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51 Cards in this Set

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Aftermath/Effects of World War I
1. 1918-1921 Civil War between Bolsheviks (reds)and anti-Bolsheviks (whites); US helps whites, every Soviet child learns that US invades U.S.S.R.
2. Red Scare: fear of revolution, targets organized labor
A. labor strikes: determined to get higher wages to meet higher prices
B. palmer raids: planned by Hoover, govt agents broke into meeting halls/homes without warrants, 4000+ jailed/arrested, denied counsel
C. racial unrest: participation in war had not changed things, violence, KKK, discrimination, lynching, "red summer" 1919
American Indian Movement
1. 1960s/1970s, young/old
2. 1969: NA occupy Alcatraz for 19 months, demand land be returned
3. 1972: occupation of Bureau of Indian Affairs (DC)
**inspired "Red Power" movement, Congress returned millions of acres of land
Annexation of Hawaii
1. 1890 US owns 3/4 of Hawaiin wealth
2. 1893 queen surrenders power to US, Cleveland investigates, most Hawaiins oppose annexation
3. 1898: McKinley annexes during Spanish American war
4. 1900 people granted citizenship
**action of private citizens can be influential if backed by govt, imperialistic tendencies of US
Baby Boom
1. end of WWI throughout 50s/60s
2. wives at home, men at work, give kids more (lived through depression) anxiety giving too much, kids gone wild, birth of juvenile delinquency
3. TV creates unified culture
4. sharp uprise in birth rate
**having babies during Cold War takes on mythic proportions; want normal family life, reverses century long decline in birth rate
Russell Baker
1. born in 1920s VA, boards with family
2. at 7 years old portrait of Hoover next door criticized by aunt for "destroying America"
3. gets Roosevelt poster, hero of liberty, 1st venture into politics
**Roosevelt seen by people as hero, Hoover as do nothing
Brown vs Board of Education
1. 1954 court ruling that separate but equal has no place in public education, demanded "with deliberate speed"
**reaction southern white resistence, KKK resurge, violence, wasn't in practice yet in 69,
William Jennings Bryan
former secretary of state,3 time presidential candidate, argued for prosecution in Scopes trial
Civil Rights Act of 64, 65, 68
1. 64: Johnson, ended legal discrimination for employment, public accomadation, voting on basis of race, religion, origin, sex
**leads to establishment of Equal Employment Opportunity Commission to investigate job discrimination**
2. 65: Voting Rights Act, Johnson, outlawed practices that prevented blacks from voting in south, federal oversight of elections where fear of faulty practices
**within 2 years % of AA voting in Miss. went 7-60%, black officials more common
3. Civil Rights Act 68: housing discrimination
Civil Rights Division of the Department of Justice
1. 1939, Roosevelt,
2. formed by Frank Murphy to investigate violations of federally protected rights using amendments
3. 3 targets: electoral fraud, racial violence, peonage
4. tools: Equal Protection and Due Process clauses of 14th amend, 2 surviving reconstruction statues,
**bridges gap bet. black/white civil rights, marks moment with Judicial/executive branch come together to take positive legal action to protest black civil rights, America as "democracy" responding to fascism in Europe***
Containment
1. general American approach to Soviet Union in postwar era; must contain USSR who is bend on world domination
2. all parties agree; stop expansion of communism
**philosophical justification for hard-stance Americans took, created framework for American military/economic assitance around world**
Cuban Missle Crisis
1. 1962 US discerns missiles in Cuba, US fear of world ending
2. educational filmstrips, duck and cover drills, build bomb shelters
2. USSR says will pull out of US pulls missiles from Turkey
3. Cuba not insulted, mad
4. both fulfill promise
**turning point in US/USSR relations, tension is dangerous to all, USSR looks like bully***
Double "V" campaign
1. WWII victory with Nazis, victory at home with aa rights
2. we can carry a gun, we can have freedom
3. NAACP sees war as opportunity to persuade, embarrass govt/nation; membership soars, sit ins, nonviolent action
3. military still segregated, resisted black units as combat
Dust Bowl
1. prairie/plains states
2. 1932, Depression, unwise farming practices, long drought, storms of dust, blots sun, blows topsoil, buries farms
Enemies List
1. 1971, Nixon's political enemies, hundreds of names, all black members of Congress, Ivy League pres,
2. "use federal machinery to screw enemies"
**corruption in govt, public mistrust with reason**
Executive Order 9066
1. 1942, WWII, Roosevelt, permits removal of alien Germans, Italians, Japs, people of Jap ancestry regardless of birthplace from any military area, thousands taken into custody, charged as individuals
**serious invasion of individual rights, entirely racism assumptions**
Korematsu v. United States
1944, SC upholds government's action of Executive Order 9066
Feminism, 2nd Wave
1960s/1970s
1. 1950s women who wanted career pathological, family unit trumps all, paid less, couldnt get checking acct, cc, without husband
2. 1961, Eleanor, President's Commission on the Status of Women, document women's lives in legal system, admin. shocked
3. 1963: betty friedan FEMININE MYSTIQUE, popular, dissatisfaction of educated, midclass mom/wife
4. 1966: National Organization for Women: goal to pressure EEOC to enforce 1964 act
5. 1972: Congress approves Equal Rights Amend: equality of rights not denied due to sex
6. 1972: Title IX of Higher Education Act, prevents fed funds from going to college that discriminates against women
GI Bill/Serviceman's Readjustment Act
1. 1944: readjustment to civilian life, paid WWII soldiers to go to college, lends money for homes, farms, business, property
Great Depression
1. 1930s, shares fell 40-50%, 5000 institutions shut down, unemployment 25%, federal govt gives no relief, Hoover afraid of welfare dependent class
**WWII and New Deal Ends, not caused by stock market crash**
Great Migration
1. 1920s, WWI, 1.5 million AA to cities
1. new economic/industrial opp
2. men in army, immigrants reduced
3. no formal race discrimination in electorate
4. greater access to resources/civil appointments, protest easier (urban)
**race becomes national, not local***
Great Society
1. Johnson's collection of programs
2. 3 pillars: Abundance/Liberty for all, end to poverty, end to racial injustice
3. examples: health (Medicare, Medicaid), edcation, environment, arts/culture (National Endowment for the Arts)Department of Transportation, Civil rights legislation
*only modest impact, not enough funding for goals (Vietnam), only local success, poverty declines in 60s but due to economic growth, responsible for greatest civil rights protection since reconstruction, permanently expanded American welfare/insurance system, gave fed govt new responsibilities for envt/education/arts**
*considered most important expansion of American state since New Deal, gives leaders confidence that it can be done (enough to go around)
*failure fules argument that govt cant solve social problems**
Immigration Policy
**never constant stream, always push/pull factors, policies affected by international politics*
1. 1st wave: 17th cent pilgrims, voluntary Europeans, involuntary slaves
2. 2nd: mid 1800s, Irish (potato famine) German (political unrest) discrimination against Irish, fear of nonassimilation
3. 3rd: "new" late 1800s/early 1900s, southern/eastern Europe, Catholic/Jewish, hard to assimilate,
4. 4th wave: 1980s, hispanic, asian, visible presence, lots illegal, affect politics
5. WWI cuts off, after Ellis Island 5000/day, calls for restriction, KKK, red scare
6. 1907 Gentleman's Agreement, calm tensions between Japan/US, asian children no longer segregated in schools, Japan denies passports to America
6. RESTRICTION:
A. 1921 Emergency Quota Act: caps # of immigrants from each country (3% of people from that country in US)
B. 1924: National Origins Act exlcludes Asians specifically, NONE allowed, reduces to 2%, weakens ethnic identity of communities, shapes immigration policy for 40 years, does not include Canada/Mexico
C. 1965 Immigration Act: ends racially based quotas, increases LA/Asians
Indian Reorganization Act
1. 1934: ends forced assimilation, restores land, gave federal recognition to tribal govts, regaiend status as nations,
*181 tribes organized, not supported by all NA, laid groundwork for future economic development, limited political autonomy among indians**
Influenza Epidemic
1. 1918, kills within hours, victim drowns as lungs fill with fluid, w shaped mortality pattern by age
2. govt resistence to act: war #1 priority
3. war emergency calls for society to speed up/congregate, flu calls for slow down/isolation
**Kills more than twice as many as war worldwide (20-100 million) concern about morale, regulation of press
Jim Crow
1. segregation laws and customs designed to police behavior of blacks
2. starts in reconstruction south, often considered ending at Brown vs Board
3. back of bus, separate facilities, curfews
4. still present in WWII armies(housing covered black tar, can't fight)
Kent State
1. 1970: announced 150,000 draft needed for Cambodia, fire set to ROTC building, governor dispatches national guard, guardsman opened fire into crowd, 4 killed 9 wounded
**500 colleges disrupted, shut down, Depart of Justice refuses to conduct investigation, dismissed lack of evidence, shows youth dissatisfaction/revolt with Nam**
Jackson State
1. 1970, black college in Missisisppi, student protest, police fire into dorm, kills 2 wounds 9, police claim shot came from within, students throwing bricks, police fire for 30+ seconds
**very little national attention, black college*
Martin Luther King Jr.
1957 minister, leader of Civil Rights movement, launched bus boycotts, phD BU, believed in nonviolent protest, focus on immorality of Jim Crow, 1st president of Southern Christian Leadership Conference
League of Nations
1. 1918, last point on Wilson's 14 points, mechanism for achieving all others, "general association of nations" willing to give on a lot of other points to achieve League
2. would regulate final peace treaty, have power over all disputes among states, could have transformative effect on international relations, would have influential council of 5 permanent members and elected delegates from smaller states
*US never joins**
Legal Realism
1. early 20th cent: social reality should influence legal thinking
2. led by Holmes/Pound
*challenged practice of invoking inflexible legal precedents that often obstructed social legislation*
Malaise
feeling of discomfort, weaking, sympton of influenza 1918
Mass Culture 1920s
1. gross national product swelled 40%, wages/salaries grew, more purchasing power
2. national media, marketing, entertainment, syndicated journalism, radio, shared community, mass ideas/news, expanded entertainment, automobiles, model T less than $300
McCarthyism
1. term used to describe anticommunism excesses of Cold War Era
2. 1950: Joseph McCarthy senator, interrogates citizens, claims international communist threat due to treason at home, Department of State, professors/textbooks
3. ends when accuses US army, drunk, humiliated in court
**Shows Red Scare, true fear of communism**
NAACP
1. 1909 founded, headed by DuBois
2. aims: end racial disrimination, obtain voting rights through law
3. 1914: 50 branch offices, 6000 members
4. endorsed WWI, world safe for democracy, blur color lines at home
5. 1919: vowed to publicize terrors of lynching
6. WWII as opportunity to embarrass nation
7. 1939: Legal Defense and Education Fund, won admission to prof. grad school at formerly segregated
8. 1940: 50,000 people
9. 1946: 450,000 people
**major victories in SC**
Neutrality Acts
1935, 1936, 1937, US determined to stay out of war
1. 1935: prohibits shipment of American weapons to any belligerent nation (in war)
2. 1937: forbade American loans to belligerent nation
3. 1937: forbade Americans to travel on ocean going vessels of belligerent nation (to avoid death/sentiment of war)
New Deal
***Roosevelt, programs in response to Depression, then sought to reform American economic system, not coherent; many programs failed but still most imporatnt episode in creation of modern American state***
1. 1st relief: 100 days Congress, legislation, bank holiday, fake money, fireside chat, asks for power as if in war, stop panic
2. 2nd reform: recovery stalls, criticism, too little, marks shift in govt funciton in labor/economic security, Wagoner Act 1935 guarantees workers right to organize
3. Effects: "welfare state" workers project/employment opp WPA, SSA: closer relationship between fed govt/business and fed govt/labor, stronger exec branch, changes how people vote, shift in party system, AA to dem,
*fed govt THEE govt, larger players have more influence, "corporate state" "Broker state"
**1st fed min wage, 1st govt unemployment comp, 1st social security, does NOT end depression/social inequities, DOES recast role of washington, gives responsibility for social welfare "big govt" here to stay
Oil embargo/energy crisis
1. 1973, OPEC imposed total embargo on oil shipments to US (punishment for helping Israelis) raised oil prices, lifted after 5 months, prices stayed high, long lines at gas pump
*confirms extent to which Americans no longer exercise full control over economic destiny*
Plessy v Ferguson
**1896, SC upholds separate but equal NOT unconstitutional**
1. dark skinned 1/8 black, volunteers to violate state law providing for separate but equal
Philip Randolph and the March on Washington Movement
1941, came out of labor movement, general organizer of Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Portors, help Great Migration, shape black life, frustrated with New Deal programs 1930s, calls for march to DC, Roosevelt says please dont right now, will look bad to allies, world verge of crisis
Executive Order No 8802
1941, compromise Roosevelt/Randolph, forbids discrimination in defense industries, Fair Employment Practices Committee to investigate charges of racial discrimination, march called off
*yet does not desegregate military, movement continues into Civil Rights Mvmt*
Eleanor Roosevelt
heart of New Deal, traveled, reported, committed to Civil Rights, eyes of President (polio), Frances Perkins 1st woman in cabinet, had black singer at Lincoln Memorial, attends southern conference in Alabama, segregation, sits in middle, helped write declaration of human rights
Scopes Trial
1925 Tennesseee state law forbade public school teachers to instruct theory that humans evoloved from lower life forms rather than Adam/Eve, John Scopes volunteers to serve test case, arrested for violating law, convicted, modernists claimed victory
**shows fundamentalism to be illogical**
Social Security Act
1935, 2nd part of New Deal, reform, old age pension, aid to dependent children,
*substance and symbol of welfare state, puts fed govt in position of guaranteeing standard of living**
SNCC
1960, Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee, helped orchestrate sit ins, challeneged Jim Crow segregation, commited to nonviolence, nash/bond
Tin Pan Alley
1920s mass culture, factory of popular songs
*part of mass production*
Truman Doctrine
*1947, 1st major application of containment policy, Greek civil War, generalized beyond Greece, defined US involvement in Korea, Vietnam, still issue today*
-assumption of Truman that Americans could/should "global policeman"
Tuskegee Syphilis Study
study of untreated syphilis in black male, began 1820s with grants, $ from philanthropists to study blacks, stock market crash, depression, support withdrew, US public service took over, followed subjects, left them untreated, meant to compliment earlier study, looked at white men, 400 subjects, 200 never treated
War on Poverty
one of goals of Great Society
1963 Kennedy asks for proposals on poverty, 1964 Johnson Economic Opportunity Act, unconditional war on poverty, Community Action Program: new/radical for Great Society, most controversial, maximum particpation (poor ppl themselves)
*never funded at levels needed to realize, poverty declines in 60s but due to economic growth, middle class not personally invested (we're just fine)
Willow Run
1941, Henry Ford, massive bomber plant in Ypsi, assembly lines almost mile long, B-24 Liberator bombers one per hour
2. 42,000 people worked, equal pay, live in tents, cars, trailors, highway built access to Detroit
*produced 86,000 planes*
Wilsonianism
belief in nationalism, democracy, liberal world economic order, system of selective security moral commitment to leadership, 14 points
Young Americans for Freedom
1960, group of college kids in Connecticut, manifesto to "Sharon Statement" endorsed Cold War anti-communism and vision of limited govt power, opposes New Deal liberalism, "responsibility of youth to affirm eternal truths" plan to capture republican party and move it to political right
*Goldwater's selection as Republican candidate in 64 demonstrated early success*