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62 Cards in this Set

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What was the impact of the French Revolution?
It widened the split between the two factions. (Hamilton v. Jefferson)
What were the three prongs to Hamilton's financial plan?
Public credit (Jan 1790) National Bank (Dec 1790) and manufacturers (Dec 1791)
What did Hamilton's "Report on the Public Credit" call for?
Congress to buy ("redeem") at face value the millions of dollars in securities issued by the confederation.
What would this plan do?
Bolster the govrnment's credit but also provide windfall profits to speculators.
What was Hamilton's proposed idea of a permanent National Debt?
Created by borrowing money from the wealthy through the sale of bonds. Hamilton believed that drawing on this source of capital to finance government would create ties of loyalty between the government and the business community.
Who was against this and why?
Patrick Henry said that it was fatal to the existence of American liberty. Madison asked Congress to assist the thousand of workers who had been forced to sell their earned money to speculators.
What were the effects of the proposed "assuming" or taking over of war debts of state by the national government?
Concerned members of Congress said that some state legislatures had already levied high taxes to pay off war debt so Hamilton modified his plan to reimburse those states.
Why was a National Bank good?
By making loans to merchants, handling governmental funds, and issuing financial notes, it would provide a respected currency for American economy and make the new national debt easier to fund.
What impact did this have?
Caused Jefferson to join ranks with Madison against Hamilton. Jefferson condemned the shady dealings in southern war bonds and charged that it was not in Hamilton's power to create a National Bank. Hamilton used a loose interpretation of the "necesary and proper" clause. Washington agreed.
What would a national revenue be used for?
To pay the annual interest on the permanent debt.
What was the effect of Congress imposing domestic excise taxes including one on whisky from the U.S.?
Revenue from taxes was small. To raise more, the treasury secretary proposed to raise tariffs on foreign goods.
How would raising tarifs on foreign good benefit the national debt?
Inhibit foreign commerce. So Hamilton settled for a modest increase in custom duties and a tariff that would allow trade and provide revenue for the national government.
In the end, how did Hamilton's plan work out?
It worked out briliantly. American trade increased and customs revenue rose steadily, allowing the treasury to pay for the redemption and assumption programs.
What is a faction?
A small political group or alliance organized around a single issue or person.
What two factions had formed as a result of Hamilton's financial measures?
Federalists were by the Hamilton supporters and Madison and Jefferson supporters called themselves Democratic-Republican, or simply Republicans.
What were the arguments of the Republicans?
The southern planters and western farmers were represented by Jefferson who embraced the optimistic spirit of the Enlightenment, declaring his belief in the "improvability of the human race".
What did Jefferson conclude in his argument?
That workers who depended on wages lacked the economic independence required to sustain a republic.
What was Jefferson's vision of America?
Agrarian and democratic. He understood the need of yeoman farmers.
When he drafted the Ordianance of 1784, ge pictured a West settled by productive Yeomen.
How did the French Revolution in 1789 change things?
Warfare disrupted European farming, and wheat prices increased, bringing substantial profits to export-minded Chesapeake and Middle Atlantic farmers. As Jefferson had hoped, European markets brought prosperity to American farmers and planters.
What is the Proclamation of Neutrality?
President Washingto issued this which allowed U.S. citizens to trade with both sides. The American merchant fleet became one of the largest in the world.
How did most Americans feel about the French Revolution of 1789?
Most welcomed it because it abolished feudalism and established a constitutional monarchy.
How did the creation of the democratic French republic of 1792 and the execution of King Louis XVI divide public opinion?
Many American artisans praised the egalitatianism of the radical French Jacobins and founded political clubs modeling the radical democratic societies in Paris. But, Americans with strong religious beliefs condemned the new French regime for abandoning Christianity in favor of atheism.
What caused the Whisky Rebeliion of 1784
Farmers ub Western Pennsylvania protested Hamilton's excise tax on spirits, which had raised the price and thus cut the demand for corn whisky they sold locally and bartered for eastern manufacturers.
Who were they like and why?
The rebels were like the Sons of Liberty of 1765 and the Shaysites of 1786 by attacking both local tax collectors and the authority of a distant gov.
What did President Washington do as a result?
He raised an army of 12,000 troops that soon suppressed the rebels.
How did Britain's maritime strategy widen the growing political divisions?
In November 1793, the Royal Navy began to prey on American ships bound for France from the West Indies, and confiscated their sugar.
What did Washington do to avoid war?
Send Jon Jay to Britain. He returned in 1795 with a controversial treaty requiring the U.S. government to make "full and complete compensation" to British merchants for all pre-Revolutionary War debts owed by American citizens. The treaty also acknowledged Britain's right to remove French property from neutral ships, overturning the American's merchants' claims that "free ships make free goods".
What did the treaty do in return?
Allowed American merchants to submit claims of illegal seizure to arbitration and required the British to remove their military garrisons from the NorthWest Territory and to end their aid to the Indians there. Jefferson and other Republicans said Jay's treaty was too conciliatory amd Senate ratified it. As long as Hamilton and Federalists were in power, the U.S. would have a Pro-British foreign policy.
How did most Americans consider political parties?
Dangerous and unnecessary. Wanted voters and legislators to act independently.
What caused the divide of the political elite?
The financial and ideological conflicts of the 1790's .
What was the party system?
An organized political body with specific ideologies or interests, established with the goal of organizing the electorate and directing the policies of a government. While not part of the Constitution, competitive political parties appeared quickly in the United States during the election of 1796.
Who favored Federalists?
Merchants, creditors, and urban artisans.
Who was drawn to the Republicans?
Included not only southern tobacco and rice planters and debt-conscious western farmers but also German and Scots-Irish in the southern backcountry.
How did the election of 1796 change the parties.
Their identities crystallized. Federalist candidates triumphed by winning a majority in Congress and electing John Adams as the next president.
What did Adams change?
He continued Hamilton's pro-British foreign policy and reacted sharply when the French navy seized American merchant ships. French foreign minister Talleyrand solicited a loan and a bribe from American diplomats to stop the seizures, and Adams urged Congress to prepare for War.
What did Adams do to "prepare for war"
Responding to the "XYZ" affair (X,Y, and Z were Tallyrand's agents), the Federalist controlled Congress cut off trade with France in 1798 and authoritized American privateers to seize French ships.
How did the administration deal with those who attacked Adam's foreign policy?
Naturalization Act increased residency requirement for American ctizenship from five to fourteen years.
What was the Alien Act?
Authorized the deportation of foreigners.
What was the Sedition Act?
It prohibited the publication of ungrounded or mailicious attacks on the president or Congress.
What did President Washington do as a result?
He raised an army of 12,000 troops that soon suppressed the rebels.
How did Britain's maritime strategy widen the growing political divisions?
In November 1793, the Royal Navy began to prey on American ships bound for France from the West Indies, and confiscated their sugar.
What did President Washington do?
He raised an army of 12,000 troops that soon suppressed the rebels.
What started Jay's Treaty?
In 1973, Royal Navy began to prey on American ships bound for France from the West Indies.
What did Washington do to avoid war?
He sent John Jay to britain. John Jayreturned in 1975 with a conroversial treaty
What did Jay's treaty say?
Required the US government to make "full and complete compensation" to British merchants for all pre-Revolutionary War debts owed by American citizens.
What did it also acknowledge?
Britain's right to remove French property from neutral ships.
What did it do in return?
It allowed American merchants to submit claims of illegal seizure to arbitration and required the British to remove their military garrisons, and to end their aid to Indians there.
Who attacked the treaty and why?
Jefferson and other Republicans because it was too conciliatory and the Senate ratified it.
As long as Hamilton and his Federalist allies would be in power...?
The US would have a pro-British foreign policy.
What did the financial and ideological conflicts of the 1970's do?
Divided political elite.
Who did prosecutors arrest mostly?
Republican newspaper writers.
Republicans charged that the Sedition act violated what?
The First's Ammendment's prohibition against abriding freedom of press and speech.
Since they could not appeal to the Supreme Court, who did Madison and Jefferson look to remedy unconstitutional laws.
The states.
What two states primarily adopted this?
Kentucky legislature declared Alien and Sedition acts void. And Virginial legislature passed a resolution following MAdison's "States' Rights" interpretation of the law.
Election of 1800
Jefferson now was supported by Republicans.
Why did President Adams reevaluate his foreign policy?
Response to attacks pointing to the wrongful imprisonment of newspaper editors.
What did Adams do that put country ahead of party?
Rejected the advice of Hamilton and other Federalists to declare war against France.
What did the Federalists attack?
Jefferson's character.
Who won anyway?
Jefferson. But the Republican elctors gave Alex Burr the vice presidency.
What happened to the era ofFederalism?
It came to an end. Hamilton ushered in a democratic era.
What did Hamilton do in the House or Reps?
Intervened to go against Burr and persuade Federalists to permist Jefferson's selection.
Why did Jefferson call the election the "Revolution of 1800"?
Because it was a bloodless transfer of power demonstrating that governments elected by the people could be changed in an orderly way.