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110 Cards in this Set

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What was the Freedman's Bureau?
1865, Reconstruction established to protect the legal rights of former slaves and to assist with their education, jobs, health care, and landowning.
Emancipation Proclamation
1863, President Lincoln issued a preliminary proclamation on September 22, 1862, freeing the slaves in areas under Confederate control. This also authorized the enrollment of black slaves into the Union army.
Lincoln’s 10% plan
Hopes of reconstruction began in 1863 when all confederates that took an oath to the union would receive amnesty and restoration of their rights; this was used by Lincoln as a non-punitive tactic to shorten the war. He thought it would divide the Confederate by creating conflict.
Wade Davis Bill
1864, sought more punitive action looking at the Confederate as a conquered territory. Stated the 50% of the Confederate army must take an oath before they can begin integration into the Union. The percentage was set so high so there was no way they could be integrated until after the war was over
Johnson’s Reconstruction
As Lincoln’s successor, Johnson took over task of reconstruction, but he held deeply racist views. When he took office congress was out of session so he had no checks on his authority. Johnson in May 1865 issued pardons to all Confederate soldiers who took an oath but not to the elites, worth $20,000 or more, but shortly after Johnson gave the elites personal pardons. He also set up self sustaining governments in the south that were to deal with state and local affairs elected by whites only. Shortly after, the conduct of the southern governments turned the Radical Republicans against Johnson. Then after the implementation of the black codes, the republicans truly opposed Johnson’s Reconstruction plan
Black Codes
1865, Codes that were passed by the Confederate gov. They granted blacks rights like legalized marriage, land ownership, and limited access to the courts, but denied the right to vote, right to serve on jury or state militia, and right to testify against whites.
State Suicide Theory
1865, Hence Charles Sumner advanced the theory of State Suicide. Although the states had not been out of the Union, the adoption of ordinances of secession had caused them to commit felo de se, and they were, therefore, in the status of territories, for which Congress should prescribe rules and regulations
Radical Republicans
1865, Men like Charles Sumner and Thaddeus Stevens, who opposed slavery before the war and openly spoke out against it, and believed in black suffrage. The Radical Republicans called for dissolution of the confederate governments, with out rebels and blacks guaranteed the right to voted.
Thaddeus Stevens
Northern Radical whose most cherished aim was to confiscate the land of disloyal planters and divide it up amongst former blacks and Northern migrants
Civil Rights Act of 1866
It defined all persons born in the US as citizens and spelled out rights they were to enjoy with out regard to race. It was the first attempt to give meaning to the 13th amendment. Johnson vetoed it but, later it became the first bill to pass over a presidential veto.
Fourteenth Amendment
1868, guaranteed rights of citizenship to former slaves, in words similar to those of The Civil Rights Act of 1866.
Tenure of Office Act
1867 congressed passed the Tenure of Office Act, barring President Johnson from removing certain office holders. Johnson later removed Edwin Stanton form office, so congress approved the articles of impeachment, but he is not impeached because he promised to quit dabbling in Reconstruction if he was not impeached.
Fifteenth Amendment
1870’s, Prohibited states from discriminating in voting privileges on the basis of race.
Union League
when many determined former slaves began to exercise their new rights as citizens, they joined the Union League, an organization closely linked to the Republican Party, and the vast majority of eligible African-Americans registered to vote
Carpetbaggers
Union soldiers who either remained in the South after the war or moved to the South to reap the spoils of office in the South
Scalawags
White Republicans who lived in the South, considered traitors to their race and region.
Ku Klux Klan
1866, Organization to terrorize former slaves who voted and held political offices during Reconstruction. Served as a military arm of the Democratic Party
Redeemers
conservative white Democrats, many of them planers or businessmen, who reclaimed control of the South following the end of Reconstruction. They claimed that they had redeemed the white south from corruption, misgovernment, and Northern & black control
Enforcement Acts
In 1870 and 1871 Congress adopted three enforcement acts, outlawing terrorist societies and allowing the president to use the army against them. These laws continued the expansion of national authority during reconstruction.
Civil Rights Act of 1875
Enacted by the new congress, this outlawed racial discrimination in places of public accommodation like hotels and theatres
Compromise of 1877
Deal made my a Republican and Democratic special congressional commission to resolve the disputed presidential election of 1876; Republican Rutherford B. Hayes, who had lost the popular vote, was declared the winner
Slaughter-House Cases
1873, Butchers excluded from a state sponsored monopoly in Louisiana went to court, claiming that their right to equality before the law guaranteed by the Fourteenth amendment had been violated. The Justices rejected their claim, ruling that the amendment had not altered traditional federalism
United States vs. Cruikshank
Three years later the courts gutted the Enforcement Acts by throwing out the convictions of some of those responsible for the Colfax Massacre of 1873.
D.W. Griffith
Writer and director of Birth of a Nation.
Birth of a Nation
Film that glorified the Ku Klux Klan and was premiered at the White House because Woodrow Wilson was a strong supporter of the film
Island Communities
Before the RRs brought the large nation together there were scattered communities that were almost self sustaining and did not have much interaction with one another, island communities, but the RRs helped break down these isolated communities to create unified towns.
Menlo Park
Was basically an area of scientific research laboratories that spawned such greats as Thomas Edison
Thomas Edison
The inventor of the light bulb, phonograph, and a system for generating and distributing electric power. This completely revolutionized private life, public entertainment, and economic activity by creating a constant work environment that can be lit twenty-four hours a day.
Henry Ford
In 1905, he established Ford Motor Company, which sought to create a car that was affordable enough for the average American, yet durable enough to traverse the rough roads of the time. In 1913 Ford adopted the moving assembly line which streamlined production and also de-specialized the labor force.
Mass Production
This became an offspring of de-specializing the labor force with such antics as the moving assembly line and Taylorization of corporations. This also plays into shortened bathroom and lunch breaks, and longer work hours
Horizontal Integration
This aspect of big business is when a corporation monopolizes the economy by buying out all other competitors in its filed of work
Vertical Integration
This is when a corporation buys out all of components that go into creating a product, in essence removing the middle man
Pools
The term Pooling is the grouping together of assets, samples, equipment etc. for the purposes of maximizing advantage to the users. This typically was just through handshake agreements and was easily voided.
Holding Companies
This happens when a company owns a majority of another company by holding the majority of their stock. General Electric is an example of modern day Holding Company.
Economies of Scale
characterizes a production process in which an increase in the number of units produced causes a decrease in the average cost of each unit.
Robber Barons
Men like Rockefeller and Carnegie were viewed as robber barons by some, who viewed them as wielding power without any accountability in an unregulated marketplace.
Conspicuous Consumption
Phrase referring to the extravagant spending to raise social standing. This was brought about by the younger lower-middle class that began to earn wages and started spending money recreationally.
Taylorization
Efficiency expert Frederick Taylor would revamp a company’s work process. He would oversee the work, and then make decisions on where to cut production reducing setbacks. So if a man had to take four steps to do his job, Taylor would find a way to reduce it to one if not zero steps. This streamlined the labor force and created an economy of longer work hours and shorter break times where middle management saw a drastic increase in the amount of managers
Homestead Act of 1862
It offered free land to settlers in the west as long as they lived on it for a certain period of time and made “improvements” to the land.
Bonanza Farms
were large farms performing large-scale operations, mostly growing and harvesting wheat. Bonanza farms were made possible by a number of factors including: the efficient new farming machinery of the 1870s, the cheap abundant land available during that time period, the growth of eastern markets in the U.S., and the completion of most major railroads.
Joseph G. McCoy
was amercan farmer who patented barbed wire, a product that forever altered the development of the American West.
Frederick Jackson Turner
Key historian of the late 1800’s, he was the author of the Frontier Thesis.
Frontier Thesis
Is the conclusion of Frederick Jackson Turner that the wellsprings of American exceptionalism and vitality have always been the American frontier, the region between urbanized, civilized society and the untamed wilderness. In the thesis, the frontier created freedom, "breaking the bonds of custom, offering new experiences, [and] calling out new institutions and activities."
William Frederick “Buffalo Bill” Cody
Buffalo Bill started the traveling Wild West show that had mock Indian attacks and shooting and riding exhibitions. Which helped spread the image of the “American West” and create a vision of Indians as simply objects of curiosity or entertainment.
Treaty of Medicine Lodge
1867, was a treaty that the United States of America signed with the Kiowa, Comanche, Plains Apache, Cheyenne, and Arapaho at Medicine Lodge, Kansas.
2nd Treaty of Ft. Laramie
1868
Battle of Washita
Occurred on November 27, 1868 when Lt. Col. George Armstrong Custer’s 7th U.S. Cavalry attacked Black Kettle’s Cheyenne village on the Washita River.
Total War
Warfare that was used in the Civil War. It is the concept that anything and everything in your path is either taken for personal use or it is completely eradicated. Including crops, buildings, rail roads, everything, etc.
Battle of The Little Big Horn
known as Custer’s Last Stand…
Dawes Severalty Act
Divided land up into 40 acre plots and was given to the Indians, but in order for them to own the land they had to live on it for 25 years. The land that was not given to the Indians was put up for auction. This act severely depleted the Indians land because increasing numbers of the plots were being auctioned
Boarding Schools
These boarding schools were used as institutions to “Americanize” the Native Americans. They started off as day schools but that did not remove them from their culture enough to truly change them so the schools shifted to yearly militaristic boarding camps where the Indians would go through drastic changes to their life styles. These schools ruined many of the Indians lives because they could not successfully assimilate into American culture, but they could not revert back to their own cultures very easily either, so many just became the lost generation.
Richard Henry Pratt
Best known as the founder and longtime superintendent of the influential Carlisle Indian Industrial School at Carlisle, Pennsylvania, profoundly shaped Indian education and federal Indian policy at the turn of the twentieth century.
Wovoka
Jack Wilson was the Northern Paiute religious leader who founded the Ghost Dance movement.
Ghost Dance
A nonviolent end to Euro-American expansion while also preaching messages of clean living, an honest life, and cross-cultural cooperation. Perhaps the best known facet of the Ghost Dance movement is the role it reportedly played in instigating the Wounded Knee massacre in 1890, which resulted in the deaths of 391 Lakota Sioux.
Wounded Knee Massacre
On December 29, 1890, five hundred troops of the U.S. 7th Cavalry surrounded an encampment of Minneconjou Dakota with orders to escort them back to the railroad for transport to Omaha, Nebraska. The commander of the 7th had been ordered to disarm the Lakota before proceeding and placed his men in too close proximity to the Dakota, alarming them. Shooting broke out near the end of the disarmament. By the time it was over, 25 troopers and 300 Dakota Sioux lay dead.
“Iron Law of Wages”
An alleged law of economics that asserted that real wages in the long run would tend to the value needed to keep the workers' population constant. According to Lassalle, wages cannot fall below subsistence level because without subsistence laborers will be unable to work for long. However, competition among laborers for employment will drive wages down to this minimal level.
Sweatshops
A pejorative term often used to describe a manufacturing facility that is physically or mentally abusive, or that crowds, confines, or compels workers, or forces them to work long and unreasonable hours, as would be the case with penal labor or slave labor.
Muller vs. Oregon
1908, This landmark case cited scientific and sociological studies to demonstrated that because women had less strength and endurance than men, long hours of labor were dangerous for them. The supreme Court unanimously upheld the constitutionality of an Oregon law setting maximum working hours for women.
Knights of Labor
1869, The first national union lasted, under the leadership of Terrance V. Powderly, only into the 1890s; supplanted by the American Federation of Labor (AFL)
Terrance Powderly
Was appointed, by the Americans, the head of the Knights of Labor.
Social Darwinism
Took the Theory of Darwinian’s Natural Selection and applied it to the economic and social classes, stating that the rich were rich simply because they were just naturally supposed to be rich. Tycoons loved this idea because it meant that they were rich for a reason.
The Gospel of Wealth
This concept also gave the extremely wealthy a reason to be happy for being rich. The Gospel of Wealth stated that being rich was a blessing from God, and being rich meant you had done something truly great in your life to deserve the riches, but if you were poor then you must have done something terrible to deserve the poverty.
The Farmer’s Alliances
The largest citizens’ movement of the 19th century, farmers sought to remedy their condition. Initially it sought to improve rural conditions and by cooperative financing and marketing of crops, but soon realized that farmers alone could not fund this and banks would not give them loans. So they made a proposal to the federal government to establish warehouses to house the crops until sold, and the crops would be collateral, so the government would issue loans to the farmers. This lead to the Farmers Alliance involvement in politics.
People’s Party (or Populistst)
In the early 1890s, the Alliance evolved into the Populist Party, the era’ greatest political insurgency. It did not limit itself to farmers but sought to speak for all “producing classes”. Its major base lay in the cotton and wheat belts of the South and West. It sought to rethink the relationship between freedom and government to address the economic plight of farmers and laborers. The power of the people should be expanded, to eliminate oppression, injustice, and poverty from American life.
Omaha Platform
The planks themselves represent the merger of the agrarian concerns of the Farmers' Alliance with the free-currency monetarism of the Greenback Party while explicitly endorsing the goals of the largely urban Knights of Labor. In 1896 the Populists abandoned the Omaha Platform for William J. Bryans Free Silver Platform.
William Jennings Bryan
In 1896, Democrats and Populists joined to support Bryan for presidency. A thirty-six-year-old congressman from Nebraska. Bryan called for the “free coinage” of silver—the unrestricted minting of silver money. Bryan condemned the gold standard.
The Silver Issue (free coinage)
The unrestricted minting of silver money, Bryan believed the increasing he amount of currency in circulation would raise the prices farmers received for their crops and make it easier to pay off their debts.
Coxey’s Army
In May 1894, the federal government deployed local police to disperse Coxey’s Army—a band of several hundred unemployed men led by Ohio businessman Jacob Coxey, who marched to Washington demanding economic relief.
Eugene V. Debs
No one was more important in spreading the socialist gospel or linking it to ideals of equality, self-government, and freedom than Eugene V. Debs, the railroad union leader who had been jailed during the Pullman Strike of 1894. For two decades Debs criss-crossed the nation preaching that control of the economy by a Democratic government held out the hope of uniting political equality and economic freedom.
Cross of Gold Speech
The Cross of Gold speech was a speech delivered by William Jennings Bryan at the 1896 Democratic National Convention in Chicago. The speech advocated bimetallism. At the time, the Democratic Party wanted to standardize the value of the dollar to silver and opposed pegging the value of the United States dollar to a gold standard. The inflation that would result from the silver standard would make it easier for farmers and other debtors to pay off their debts by increasing their revenue dollars. It would also reverse the deflation which the U.S. experienced from 1873-1896
Frank L. Baum
Published the Wizard of Oz in 1900 which offered commentary on the election of 1896 and it aftermath. In his interpretation, the Emerald City (where everything is green, representing money) represents Washington D.C. and the Wizard of Oz, who remains invisible in his palace and rules by illusion, is President McKinley. And so on.
Redeemers
The coalition of merchants, planters, and business entrepreneurs who dominated the region’s politics after 1877 called themselves Redeemers, since they claimed to have redeemed the region from the alleged honors of misgovernment and “black rule”. They moved to undo as much or Reconstruction as possible
Sharecropping
A labor system where the landowner allows a sharecropper to use the land in return for a share of the crop produced on the land.
Crop-lien
In the postwar South, many former slaves remained as farmers. Not having any money, they could not buy land but instead worked a small portion of a large parcel owned by a single person. Many former slaves were tenants of the same landowner and each had their own section of farm to work on independently, hence the term "sharecropper." In exchange for working on the owner's land, the sharecropper would give some of his harvest as payment. Also having hardly any possessions, the sharecroppers bartered with merchants to loan them supplies essential for farming. The deal was similar to the land owners': a percentage of the harvest would be given to the merchant to pay for the supplies. This system would have worked if the merchant lenders charged reasonable interest rates. However, racism was a factor in that the merchant's interest rates were impossible for the sharecroppers to pay off
Debt Peonage
Is a means of paying off loans with direct labor instead of currency or goods. Basically it was slavery.
Disfranchisement
The deprivation of the right to vote; in the United States, exclusionary policies were used to deny groups, especially blacks and women, their voting rights.
Grandfather Clause
Loophole for the literacy tests created by southern disfranchising legislatures of the 1890s for illiterate white males whose grandfathers had been eligible to vote in 1867.
Poll Taxes
Tax that must be paid in order to be eligible to vote. This was used to disenfranchise blacks who often could not pay this modest tax.
Mississippi Plan 1890
The first step was to "persuade" the 10 to 15 percent of white voters still calling themselves Republicans to switch to the Democratic party. A combined fear of social, political and economic ostracism convinced carpetbaggers to switch parties or flee the state. The second step of the Mississippi Plan was intimidation of the black populace who had so recently been granted their voting rights. While economic coercion against black sharecroppers was employed to some limited success, it was violence that played the largest part in intimidation. Groups of Democrats, called "rifle clubs," frequently provoked riots at Republican rallies, shooting down dozens of blacks in the ensuing conflict
Plessy vs. Ferguson
In 1896 the Court gave its approval to state laws requiring separate facilities for blacks and whites. Separate but equal was the reasoning behind the Supreme Courts decision.
Jim Crow
Minstrel show character whose name became synonymous with segregation.
Atlanta Compromise
Speech to the cotton states and International Exposition in 1895 by educator Booker T. Washington, the leading black spokesman of the day; black scholar W. E. B. Du Bois gave the speech its derisive name and criticized Washington for encouraging blacks to accommodate segregation and disenfranchisement
Booker T. Washington
He believed that blacks should cease the constant agitation for equality and instead strive to obtain farms or skilled jobs. The idea that blacks should work on building up their segregated communities was the central theme to his teachings at his Tuskegee Institute in Alabama.
W. E. B. Du Bois
He was on the opposite end of the spectrum of Booker T. Washington, stressing the fact that blacks should continue to strive for equal rights amongst whites. He believed that the educated blacks like himself, or the talented tenth of the black community, must use their education and training to challenge inequality. He spearheaded the Niagara Movement, which sought to reinvigorate the abolitionist tradition. Du Bois also founded The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP).
Strange Fruit
is a song most famously performed by Billie Holiday that condemns American racism, particularly the practice of lynching and burning African Americans that was prevalent in the South at the time when it was
Industrial Expos
Expositions in cities like Chicago that tried to crate an image of a rapidly advancing and technologically sound South, when in all actuality it was, for the most part, not the case.
James B. Duke
Was a U.S. tobacco and electric power industrialist best known for his involvement with Duke University. By 1890, Duke controlled 40% of the American cigarette market. In that year, Duke consolidated control of his four major competitors under one corporate entity, the American Tobacco Company. Duke then used his monopoly control over the American cigarette market to engage in predatory pricing in the remaining American tobacco markets: plug or chewing tobacco, and loose smoking tobacco.
Southern Textile Mills
Many Northern textile mills move to the South to tap into the Cheap labor force in the South. This is the key major industrial change in the South.
Colonial Debtor Economy
The idea that the South remained in debt to the North because the railroads connected the North to the South, but did not connect the South horizontally. So in essence all of the products produced were shipped and sold in the North, leaving the South in Debt.
Cult of the Archaic
All throughout the South, statues begin to be erected in remembrance of the Southern leaders, representing the lost, Confederate Cause.
Second Yankee Conquest
Many southerners saw the Industrial Revolution as the second invasion of the South by the Union, or the Urban Devil. This was due to many northern factories being erected in the South and exploiting the cheap labor force.
Leo Frank
1913-1915, Was a northern Jew who owned a Textile Mill in the South. A young girl, Mary Phagan, was murdered in his factory, when he was proven to not be anywhere near the factory, but he was still accused and convicted of the crime. This was due to the fact that there was much hatred for the northerners working in the South and Jews. He was later killed by an angry mob that broke him out of prison only to lynch him and leave him on display for days
Knights of Mary Phagan
These were the men who would not rest until Leo Frank was dead. They broke him out of prison and lynched him
The “New Immigration"
The 1890s witnessed a prolonged shift in the sources of immigration. 3.5 million new comers entered the United States from southern and easter Europe, which was not the typical type of immigrants. This, of course, led Americans to believe they were being overrun by foreigners who have no true appreciation of the meaning of liberty and therefore posed a danger to democratic government
Chain Migration
Refers to the mechanism by which foreign nationals are allowed to immigrate by virtue of the ability of previous adult immigrants who gain citizenship to send for their adult relatives.
Nativism
Strictly speaking, the term 'nativism' distinguishes between Americans who were born in the United States, and individuals who have immigrated. It has become a general term for 'opposition to immigration' based on fears the immigrants do not share American values.
Immigration Restriction League
This arose out of the “new immigration”. Founded in 1894 by a group of Boston professionals, it called for a reduction of immigration by barring the illiterate from entering the country.
Chinese Exclusion Laws, 1882
Congress temporarily excluded Chinese women from entering the country all together, this was the first time that race had been used to exclude an entire group of people from entering the United States.
American Protective Association
The APA's goals included restricting Catholic immigration, making English a prerequisite to American citizenship, removing Catholic teachers from public schools, and banning Catholics from public offices. At its highest, the APA in 1896 claimed 2,500,000 members and 20 sympathizers in Congress, but both the APA and its enemies always inflated the membership totals.
African-American Migration (Great Migration)
The Great Migration was the movement of millions of Blacks out of the rural Southern United States from 1914 to 1950. Led to mortgage discrimination in inner city areas of the US after the development of subrurbs began after WWII ended. howevr, it also helped educate african americans obtain good non-menial jobs as well.
Vaudeville
As a new consumer culture emerged in the 1890s, Vaudeville was the most popular form of mass entertainment. This created a new culture where social events became more of a part of peoples lives.
American Federation of Labor
Founded in 1881 as as federation of trade unions composed mostly of skilled, white, native-born workers; its long-term president was Samuel Gompers.
Samuel Gompers
1880s, Long-term president of the AFL, believed that unions should not seek economic independence or form independent parties with the aim of achieving power in government. Rather the labor movement should devote itself to negotiations with employers for higher wages and better working conditions for its members.
Collective Bargaining
Consists of the process of negotiation between representatives of a union and employers in respect of the terms and conditions of employment of employees, such as wages, hours of work, working conditions and grievance-procedures, and about the rights and responsibilities of trade unions
Captain Alfred T. Mahan
Author of, the Influence os Sea Power Upon History (1890), in it he argued that no nation could prosper without a large fleet of ships engaged in international trade, protected by a powerful navy operating from overseas bases. Mahan published his book in the same year that the census bureau announced that there was no frontier left, so we must now look outward. This played a large part in the success of his propositions.
Queen Liliuokalani
was the last monarch of the island of Hawaii. The Queen was deposed on January 17, 1893, and a provisional government was instituted by the United States.
Monroe Doctrine
is a U.S. doctrine which, on December 2, 1823, proclaimed that European powers should no longer colonize or interfere with the affairs of the nations of the Americas. The United States planned to stay neutral in wars between European powers and its colonies. However, if these latter types of wars were to occur in the Americas, the United States would view such action as hostile.
The American Battleship Maine
1898, Exploded in the Havana harbor, killing more than 270 Americans, which prompted immediate intervention in the Spanish-Cuban conflict.
Rough Riders
A compilation of American society and enrolled athlests from Ivy League colleges, western cowboys, representatives of various immigrant groups (not blacks), and even some American Indians. They were led my Theodore Roosevelt into the charge up San Juan Hill, the most highly publicized land battle of the war. Roosevelt’s heroic efforts helped catapult him into office.
“Smoked Yankees”
They were also known as the Buffalo Soldiers. The "Buffalo Soldiers" were established by Congress as the first peacetime all-black regiments in the regular U.S. Army.