Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

130 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Three main groups called what lived in where?
Etruscans,Greeks and Latins and in Italy
These people established colonies in southern Italy and Sicily
Established villages along the Tiber River
The villages established by the Latins were eventually united to form
the city of Rome
These people settled in mainly northern Italy
These twin boys were set in what river after their birth?
Tiber, Romulus and Remus
Were nourished by a
she wolf
Who killed whom (twin brother) in a quarrel?
Romulus killed Remus
The Romans established (representative democracy)
What were the two groups that evolved in Rome?
Patricians and plebeians
Who controlled the government in the early years of the republic?
the patricians of Rome
Were some plebeians well to do?
Plebeians could not hold office in the what republic?
What were consuls?
Two men that were elected each year to serve one year terms together
What did consuls do?
They commanded the army and headed the government
Did each consul have veto power over the other?
What does veto mean?
Latin for "I forbid"
What was a dictator?
A man appointed by the consuls during a crisis
How long did the dictator serve for? Did he have any limits to his power?
Six months, and no, he had UNlimited power
Who was the most imporant in the lawmaking body?
The senate
How long did a senator serve for?
Who appointed tribunes?
The plebeians.
What could these tribunes do?
They could veto any action in the senate
Eventually plebeians coul hold _____ _____ including the office of ___
any office, consul
Romans adopted many of the ____ gods and goddesses and renamed them
A city state in North Africa
Who established Carthage?
The Phoenicians
This became a military and trading post of the Romans
Became at military and trading RIVAL of the Romans
____ had a better ARMY while ____ had a better NAVY
Rome had a better army and Carthage had an excellent navy
Who won the first Punic war?
The Romans
When this war began, Rome had few warships
The first Punic War
How did Rome win the first Punic War?
They found a warship from Carthage and copied it
Who was Hannibal?
A general from Carthage
What is Gaul called now?
Where did Hannibal lead his army to?
What was Hannibal's motive for war?
The Romans did not know that he was marching towards ____ until he was in ____
Italy until he was in southern Gaul
Hannibal ___ several battles
After the battles, the Romans ____ fighting Hannibal as much as possible, instead they used"______-______"
avoided, they used hit and run raids
Why was Hannibal unable to capture Rome?
Inadequate equipment and not enough men
Hannibal hope that _____ under Roman control would rebel against the Romans and help him...thousands did ______
people in Italy_ so but not enough
Hannibals' brother was on his way to assist Hannibal with reinforcements. What happened?
He was murdered by the Romans and his army destroyed
Whose head was tossed into whose camp?
Hannibal's brother's into Hannibal's camp
Did Hannibal lose any major battles while he was in Italy?
The Romans sent an army to Hannibal's hometown under what gerneral?
Scipio, Carthage
Scipio defeated Hannibal near
Who won the second Punic War?
The Romans
The peace treaty was
harsh on Carthage
Scipio became a hero to the Romans....he was referred afterwards as
Scipo, Africanus
After the war, Hannibal remained in
Hannibal later fled Carthage to avoid being
captured by the Romans
When he was about to be captured he
committed suicide
Who wanted Carthage destroyed?
Cato, a Roman senator
What did Cato end all his speeches wih?
"Carthage must be destroyed"
Who destroyed Carthage in 146 BC?
What happened to the survivors of the attack on Carthage? How many were there?
The 50,000 survivors were enslaved
What was put into the soil as a symbolic gesture that the land would remain uninhabited?
Name two problems in the Roman republic
Wealthy landholders used slave labor, which meant that small farmers were forced to leave their land, and the farmers went to the city to find work
Were jobs plentifully ready to the farmers that moved to the cities looking for work?
No, there were few jobs
Name the two brothers that served as tribunes and were murdered in 133 and 121 BC
Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus
What did Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus want to stop?
Wealthy landholders to rent so much land-they wanted to divide this land among the farmers that had moved to the cities.
Who opposed the Gracchus brother's reforms?
Wealthy landholders including many senators
Which Gracchus brother was murdered in 133 BC?
Which Gracchus brother was murdered in 121 BC?
What does "triumvirate" mean?
"ruled by three"
Name the people that made up the triumvirate
Julius Caesar, Crassus and Pompey
All had served as ____, all were ____ and all were ____
consul, senators, generals
What three men formed a secret alliance to control the Roman government?
Julius Caesar, Crassus and Pompey
While Julius Caesar was away from Rome, he____ many battles in ____
won Gaul
After Julius Caesar ___ many battles in ___, ___ was then placed under Roman control
won many battles in Gaul, Gaul
_____ _______ was then elected as GOVERNOR (also called what??)
Julius Caesar, proconsul
Julius Caesar also won battles in ___
In 53 B.C. Crassus was _____ while commanding his army
Pompey became very _____ of Julius Caesar's victories
In 50 B.C., Pompey and the senate ordered Julius Caesar to return to ____ without his troops.
In 49 BC Caesar returned to Rome ________his troops
"Crossing the Rubicon" means
there is no turning back from this point
Civil war began between _____ troops and _____ troops
Caesar's and Pompey's
______ and some senators fled Rome
____ became DICTATOR
Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar _______ Pompey's troops
Pompey was later killed
In Egypt
In 44 BC Caesar had himself named "_______ ___ _____"
dictator for life
Circus Maximus was a racetrack in Rome used for this purpose-this was a very popular sport
Chariot racing
a stadium in Rome called the ------ was the location of many amusements
Were trained fighters, fought wild animals and fought each other
_____ was popular (usually using brass knuckles
Sometimes ________ and condemned criminals were forced to fight _________ or __________
Christians were forced to fight gladiators or wild animals
Structures built to carry water to the cities
____ empire surpasses all previous empires in size (larger than the _____ Empire and the empire of ________ __ ____
Rome, Persian, Alexander the Great
Lived in Palestine, which was under Roman control
Born during the rule of Augustus Caesar
Two of the most famous missionaries were
Peter and Paul
Pax Romana ended when this emperor died
Marcus Aurelius
Last of the Five Good Emperors
Marcus Aurelius
Philosopher as well as emperor
Marcus Aurelius
Beginning with _____ Romans were ruled by emperors
Augustus Caesar or Octavian
Born during the rule of Augustus Caesar
_______ were worshiped as gods
The _________ __________ was written after Jesus was crucified
New Testament
Two of the most famous ones were _____ and ____
Peter and Paul
Romans executed these two probably during the reign of
Name two reasons that Christians were persecuted
They refused to worship the Roman emperors and the government feared that they would rebel against the government
the blood of the _____ was the seed of the ___________ _______
martyrs was the seed of the Christian church
First Christian emperor
The Roman empire was divided into two parts. The western part had its capital in ____ and the eastern part had its capital in ______________
Italy, constantinople
The emperor of the western empire was ___________ and not _______
overthrown and not replaced
This is referred to as __ ___ of the western empire
the fall
Which part lasted longer, the eastern or the western?
The eastern part
No ____ ______ marked the fall of the western empire, it ________________________
single event, it had been declining for years
Who wrote The Decline and Fall of The Roman Empire?
Edward Gibbon
When was Edward Gibbon's book written in?
Gibbon was a member of the ______ _________
English Parliament
Name the reasons for the collapse of the western empire
1) Political problems
2) Economic problems
3) Social problems
4) Barbarian invasians
Since there was no established method of choosing an emperor, ___ _____ often developed over who should be emperor
Civil war
Many emperors were __________
Roman armies would frequently ____ each __
fight each other
Taxes were extremely ____
__________ was very high
Trade declined partly due to
Wars and lack of funds to repair roads and bridges
Decline in _____
Apathy occured- people were not interested in participating in the __________ or serving in the ____
government or serving in the army
The empire was invaded on several occasions by __________
Towns and cities in ____ were _______
Rome were plundered
What happened in March 15, 44 BC?
Julius Caesar died
What happened in 27 B.C.?
The beginning of the reign of Augustus
A.D. 180
The death of Marcus Aurelius
Name the period from 27 BC to AD 180
Pax Romana
What happened in A.D. 476?
"Fall" of the western empire