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26 Cards in this Set

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Macartney Mission
BG:
-an embassy led by Lord George Macartney to the Qianlong Emperor in 1793
- aim of the mission is to expand trade with China
-Sent by King George III, but backed by the board of the British East India Company

Sig.:
- shows the view of foreigners on the Chinese people and vice versa
- The desire of foreigners to come into China
- China's independent view
- foreshadows the impending dooom of foreigners trying to break china
British East India Company
BG:
-founded in 1600 by British merchants involved in the spice trade in SE Asia
-given monopoly by the British government to engage in trade in East Asia
-competition with Dutch and Portuguese traders, company assembles own military
-mid 1700s gains colonial control over north and northwest India
-British gov takes over this role after 1857
-pushed for trade in China
-established a monopoly on the opium trade in China in the late 18th century
-Losses its monopoly over the china trade in 1834

Sig.:
- Beginning/reign of foreign powers - push onto China
-symbolize foreign threat of imperial powers to the decreasing Qing
-Eurasian trade allowed them to gain control of India, which is where the troops for the Opium war later on were stationed
-India much closer to china so it gave them proximity and land power
First Opium War (1839-1842)
BG:
-Europeans were permitted to trade only at the port of Guangzhou and only through licensed Chinese merchants
-opium= high demand and highly addictive
-Opium outlawed. Banned in both production and importation of opium in 1800
-1813 smoking of opium outlawed
-opium smuggled in
-Lin Zexu stopped all trade and placed a siege on the western merchants’ enclave
-British saw china out of step with “civilized nations” which allowed free trade
-British sent force from Indiasailed north and shut down the major ports of Ningbo and Tainjin, forcing the Qing to negotiate.
-ended in 1842 with Treaty of Nanjing

Sig.:
- opens up China to foreign influence
-shows weakness of Qing government to monitor its trade and people
-lower society heavily effected resulting in more corruption because of secret trafficking of the drug
-more silver out of china than in china because of opium trade
-deal with anxieties and pressure
-availability
Lin Zexu (1785-1850)
BG:
-Official appointed as imperial commissioner to end the opium trade in Guangzhou
-argued against legalization of opium on moral grounds
-his attack on opium trade was directed against both drug users and traffickers
-his destruction of three million pounds of British opium at Canton in 1839 enrages British traders and helps to set off the Opium War

Sig.:
- shows the government's inability to control the people
- exemplifies how the foreign powers were gaining more influence over China
- China becoming weak and unable to defend themselves
- part of the internal conflict of idea of opium that tears the country apart
The Treaty of Nanjing (1842)
BG:
-signed by the British and Qing governments to end the Opium War
- established the opening of five treaty ports to unrestricted trade and residence by the British
-cedes Hong Kong to British control
-makes the Qing responsible for 21 million tael indemnity payment
-abolished Cohong monopoly on trade with foreigners
-allows for foreign nationals to be tried by their own courts in the treaty ports (extraterritoriality)
-gives foreign officials equal status and access to Chinese officials

Sig.:
- super taking over of foreign powers
- idea of cutting up China by outside powers - no longer in the government's hand, but rather just a puppet to increase the wealth of other countries
- Forcing China to become more involved with the external affairs
- Raising of anti-Western sentiments as well as the increase in corruption and crime - people can just say they're Christian and be freed from judgement by the Chinese court
Treaty ports
BG:
-Guangzhou/Canton(after treaty of Nanjing)Fuzhou, Xiamen, Shanghai, Ningbo
-by 1900 there were a hundred treaty ports, but only Shanghai, Tianjin, Hankou, Guangzhou, and Dailan became major centers of foreign residence

Sig.:
- more ports open overtime which shows China opening to foreign influence
-cities like Shanghai exemplify a new urban society
-corruption of the under city; warlords, prostitution
-new mix of western and chinese culture> qipao
Taipang War (1851-1864)
BG:
-organizational base in an unorthodox religious sect
-founder Hong Xiuquan (1814-1864) was hakka
-Hakka, a large Han Chinese ethnic group that spoke a distinct dialect and lived predominantly in the far south
-Hong was Christian and believed himself to be the brother of Jesus
-Hong began preaching, calling on people to destroy idols and ancestral temples, give up opium and alcohol, and renounce foot binding and prostitution> God worshipping Society
-Yang Xiuqing elevated himself above Hong claiming direct connection with God
-1850 Taiping leaders told God worshippers to leave their homes, pool money and at Guangxi province created huge military camp
-1851 Hong declared himself king of the Heavenly Kingdom of Great Peace= insurrection
-Taipings weakend by internal dissension= Hong and Yang turned on eachother
-when Taiping capital fell (Nanjing) Taiping fled country to Taiwan or Vietnam

Sig.:
-while the Qing court was struggling to suppress rebellions, including the taipang rebellion, it had to face demands from foreign powers.
-Russia saw weakness in China and expanded
-religious community
-forbid footbinding
-put all property into communal holdings
-espoused a quasi-Christian egalitarianism
-rejected Confucian teachings
-launched by peasants
Good Words to Exhort the Age
BG:
-a Christian tract written by Liang Afa, a translator for Western missionaries and printer
--first Christian text that Hong Xiuquan reads, and it helps to shape and embrace Christian theology

Sig.:
-inspires Hong and sparks the Taiping movement
-christian ideals appealed to him as an answer to the problems Qing faced; imperialist threat, internal corruption
- gave reason to reject the foreigners
Hong Xiuquan (1813-1864)
BG:
-leader of the Taiping movement
-originally a would-be scholar from a poor Hakka family
-converts to Christianity
-believes himself to be the younger brother of Jesus
-convinced that he has been chosen by God to wipe out the Manchus and establish a new Heavenly Kingdom of Great Peace
-launches civil war that nearly topples the Qing dynasty

Sig.:
-he represent how the chinese are drawn to foreign ideals as an explanation to the problems they are encountering
-it also shows how Chinese resentment to foreign rule
Hunan Provincial Army
BG:
-army began by Zeng Guofan
-an army of recruited officers from among the Confucian-educated elite in Hunan
-these officers recruited own soldiers from among farmers in their regions
-Zeng was given permission to draw on local tax receipts so he could pay the soldiers and officers> a private army

Sig.:
-it is a private army showing the strengthening of regions because of the loosening grip of Manchu rule.
- army is Han Chinese based
-regionalism that would clash with central rule
Liang Fa
BG:
-wrote Good Works to Exhort the Age

Sig.:
- shows a native Chinese translating foreign works
-this symbolizes foreign ideals slowly being accepted and incorporated into Chinese thought
-transforming Chinese thought leads to new ideas of rebellion namley the Taiping
Second Opium War (1858-1860)
BG:
-Britain and France were pressing China and on the grounds that china had failed to implement all of the provisions agreed to a decade earlier, the British and French partook in coastal attacks, a repeat of the Opium War
-British threatened to march on Beijing unless allowed permanent diplomatic representation in Beijing, Manchu conceded
-treaties opening of ten new ports
-permission for westerners, including missionaries to travel through China
-result is unequal treaties where western powers gained many advantages

Sig.:
- shows foreign power taking advantage of inept Chinese government
- huge indemnities> signifies the desperate situation China is in and at this point they are struggling to do something about it
-these events trigger the realization that China needs to modernize in order to stay alive
-nation itself is feeling threatened
Treaty of Tianjin (1895) and Convention of Beijing (1860)
BG:
-follows the conclusion of 2nd Opium War between British and French forces and the Qing
-provisions of the treaty include: ----opening ten more treaty ports in coastal and inland cities,
-allowing unrestricted preaching of Christianity in China,
- legalizing opium
-establishing formal diplomatic residences for ambassadors of Western powers in Beijing
-ceding Kowloon to Great Britain

Sig.:
-shows how the foreign powers see china as a source of revenue and the more ports they open up the more money they make at the cost of Chinese livelihood.
- lets in the unrestricted preaching of Christianity which leads to more corruption on the lower levels of urban society with warlords
Empress Dowager Ci Xi (regent and de facto ruler from 1861-1908)
BG:
-born into a family of humble origins the Yehe Nala Manchu clan
-becomes consort to the Xianfeng Emperor
-mother to Tongzhi Emperor
-aunt to the Guangxu Emperor
-after death of the Xianfeng emperor she helps to plot a coup with other high-ranking Manchu Princes to take wrest from the regents of the young Tongzhi Emperor
-she wields power from “behind the curtain”
-plays the conservatives off against the reformers to maintain a balance at court and preserve her own reigns on power

Sig.:
-represents the conservative chinese/manchu against modernizing
-wanted to go back to imperial values, more central control
-radicals try to stage a coup she shuts them down> central power
Self-Strengthening Movement
BG:
-series of wide-ranging reforms in late Qing with a wide range of ideas for reforms including;
Military/politics
-hiring “barbarians” to help set up shipyards and arsenals in each major port
-translation bureaus
-officials to election> hopefully more involvement in government at local level
-arsenals and dockyards were established
Foreign affairs
-schools opened to each European languages and international law
-foreign office established to manage diplomatic affairs
-1880 embassies in London, Paris, Berlin, Madrid, Washington, Tokyo and St. Petersburg
Industries
-railway lines, steam navigation companies, coal mines, telegraph lines and cotton spinning and weaving favories
-newspapers

Sig.:
- met with strong conservative resistance
- conservatives thought copying western practices compounded defeat
-led to factionalism
-new policies but Qing court not enthusiastic about the prospect of fundamental damage
Zhang Zhidong
BG:
-official and general active in late Qing self-strengthening efforts
-appointed to governship of Hubei and Hunan
-builds modern-style factories, arsenals, and railways
-advocates ti-yong models of Chinese learning and development
-against evidential study movement because he believes morals essential to learning

Sig.:
-basis of the self-strengthening movement with ideals
Ti/Yong
BG:
-retaining Chinese learning as the principle or essence but adapting western learning for practical use
-traces of this formula for blending Chinese and western learning can be seen in Chinese state initiatives even to this day
-examination system still social basis
-only some of the best minds involved

Sig.:
- Movement to bring western ideas into chinese ideas - blending together
-reform through advacement in science
Zeng Guofan
BG:
-Confucian statesman from Hunan
-organizes the Hunan provincial army out of local militia forces, which helps to defeat the Taiping forces
-an important figure in the late Qing self-strengthening
-advocates importing western military technologies.

Sig.:
-Zeng remains staunchly loyal to the Qing, but the type of regionally based military power that he accrues sets in motion a pattern of devolving power to provincial strongmen, which will eventually challenge centralized rule.
Tongzhi Restoration
BG:
-central figure Prince Gong, sixth brother of the Xianfeng Emperor and was a negotiator on the Qing side for the Treaty of Tianjin and the Convention of Beijing
-important Manchu figure> establishes the Tongwenguan (interpreters college) as an affiliate of the Zongli Yamen

Sig.:
-an effect of the self-strengthening movement
-call for more reform to fix the weakness of China from the first Opium war
Find political balance between self-strengtheners and their adversaries
Wants to restore the imperial power and maintain status quo
Restore the traditional power after the opium wars
Attempt to apply western knowledge but keep the traditional ideas – self-strengthening movement
Ti yong
“Behind the curtains”
First Sino-Japanese War (1894-1895)
BG:
-KoreaL two factions>China and Japan, 1894-1895 war over Korea with Japan
-Battle at Yellow River
-results in Chinese loss because of corrupted organization and bad strategy

Sig.:
-results proved that the self-strengthening reforms were a failure
-it was a chance for China to use technology from self-strengthening
-causes officials to lose faith in Qing therefore Qing is losing more and more support
Treaty of Shimonoseki
BG:
-treaty signed at the conclusion of the first Sino-Japanese War
-cedes Taiwan and the Pescadores to Taiwan
-gives 200 million taels of silver in war indemnities
-tribute-relations with Korea are severed and Korea becomes a protectorate of Japan

Sig.:
-sets off new “scramble for concessions” by foreign powers in China
Kang Youwei
BG:
-Confucian scholar from Guangzhou
-deeply involved in late Qing reforms
-argues that institutional change and modernization is compatible with Confucian learning
-one of the chief architects of the Hundred Days’ Reforms implemented under the Guangxu Emperor in 1898
-hoped to reform China along the lines of the Meiji Restoration in Japan
-Escapes to Japan after the conservative crackdown on the Hundred Days’ Reforms

Sig.:
- memorial to emperor on how to reform states that reform is essential or risk being "carved up"
-see parallels among the world> tries to model china development after them
ex: ottoman
-china a nation-state, not a center of civilization
-shift in idea from the central ruler representing the country to the subjects representing the country as a whole.
Hundred Days Reform
BG:
-Under Guangxu emperor
-focused on military, getting rid of exam system, taxes based on west, postal system, railroad
-blocked by conservatives; Manchus
-put an end to by Empress Dowager Ci Xi
-military action to push reforms> coup development> Ci Xi crush reform
-emperor put under house arrest
-6 reform leaders executed

Sig.:
- shows Manchu efforts to remain in power
-factionalism; conservatives vs. radicals
-reveals China's inability to stand up to foreign threat because of internal strife
Boxer Uprising
BG:
-“Fists United in Righteousness”
-anti-Christian, anti-foreign peasants
-in 1891 in response to flood, drought, and famine, they begin to attack Chinese and foreign Christians in Shandong Province
-by 1900, the Boxers (with the backing of the Qing court) attack the foreign legations quarters in Beijing
-an allied army of eight foreign powers marches on Beijing to suppress the Boxers
-the Qing court (including CIxi and the Guangxu Emperor) are forced to flee the capital to Xian
-leads to the signing of the Boxer Protocol in 1901

Sig.:
-social movement stemming from White Lotus Buddhism, which was outlawed and continued in secret societies.
-had strong ties to local militas
-fear foreigners will destroy China therefore targeted Christian converts
-Christianity prevented idolatry and intervened in government local affairs. Therefore antiforeignism from day to day disruptions because of Christian
-Boxers represent popular sentiment of locals
Boxer Protocol
BG:
-signed at the conclusion of the suppression of the Boxers by the Allied Powers; established in indemnity worth nearly half the amount of the total annual Qing budget
Qin agrees to set up monument to Westerners attacked by the Boxers
5 year ban on examinations in the cities where atrocities took place
Allows foreigners to guard the legation quarters in Beijing
Call for the replacement of the Zongli Yamen with a Foreign Ministry
Established an enormous war indemnity of 250 million taels of silver

Sig.:
Empress dowager was seen as weak – she was with the boxers
Lost the support of the people – idea that Qing was going to fall
Lost influence and power
Encroaching foreign presence
They can arm guard their own sections – islands of western influence
Later, the communists could meet in these areas where the Chinese could not be
extraterritoriality
BG:
-allows for foreign nationals to be tried by their own courts in the treaty ports
-during Boxer Rebellion missionaries who actively interfered in their converts’ lawsuits, claiming the privileges of extraterritoriality for their own converts
-converts ‘rice Christians’

Sig.:
-local crime lords Christians therefore commit crimes but could not be tried by Chinese government
-Christianity + extraterritoriality upsets balance against Chinese authority
-people at the lowest levels affected