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33 Cards in this Set

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operation torch
the british american invasion of North Africa in 1942. a result of Soviet Union pressures to open up a second front to reduce German pressure on Soviet forces. the advancement into North Africa would provide a significant naval advantage in the mediterranean and allow a better attack into southern Europe. at the time, the area was under control of the Vichy French, who hardly opposed the landings of the Allies. after the initlal, easy victory over the french, a more arduous battle was fought with attacking germans. the allies, eventually won this battle as well however.
fourteen points
these were fourteen points listed in a speech by woodrow wilson on january 8, 1918. though the speech was given nearly a year previous to the German surrender at the Treaty of Paris, the points became a foundation of the peace treaty negotiated. wilson also secured a position of moral leadership amongst the allies.
stimson doctrine
a policy announced in a correspondence to Japan and China in 1932 on non-recognition of territorial changes due to force. the statement, named after secretary of state william stimson during Hoover's presidency, came after Japan's seizure of manchuria. the doctrine was an assertion of the previous United States beliefs and practices with teh far east and the Open Door policy.
anschluss
the 1938 Nazi annexation of Austria into greater Germany. though it was tacitly approved by much of the Austrian population and was decalared by Germany to be only an issue of uniting the German people, it was a significant step towards hitler's attempts at world domination. specifically, it violated the treaty of versailles, prompting Allied outrage.
william seward
United States' secretary of state under Lincoln and Andrew Johson. had a vision of building up an external infrastructure to support foreign commerce with the construction of overseas telegraph lines and naval bases. overall goal was the access of foreign markets. this goal was somewhat attained with his success in negotiating the purchase of Alaska from Russia in 1867. though it was often thought of as a distinct blunder, it allowed a bridge for a trans-Pacific telegraph line from SF to Eurasia.
good neighbor policy
the policy of FDR in relation to latin america and europe from 1933-1945. affirmed by Cordell Hull, the policy believed that no nation had the right to intervene in the affairs of others. this was quite significant in relation to the United States' previous actions of percieved imperialism.
the maine
the maine was sent from florida to havana, cuba in 1898 to protect United States interests during a time of cuban rebellion against spanish imperialism. three weeks after its anchoring in havana harbor, an explosion sank the ship. despite later evidence, it was initially believed that the attack was made by the spanish on the american ship, taking a very significant step towards the Spanish American war.
"Cash and Carry"
a policy instituted at the beginning of WWII in 1939. the policy was initialized in order to preserve a sense of neutrality between the US and warring european nations. the policy was largely instated to recover United States economy after the great depression. however, the program became quite one sided, and eventually bankrupt the british, who then negotiated the lend-lease act with the US instead.
executive order 9066
an order by President FDR in 1942 which authorized the sending of specific races or ethnicities to internment camps, specifically those with foreign enemy ancestry (Japanese, german and italian). it also gave the military power to declare areas of United States land as military zones. later rescinded by Gerald Ford.
atlantic charter
negotiated between FDR and Winston Churchill aboard a warship in Newfoundland in 1941, the atlantic charter established a vision of a post WWII world. despite the fact that the United States had yet to enter the war, the US and Britain sought a world with less fear of oppression from belligerent nations, and increased international trade. the charter foreshadowed the United States eagerness to get involved with WWII.
pancho villa
one of the foremost leaders of the mexican revolution. villa is largely remembered in the United States for his 1916 raid into new mexico which prompted the United States Punitive Expedition led by John Pershing. villa's rage towards the United States came because of the US support of the Carranza government. though the united states attacked and sought villa, they never caught him.
sudetenland
the german name used in english for the western regions of czechoslovakia that was inhabited mostly by germans. despite its independence Austria, the Sudetenland was annexed by germany in an effort to unite the german people. however opposed by the Allies, in the Munich agreement, they allowed the annexation as long as it was hitlers last territorial demand.
lebensraum
one of the most important ideas of hitler's politics. the german ideal of living space directly pertained to the expansionist policies hitler imposed. expanded ideas of german superiority and slavic inferiority, directing the nazis to exterminate those beneath them in order for their own better living conditions.
kellog-briand pact
also known as the pact of paris, was signed in 1928. the pact was an international pact to renounce war as a form of diplomacy. though it failed in its efforts with WWII and other conflicts, it was significant in that it influenced later developments in international law. sixty two nations signed the pact.
breisner's new paradigm
a coded telegram from the foreign secretary of the german empire, arthur zimmerman to the german ambassador in mexico in 1917. the telegram proposed a military alliance that would see mexico attack the united states in order to keep the US busy and out of european affairs, especially its alliance with britain. this had teh opposite affect when british codebreakers intercepted the note and informed the us, who's entry into teh war was thus hastened.
vietminh
a communist liberation movement founded by ho chi minh in 1941 to oppose french occupation and japanese offensives. due to their opposition to the japanese, the vietminh were initially funded by teh americans, who would later regret their alliance.
operation overlord
the codename for the allied cross channel offensive into france in 1944. part of the battle of normandy. the overall commander was Dwight D Eisenhower. the planning involved for the secret invasion was unparalleled in history.
balfour declaration
an official declaration from the british foreign office, headed by arthur balfour. the letter stated that the british government favored the establishment of palestine as a national home for those of jewish descent, but while also not infringing on the rights of those nations already in existence there.
marcus garvey
entrepreneur and black nationalist of the early 1900s. important proponent and figurehead of the back to africa movement, a movement for blacks to return to africa. his movement inspired the nation of islam as well as forms of rastafarianism.
jean darlan
a french naval officer and a major figure of vichy france during WWII. when france was occupied in 1940, darlan maintained his support for the premiere Petian. eventually, during his powerful role in the vichy government, he negotiated the french surrender with eisenhower in order to preserve his post.
dawes plan
a 1924 attempt by the Allies to collect WWI reparations from Germany. a plan was instituted by the treaty of versailles for germany to repay damages incurred during world war I. however, the economic effects on germany were devastating and they could not repay the debt. because of this, french and belgian troops stationed themselves in germany. however, this further harmed and enraged the german people. the dawes plan was succeeded by the youngs plan.
teller amendment
according to its 1898 clause, the teller amendment allowed the US to intervene on the behalf of the cuban rebels, but the US could not further its own goals by intervention. despite the efforts of the teller amendment, it was succeeded by the platt amendment in 1901.
lend-lease
the program from 1941-1945 where the united state supplied the allied forces with war material. though largely controversial, the US acquired important allied relationships for their eventual war with germany and japan as well as military bases throughout the world. initially, FDR went around congressional approval and went ahead and supplied britain with previously used WWI warships.
yalta
wartime meeting in 1945 of the big three, US, UK and SU. at the summit, the leaders agreed to change the borders of poland and established ideals of democratic elements in all eastern european governments. FDR and Churchill interpreted these ideals drastically different from Stalin.
il duce
the term used in reference to italian dictator Benito Moussolini. established a distinctly fascist form of government utilizing censorship and various tactics to suppress his people. became a close ally to hitler. killed by communist resistance units when he attempted to flee austria.
hawley smoot act
signed into law in 1930, it attempted to revive the economy of the great depression. it however only made things worse by increasing tariffs on nearly 20,000 imported items. many countries retaliated at the tariffs and US values dropped significantly.
platt amendment
attached to the army appropriations act of 1901 which defined US-Cuban relations after the spanish american war. the amendment was a distinct change in policy from the teller amendment and severely restricted cuban independence.
krystallnacht
thousands of jewish homes were ransacked in a series of nights in 1938. thousands of jewish families were beaten, killed and taken to concentration camps. the property left behind was looted and ransacked. this was the beginning of hitlers atrocities towards the jewish race.
national origins act
law signed into effect by calvin coolidge in 1924 to restrict immigration. the law hindered immigration from southern and eastern europe by the institution of quotas. the act was largely supported in both houses and had its basis in eugenics.
emilio aguinaldo
philipino general, politician and independence leader. he played an instrumental role in phillipine independence from spain. led resitstance against United States forces in teh philipino-american war. often considered to be the countries first president though the country never recieved any recognition.
roosevelt corollary
a substantial amedment to the monroe doctrine added by Teddy Roosevelt in 1904. this asserted the right of the united states to intervene in affairs of caribbean and latin american nations if they could not repay their debts. the later served as justification for many presidents to intervene in cuba, nicaragua, and others.
the lusitania
a british ocean liner that was torpedoed in 1915 by the germans during WWI. controversial because of the fact that there were americans on board when it was sunk, but additionally because of claims by the germans that there was also war supplies on the ship, which would make the attack legal. this pushed the US further into war with the germans.
bataan death march
a war crime involving the forceable transfer of prisoners by the japanese during wwii. problems arose when a United States/Phillipines force surrendered to a japanese force of about 50,000. the japanese didn't have enough supplies to care for the soldiers and many died along the way. prisoners living conditions were not feasable to sustain life, and many were beaten at random on top of the tight quarters, lack of food or medical attention. those responsible were punished at the IMTFE.