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74 Cards in this Set

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Amaterasu
Sun Goddess

Shinto's principle deity

Japanese imperial family are descended from her

Yamato area

Born from Izanagi's left eye in Kyushu river

Offended by her brother, Susanowo's actions, she shut herself up in a cave. People became distressed with sun's absence and tried to persuade her to come out. One goddess danced in nude; gods laughed; Amaterasu got curious, particularly in a mirror; she got pulled out

In Ryobu Shinto, she was worshipped as Vairocana, the great cosmic Buddhist deity who ruled over a world of light
Amida
Compassionate and merciful Buddha in Jodo (Pure Land)\

Namu Amida Butsu
-calling upon Buddha is enough for salvation
-faith alone, not works
Ashikaga Takauji
Founder and first shogun of Ashikaga shogunate

Head of a distinguished branch of the Minamoto

Traitor general of Kamakura shogunate

Succeeded in taking capital, Kyoto, in Go-Daigo's name

Uninterested in literary and artistic life
bakufu
government ran under a shogun

shogun's officials
-carried out the actual duties of administration while the Imperial court retained only nominal authority
Matsuo Basho
1644-1694

Renowned for his haiku
-had many successors but few equals
bunraku
Puppet Play

Merchant values and life

Popular were jinjyu (double suicide)

Rowdy language and sex

Hinted high value Confucian ideas

Famous Example: Chushingura bu Chikamatsu Monzaemon
bushido
"way of the warrior"

Code of fierce loyalty among fighting men and a worship of honor and the sword

Influenced by Shinto and Buddhism

Did not arise along samurai but through side-switching
-instill loyalty
-honor in dying
cha-no-yu
Tea Ceremony

Shibui (Astrigent). Enter with humility—doors are low, forced to enter on knees and hands. Formal and reserved, inwardly relaxed behavior. Comment on kettles, pots, bowls, simple scroll and flower arrangement rather than hostess’s kimono or skill. Buddhist thinking—understatements, going beyond the senses.
Chikamatsu Monzaemon
1653-1724

One of the most notable figures of the Genroku Era

Wrote for both Bunraku and kabuki

Author of Chushingura
chonin
Townspeople, majority were merchants

Social middle class that arose during early years of Tokugawa period
-originally low on social ladder but rose up due to demands of increasingly prosperous daimyo and samurai families, who needed merchants to maintain their lavishness
daimyo
Great territorial lords

Arose during Kamakura period when stewards fell lower on the property scale due to financial distress and constant division of land amongst increasing warrior class, and constables rose up
emaki
Horizontal, illustrated narrative form

Combines both text and pictures

Drawn, painted, stamped on a handscroll

Depict battles, romances, religion, folk tales, supernatural
fudai daimyo
"hereditary vassals"

Daimyo who allied with the Tokugawa house before the Battle of Sekigahara

Located for the most part in central Japan and held fiefs averaging about 50,000 koku

Had to move often because shogunate wanted them to keep watch over Tozama Daimyo (outside lords) for doubtful fidelity
Fujiwara Kamatari
Nakatomi Kamatari
-Shinto clan

Conspired with Prince Naka-no-Ue to overthrow Soga (Buddhist clan)

Became confidential adviser to prince and actually the chief power in land
-AKA Kuromaku (Black Curtain)

Changed family name to Fujiwara after wisteria garden where he plotted & schemed
-founder of influential Fujiwara family (857-1160, influenced imperial court until 19th century)

Architect of the Taika Reform
haiku
Short poetic form

17 syllables (575)
Heian
Last division of classical Japanese history (794-1158)
---
Period when Buddhism, Taoism, Chinese influences were at their height

Peak of imperial court: Noted for art, poetry, literature

Capital = Heian (means peace & tranquility)

Female literature --> Tale of Genji

insei = cloister government

End = rise of warrior class
Hiragana
Japanese writing system derived from Chinese, but only through its sounds rather than meaning

Supposedly created by women
Hiroshige
Japanese ukiyo-e artist

Themes: Women, Actors, Landscape
Honen
Founder of Buddhist sect, Jodo (Pure Land)

---
No stress on elaborate ritual or study.
-Repetition of Namu Amida Butsu (calling upon Buddha of infinite compassion) was good enough for salvation & rebirth in Western Paradise or Pure Land.
-Religion of faith alone.
Ikebana
flower arrangement
Izanagi
With Izanami --> bore many islands, deities and forefathers of Japan

When Izanami died in childbirth, Izanagi tried (but failed) to retrieve her from underworld.

In the cleansing rite after his return, he begot Amaterasu (the sun goddess) from his left eye, Tsukuyomi (the moon god) from his right eye and Susanowo (storm god) from his nose.
Izanami
Female consort to Izanagi

Gave birth to Japan

Died during childbirth to fire god
Jodo
Pure Land

Hiei monk named Honen

No stress on elaborate ritual or study.
-Repetition of Namu Amida Butsu (calling upon Buddha of infinite compassion) was good enough for salvation & rebirth in Western Paradise or Pure Land.
-Religion of faith alone.
Jodo Shinshu
Founded by Shinran, who was a student of Honen's Jodo

Lax on rituals and rules

Buddha is compassionate, as long as you have faith, you'll get salvation

Influenced by mappo
jomon
Middle Stone Age / ~3000BC (E/N Japan)

Jomon (“cord pattern”): hand-thrown pottery; people used stone weapons & lived in sunken-pit houses; no farming; gatherers
kabuki
Classical Japanese dance-drama

Average commoner prefers it
-gaudy and bright costumes
-violence, sex, and strong emotional tension

Early phases had bad moral reputation
-bakufu forbade women to be actresses

Men played as women (onagata)

Actors adopted exaggerated and jerky gestures from Bunraku
Kamakura
1185-1336

Officially established in 1192 in Kamakura by Minamoto Yoritomo (1185 was victory of Dan-no-ura)

Ended in 1333 with destruction of shogunate, short reestablishment of imperial rule under Emperor Go-Daigo by Ashikaga Takauji, Nitta Yoshisada, & Kusunoki Masashige
-completely ended in 1336 when Takauji placed rival emperor on throne; flight of Go-Daigo to Yoshino

Transition to land-based economies & increasing samurai warrior class

Flourishing of Buddhism

Mongol Invasions & kamikaze
kami
gods, those above

divinity associated with anything amazing in nature

humans can be kami
kamikaze
wind of the gods

originally named for the typhoon that had destroyed the 2nd Mongol invasion in 13th century
kampaku
regent to an adult ruler
Katakana
Japanese writing system

Primarily used for foreign or loan words

Developed by men
Ki no Tsurayuki
wrote Tosa Nikki (a ficitonal diary)

a guy who pretended to be the wife of a lord
Kido Koin
1833-1877

member of the Choshu domain government

Effective leader
-tightened discipline over independent "mixed units"
-modernized the whole of the domain forces
kofun
Tomb Period

middle 3rd century AD (W of Yamato area)
-350-550AD

Superimposed with Yayoi culture

Known for:
-stone burial chambers and huge earth mounds (similar to Korea & NE Asia)—signs of aristocracy
-Haniwa pottery (Pictures of elaborate men with iron swords, houses, and mainly horses)
-foreign warriors with tattoos
Kojiki
EXPLAINS ORIGINS OF THE WORLD

Japanese works (712AD)

employs Chinese characters phonetically to represent the sounds of the Japanese language
Kokinshu
Early Heian poetry anthology by imperial request (conceived by Emperor Uda and ordered by his son Emperor Daigo)

Compliers: Ki no Tsurayuki, Ki no Tomonori, Oshikochi Mitsune, Mibu no Tadamine

Divided into seasonal and love poems

Influenced haiku
Kukai
Scholar monk who returned from China (~805-806)

AKA Kobo Daishi

went to Mt. Koya in Yamato region

Introduced Buddhist sect, Shingon (True Word), to Japan
Manyoshu
A collection of Japanese poetry

Coming from the court aristocracy, mainly dealt with love and human events

Very short, elegant statements of a theme and a Nature-influenced mood
Minamoto Yoritomo
Founder and First Shogun of Kamakura Shogunate
-wanted to get away from the girly court life of the Heian period by moving capital from Yamato to Kanto

Son of Minamoto Yoshitomo

Commanding general during Genpei War
Momoyama
Pompous, ornate art

Rich Era (end of Sengoku period)

"Peach Mountain"

Lacked Zen

Opposes Muromachi art during Ashikaga Period

Lots of trade domestically and foreign
-Rise of Chonin
monogatari
"telling things"

Novels, Fiction

Famous example: Tale of Genji by Lady Murasaki Shikibu
mono-no-aware
The inherent quality and sentimentality of things

Appreciation and melancholy
-appreciate its beauty & utility
-sad of its impermanence
Murasaki Shikibu
Author of the Tale of Genji
Muromachi
Art period during Ashikaga Period

Influenced by Zen

Simple, modest, quiet
Nichiren
Kamakura Period

1253 Founding of Nichiren sect by Nichiren

Claimed to have prophesized foreign attack as punishment for country’s leaders, and eventual triumph of Japan

Combined Buddhism and nationalism

Exalted Lotus Sutra as the truth for salvation.
Nihongi / Nihon Shogi
Explained origins of world

720AD

Japanese work
nikki
fictional diary
No
Japanese performance art
-entertainment for the sophisticated

Simple and rustic

Masked actors

Realm of legends, history, magic.

Sarugaku—monkey plays—silliness associated with fertility rites. Kyogen in later years was mainly served for comic, played between serious plays

Performed in 5 categories: god, warrior, woman, misc, demon
Oda Nobunaga
1/3 men to unify Japan
-wanted to be the one and only to do it

Never accepted title of Shogun as he thought it wasn't the right time

Betrayed by Akechi Mitsuhide, one of Nobunaga’s generals, during short holiday to temple in Kyoto; Nobunaga kills self/burns in flames to avoid capture
Pimiko / Himiko
“Daughter of the Sun”

Notable female ruler at end of 3rd century (Yayoi-Tomb Period)

Shinto priestess

The sun is her source of power
Prince Shotoku
Nephew of Empress Suiko, Soga descent, 2nd son of Emperor Yomei

Devout Buddhist

Built Yumedono (The Hall of Dreams)

Notable for his policy and leading Japan to adopt Chinese methods in the spheres of politics, religion, and art
-cap ranks
-sending embassies to China

Confucian influence
sabi
Word to describe art: Rustic & Loney

Along with Wabi, it creates a melancholic sense of beauty
-Japanese like death
-Golden Age of Japanese Art
Saicho
a prominent scholar monk during the Heian period (~800)
-studied in China

granted title of Dengyo Daishi
--
Returned to Mt. Hiei

Brought new doctrines of Tendai sect to Japan
-"Heavenly Platform"
sakoku
Tokugawa period

Country was placed under lock down

Exceptions: Dutch & Chinese at Nagasaki
Sakuma Shozan
-
sankin-kotai
Alternate attendances (at Shogun's court)

Started in Tokugawa Shogunate (made as requirement)

Daimyo had to spend 4 mos/yr at Shogun's court and leave family behind ~Switch
----
Was a way for Tokugawa /Shogun to keep an eye on the daimyos and prevent them from scheming

A way to punish tozama daimyo because they lived so far away
-had to take Tokaido (eastern road by the sea)
Sei Shonagon
Japanese author and court lady who served Empress Teishi

Middle of Heian period
---
Wrote THE PILLOW BOOK
-Makura-no-Soshi: "Pillow made of Grass"
seppuku
Suicide by tummy cutting
---
Honorable way to die

Used by everyone, can be even used to dishonor a place by spilling blood
sessho
regent to a child ruler

--
was real authority
Shingon
"Pure Word" sect of Buddhism (Heian Period)
---
Introduced by Kukai (Kobo Daishi)

Knowledge within Knowledge

Powerful and serious rivalries arose
-rebellious monks of Mt. Hiei and Lake Biwa (~891)
-disturbed peaceful realm of Buddhism
Shinran
Priest who wanted to better than Honen (1173-1262)
---
Founded Jodo Shinshu (True Pure Land)
-said that priests can get married
shogun
generalissimo, supreme military commander
---
Minamoto Yoritomi: 1st shogun of kamakura period


Governing individuals through Japanese history
sonno-joi
Honor the Emperor, Expel the Barbarians
Taika
645

"Great Change/Reform"

Made by Kamatari and Prince Naka-no-Ue
----
All land of Japan was declared to be the emperor's

1) abolish private holdings of land & corp of agricultural workers
2) set up "inner provinces" with officials
3) register population for rice taxes
4) introduce new system of taxing
Tendai
Heavenly Platform

Doctrines brought to Japan by monk scholar, Saicho
Tokugawa Ieyasu
Toyotomi Hideyoshi's lieutenant, then he succeeded Toyotomi
--
1/3 men who worked on unifying Japan

made capital at Edo, Tokugawa shogunate (1600)

put country under lock (sakoku)

made 3 types of daimyo and sankin-kotai
Toyotomi Hideyoshi
Nobody who rose to be lieutenant to Oda Nobunaga
--
1/3 men who unified Japan

Unchecked ambition
-took on Korea & China (1592)
-exposed China's weakness

wanted to keep power in family line but Ieyasu betrayed him
tozama daimyo
"outside lords", sworn loyalty to Tokugawa Ieyasu AFTER Battle of Sekigahara
---
Not trusted, had to do sankin-kotai

punished by being made to live far from capital
ukiyo-e
Pictures of the Floating World, of the Transient Scene

----

Buddhist term denoting the impermanence and fleeting nature of human pleasures

Hishikawa Moronobu (1638-1714) is accounted as one of the founders

woodblock print

Japan in Isolation
wabi
A word to describe art: Bitter, Irregular, Rough
---
along with SABI, it creates a melancholic sense of beauty
Yamato
Region on Honshu island (Southern half)
---
Nara Period: Yamato was where Imperial court ruled (250-710AD)

Kofun and Asuka period: Yamato period

Prince Shotoku

Agricultural area
yayoi
300-100BC (Tokyo; mainly W Japan)

Wheel-made pots; Chinese-type farming; Used both bronze & iron; people lived similar to Jomon but had thatched roofs and used ornamental bronze bells
Zen
Chan in Chinese

Based on early Indian Buddhist practice of seeking release through MEDITATION

Taoist emphasis on individualism, independence, natural order

Introduced to Japan by monk Eisai in 1191

Appealed to men of action—direct path to enlightenment & release through discipline and inner control
zuihitsu
A genre of Heian literature

Notes of rambling thoughts