off exports. In response, Cuba turned to the SU for economic and military support.
Fidel Castro
conspiracy to overthrow the government. This fear launched a crusade to persecute not only people had ties to the Communist party but also anyone whose views leaned toward the left.
is made up of people who generally want to see the existing political system changed- sometimes radically- to benefit the common person.
political left
is composed of people who generally wish to preserve the current system.
political right
1947, under the terms of this program, the FBI was to check its files for individuals who might be engaged in suspicious activity. Cases would then move to a new Loyalty Review Board.
. Federal Employee Loyalty Program
where those accused of disloyalty to their country would be reviewed. It helped create a dangerous climate of suspicion throughout the country.
Loyalty Review Board
Congress began its own loyalty program. It had been established a decade earlier to investigate disloyalty on the eve of way, now began a probe of the motion picture industry.
House UN-American Activities Committee„³ (HUAC)
an index of blacklisted actors, it was published in 1950
. Red Channels
According to rumors nineteen Hollywood figures who had close relations with the communist party. They were distinguished Hollywood personalities who were responsible for some of the best films of the previous ten years. Ten of them refused to answer Chairman J. Parnell Thomas’ question of whether they were in the Communist party. The Hollywood Ten invoked their rights guaranteed by the First Amendment. They failed to testify and went to jail for contempt of Congress and served sentences from 6 months to 1 year.
Hollywood Ten
The First amendment that protects individuals against the gov. officials who try to “prescribe what shall be orthodox in politics, nationalism, religion, or other matters of opinion.” They recently ruled it when the Hollywood Ten were tried.
West Virginia Board of Education vs. Barnette (1942)
a list of persons who would not be allowed to work. It included not only the Hollywood Ten, but also many others who seemed in someway “subversive”.
. Blacklist
1948, had been a high-ranking State Department official before he left gov. service. Whittaker Chamber accused Hiss of having been a Communist in the late 1930’s. Hiss denied the charge and sued Chambers for libel. Chambers then said that Hiss had been a Soviet spy. He was convicted of perjury and he went to prison for 4 years.
Alger HIss
a husband and wife who held radical views who held radical views, were accused of passing atomic secrets to the Soviets during the war. They were convicted of espionage and executed in the electric chair in 1953.
Julius and Ethel Rosenberg
a Republican senator from Wisconsin, who took the anticommunist crusade even further. Through his skillful use of the media and his willingness to make wild accusations at almost everyone. He attracted attention in 1950 in Wheeling. He claimed he held in his hand a list with the names of 205 known Communists in the State Department. In fact, he had no list. He was a favorite with journalist because he provided them stories and the public responded favorably to him.
Joseph P. McCarthy
when McCarthy took on the US Army. The military refused to give G. David Schine, McCarthy’s assistant, special treatment when he was drafted. So he decided to investigate the army security. The hearings started in April 1954 for 36 days. The senate condemned him for his reckless attacks and he died three years later, a broken man
Army-McCarthy Hearings