Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

13 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Manifest destiny
Westward expansion. wanted to control land from w. coast to e. coast. For many colonists, land represented potential income, wealth, self-sufficiency and freedom. Expansion into the western frontiers offered opportunities for self-advancement. Land ownership was associated with wealth and tied to self-sufficiency, political power and independent "self-rule."
*John Quincy Adams
secretary of state from 1817-1825 and president from 1825-1829. influenced by his father and thomas jefferson
*John Locke
Enlightenment. 17th Century. Scottish man. Property=wealth=freedom. Idea of consent of govt. - where does power come from if it is not divine? Certain thinkers and writers, primarily in London and Paris, believed that they were more enlightened than their compatriots and set out to enlighten them. Enlightenment influences shaped some elite thinking
Positivism is a philosophy developed by Auguste Comte in the beginning of the 19th century, which stated that the only authentic knowledge is scientific knowledge. draws strongly from enlightenment thinking. adopted Herbert Spencer's idea of the GOSPEL OF WEALTH --> look how wonderful wealth is.
the Enlightenment
This movement advocated rationality as a means to establish an authoritative system of ethics, aesthetics, and knowledge. The intellectual leaders of this movement regarded themselves as courageous and elite, and regarded their purpose as leading the world toward progress and out of a long period of doubtful tradition, full of irrationality, superstition, and tyranny. Spanish and portuguese influenced by French, colonies influenced by english and scotish. colonies successfuly challenged their monarchy and established a govt- inspiration to S. & P.
the idea of a nation being governed as a republic.
The encomienda system was a trusteeship system used during the Spanish colonization of the Americas, whereby conquistadors were granted the towns of the indigenous people they conquered. were able to tax these people and summon them for labour. In return the encomenderos were expected to provide safety for the people through an established military and teachings in Catholicism. The encomienda system was essential to the Spanish government sustaining their control over North, Central and South America, because it was the first major organizational law instituted on a continent where disease, war and turmoil reigned. They used their influence and power as encomenderos and land owners to seize more lands from the natives, increase taxes, and ultimately force the natives into slavery. Spain didnt want because loss of power, sent beurocracy to watch what was happening with money going to crown
is a process of social and economic change whereby a human society is transformed from a pre-industrial to an industrial state. 18th and 19th cent in europe
this led to some of the first instances of significant government intervention and control over the economy, and it was during this period that much of the modern capitalist system was established. Mercantilism suggests that the ruling government should advance these goals by playing a protectionist role in the economy, by encouraging exports and discouraging imports, especially through the use of tariffs.
influenced desire for independence
holds liberty as the primary political value
Don Pedro
Proclaimed Brazil's independence from Portugal and became the first emporer of Brazil. In 1807,when he was nine, the royal family moved to Brazil in order to escape the Napoleonic Wars. The family would remain in Brazil for 13 years. He soon appeared to forget his liberal ideals by enacting a Constitution (proclaimed on February 24, 1824) that gave him substantial power, although this was seen as necessary to keep control of the interior, particularly in the yet-feudal North. Many provinces, particularly in the North, favored continued association with Portugal. Republican sentiment soared, and in 1825, during a war with Argentina, the Cisplatine province seceded to become Uruguay.
Protestant Reformation
The Protestant Reformation was a movement which emerged in the 16th century as a series of attempts to reform the Roman Catholic Church in Western Europe. The main front of the reformation was started by Martin Luther and his 95 Theses promulgated in late October and/or November of 1517. The reformation ended in division and the establishment of new institutions, most importantly Lutheranism, the Reformed churches, and Anabaptists,