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32 Cards in this Set

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Audiencias
16th and 17th centuries.
Spanish empire consisted of two viceroyalties.
The viceroyalties were divided into provinces, ruled by governors and audiencias, which advised the governors and functioned as courts.
Could appeal all decisions to the King.
Repartimiento system
In 1600 about 1 million Indians survived, down from 2.6 million.
The spanish government devised this system to force indians to work in mines, agriculture, or public works for weeks to a year.
Royal Fifth
Casa de la Contratacion was a trading house founded in 1503.
The casa had to register all previous metals because the king received one-fifth of all silver and gold.
Cabeza de Vaca
Landed at Tampa Bay and were told to turn away.
Marched north and then eventually kidnapped an Indian chief but were attacked and he they had to flea.
Made barges that crossed the gulf in tact on TX coast.
Was captured by Karankawas.
He became and Indian priest and healer and then escaped.
They sojourned with Natives learned their languages and customs and earned their friendship and respect with his cures.
Reaches Mexico City in 1536 and told of his journeys.
He later refused to journey to Northern Mexico because he was given 2nd rank.
Viceroy
16th and 17th centuries.
Highest officials residing in America.
Resided over Viceroyalties, which there were 2, one in New Spain and one in Peru.
Treaty of Tordesillas
1494.
The Pope located the Line of Demarcation 370 leagues, or 1000 miles, west of the Azores and expanded the principle of "spheres of influence."
West of the line to Spain.
East to Portugal.
Spain given permission to explore and Christianize.
John Calvin
French-born Swiss Protestant theologian who broke with the Roman Catholic Church (1533) and set forth the tenets of his theology, the Reformed tradition including Puritans, Huguenots, Presbytarian, and Dutch Reformed, in Institutes of the Christian Religion (1536).
He attempted to create a model society in Geneva Switzerland.
Argued humans could do nothing to save themselves, also known as predestination.
The bible as interpreted by Calvin became the basis for law.
Came close to establishing a theocracy.
Bartolome de las Casas
Early 1500s.
Condemned the cruelty and enslavement of Natives.
Wrote Short Account of the Destruction of the Indies published in 1542, argued for more enlightened policies. He informed the king with these writings.
Arawaks
Were consigned to slavery but most died. Requerimiento was established at this point.
By the time the king outlawed Native slavery in 1542 the Arawaks had been destroyed.
Juan de Onate
Spanish government appointed him as governor of New Mexico in 1595.
He travelled north with 129 soldiers, their households, 10 Franciscan missionaries, and 7000 livestock.
Laid siege to Acoma because they would not give food in 1598.
Franciscans argued his cruelty made conversion difficult.
Removed from office and found guilty of cruel treatment to Natives and some settlers.
Banished from New Mexico and sailed to spain where he received knighthood and position as the Crown's chief inspector of mines.
Samuel de Champlain
Established first successful French colony in the New World.
1605 planted a temp base at Port Royal on Bay of Fundy in Canada. 3 years later est. main settlement on the St Lawrence River at Quebec.
In 1609 to demonstrate allegiance to his allies he helped them fight Iroquois from New York making the Five Nations enemies of New France.
Powhatan
Natives who watched establishment of Jamestown in 1607.
Algonquian speaking.
Head sachem of the Pamunkey tribe in eastern VA.
Were banded due to fear of powerful enemies.
Charles I
Successor to his father James I in 1625.
Power struggles with parliament.
Lost English Civil War and beheaded in 1649.
Challenge parliaments prerogative to approve or reject new taxes by imposing levies.
Squanto
In 1621 a Patuxet Indian who helped the English colonists in Plymouth develop ag techniques and served as an interpreter between the colonists and Wampanoags.
Africans in early Virginia
Late 17th century imported to harvest tobacco.
by 1660 900 blacks 24k europeans in Chesapeake bay area.
Africans were subordinate.
Africans in census were "negar or negro."
Had to pay taxes.
Unable to bear arms.
Vacuum domicilium
Legal basis for taking native territory which meant lands not occupied could be taken.
Occupation meant buildings, fences etc.
Indians didn't understand that English owned land after "purchase" they thought it was to be used.
Anne Hutchinson
Arrived in 1634.
English-born American colonist and religios leader who was banished from Boston in 1637 for her religious beliefs, which included an emphasis on an individual's direct comm. with God.
Female leading bible study.
Antinomian heresy stating Faith more important than laws, behavior didnt determine afterlife.
Founded colony at Portsmouth on Narragansett Bay.
Pequot War
1637
Troops from Mass. and Conn. with Indian allies, the Naragansetts, atacked a Pequot village on the Mystic River before dawn, killing hundreds of sleeping women, children and old men.
young men who were absent were later executed or enslaved.
Treaty of hartford 1638 declared the nation dissolved.
Glorious Revolution
English revolution of 1688-1689 against the authoritarian policies and Catholicism of James II. James was force into exile and his daughter and her husband took throne. Secured dominance of parliament over royal power.
Pueblo Revolt
Pueblos felt they had drought because of their rejection to the katsina so they danced and gave gifts. They were punished for abandoning catholicism and they resented this so they revolted.
in 1680 Pope lead the revolt north of santa fe.
killed 400 colonists and 21 priests.
spaniards fled south to present-day ciudad juarez, mexico.
Early abolitionists
Around 1700.
A few white colonists questioned slavery morality.
Praying towns
Establish by john eliot.
villages in which the indians were supposed to adopt english customs and learn the fundamentals of puritan religion.
by 1674 eliot had organized 14 of them.
dominion of new england
with the privy council's consent in 1685 James II quickly moved toward centralizing the colonies. he combined mass. NH, and ME under this. added plymouth, RI, and CT in 1686, NY and NJ in 1688. representative government would end.
Treaty of utrecht
1713.
ceded nova scotia, formerly acadia, newfoundland, and contrl of the hudson bay territory to the british. failed to oust france from north america.
revolutions of 1689
when word of james's remove frmo throne reached mass. a bloodless revolution began. limited king's power by establishing parliamentary control of taxation, supremacy of law, and autonomy of courts.
Education in britsh colonies
after 1720 newspapers became more available and reprinted articles from london and gained familiarity with enlightenment thought.
schools emphasized moral behavior and used religious texts.
in 1642 mass required parents and ministers to teach reading to children to read bible.
after 1750 education improved, even africans could learn.
upper class had private tutors.
males had more instruction than females.
new england surpassed in higher education.
none of the colleges admitted women.
Pontiac's war
1763
natives from western penn. through the great lakes region launched a pan-indian assault on british garrisons.
a follower of neolin and leader of the ottawas laid siege unsuccessfully to the british fort at detroit.
natives ran short of ammunition and succumbed to small pox but fighting lasted 2 more years.
david brainerd
mid 18th century. lead missions to propogate christian knowledge in the colonies.
with assistance from Moses Tatamy as interpreter established a new england-style praying town where indians attended presbytarian church and school. died 1747.
albany congress
seven years' war seven colonies sent delegates to a congress at albany, new york and unsuccessfully negotiated with iroquois for an alliance against the french.
also amended and adopted ben franklin's plan for an intercolonioal government empowered to tax, pass laws, and supervise military defense.
no colonies approved of this.
paxton boys
late 1763, band of western scots-irish pennsylvanians used violence to force the quaker-dominated assembly to provide military protection. paxton boys of lancaster county murdered a number of christian indians at conestoga, then marched on philadelphia. once they reached the capital the legislature passed a bill raising 1000 troops to defend.
they returned home without attacking.
believed that they were poorly rep'd in the provincial gov't.
mercantilism
1763.
colonies had to produce raw materials and ag staples needed by the home economy and serve as a market for its manufactured goods.
sugar, molasses, tobacco, cotton, certain woods, copper and furs were "enumerated" meaning only could be shipped to britain or british colonies no one else.
smuggling often occurred
stono uprising
1739 more than 50 slaves revolted near stono river in south carolina.
they marched from one plantation to another killing about 20 whites.
after defeat they regrouped and headed for st augustine, fl. south carolina militia pursued them and put to death everyone suspected of being involed.
following this a harsh slave code enacted and limited slave importation for a decade.