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19 Cards in this Set

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Missions
These are large buildings built by the Spanish church during the 1600's in Latin America. The main purpose of these buildings were to house and convert Indians to Christianity. The missions turned into almost slave labor camps were the Indians did all the work for the friars.
Syncretism
This is a religious practice used by Spanish to get groups of similar backgrounds together to become one. They would then try and convert them to Christianity. They would do so by comparing and relating the Indian traditions with Christianity to make it more acceptable.
Guarni
These were Indians that lived in Paraguay and were related to the Tupi Indians. The lived on plateaus which made them very difficult to reach and remained mainly untouched until the 1750's. They become part of the missions system and still can see influences of them today.
Cujamarca
A city in which Piezarro and Atahuapla met to talk in 1530. They discussed who each where and Atahuapla doesn't accept the bible which makes Piezzaro angry and so he attacks. Inca are in shock because they haven't seen Spanish weapons before so they run and get cut down. 1500 Incans are now dead and Piezzaro takes Atahuapla hostage.
Atahuapla
Is one of two sons and is born in 1497. His father dies and didn't decide on next emperor so he fights for control of the Incan empire. He ultimatley gets control of the empire, but gets captured by Piezzaro and gets killed in 1533.
"Factories"
These are trading posts that were founded in the early 1500's by the Portuguese. They trade mostly for Brazil Wood and give natives guns in trade. This creates instability within Indian empires as those with guns control the power.
Encomienda
Also means the economy. This is idea comes from the Spanish around 1550's because they want their colonies to successfully make them money. Basically trys to set up feudal system in Latin America with Encomendyros owning large estates and the Indians on them. Basically ends up being a crop system to sell and profit on and ship some profit back to Spain
Viceroy
This is developed by the Spanish during the mid 1500's as a government to maintain control in Latin America. What happened is that the Spanish government would assign a territory to a Viceroy to control who would be loyal to the crown. He had all the powers of a king except couldn't be king.
Reconquista
This is the taking back of the Spanish/Portugal owned Muslim part of the world. Three kingdoms developed and slowly pushed the Muslims out of Spain and Portugal. They would settle Christian towns and slowly expand out and out slowly pushing. By the 1400's the entire Iberian Land was reconquered by the Three Kingdoms
Canary Island
These are Islands located off of the West Cost of Africa. They were inhabited by the Guanche who used stone tools at the time and were influenced heavily by Christianity from the Spanish. They turn it into sugar slave plantations but eventually get wiped out by disease during the 1400's.
Requerimiento
These are restrictions under which an official can justly declare war. It was a Spanish document developed around 1510. It was read to Indians to give brief history of the World and the Indians were not to be harmed if this document was read
La Malinche
Is A woman who became loyal to Cortez during his conquering of Mexico. She was a prize after Cortez had defeated the Maya in battle around 1520. She was essential to his conquering as she would interpret for him in various languages and even saved him from assassination attempt once.
Christopher Columbus
His actual goal was to sail west and prove that earth was much smaller than people thought and would land in china. Ran in the Americas by accident and named them Indians in 1492. Ever since his contact their became a consistent flow of trade between the Americas and parts of Europe. Known as the Colombian Exchange
Popul Vuh
This is the creation story of the Maya. It explained how the final attempt of the gods made people out of maize. Although it was oral history until in 1550's a friar wrote it down so it could be read.
Tenochtitlan
Founded in the 1400's and quickly became a very prominent prosperous Aztec city. It was built in the middle of a lake and was completely prepared for war and could become an island. It supported about 200,000 thousand people and was based around floating squares used to grow food for the people. Eventually conquered by Cortez
Flower Wars
These were ritualistic warfare that went on between the Aztecs and other surrounding Indians during the 1400's. They wore elaborate armor and clothes that were sometimes made with flowers. They fought to capture not kill as they needed sacrifices to satisfy the gods.
Huacas
these were mummified emperors of the Incan empire. They were mummified so that they could live on and thought to be alive after they died. It created problems of wealth because the new emperor had to gain his own wealth and land often done through conquering. These mummies were taken care of by the Panacas who were the kin of the emperor
Quipu
This was a system of messages that was used by the Incan empire. It would be rope that was knotted in a certain way to deliver a message and was transported by Incan runners.
Tupi
Was an Indian group who had an excellent resource of food and were seen as very healthy. They were also seen as cannibals by the Spanish as they ate humans that they captured in battle.