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8 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Give some functions of the urinary system.
•Filtration
•Waste removal and storage
•Last stage of vitamin d activation
•Acid/base balance
•Regulation of fluid volume and pressure
•Hormone/enzyme production
oErythropoietin
oRenin
Describe the glomerular basement membrane.
The glomerular basement membrane is a selective macromolecular filter in which the lamina densa acts as a physical filter, whereas the anionic sites in the laminae rarely act as a charge barrier
Describe the effect of antidiuretic hormone on collecting ducts.
ADH increases the water permeability of collecting ducts and promotes vascular smooth muscle contraction
Explain the action of renin/angiotensin following substantial hemorrhage.
•Blood pressure drops due to a sever hemorrhage
•Pressure change is sensed by the carotid sinus receptors
•JG cells of the afferent arteriole produce renin
•Renin cleaves angiotensinogen to angiotensin I
•Pulmonary endothelium cleaves angiotensin I to angiotensin II
•Vasoconstriction occurs
•Angiotensin II levels stimulate production of aldosterone which targets DCT cells to increase uptake of Na+ and H2O from filtrate and subsequent transfer to vasa recta
•Blood volume increases
Describe the juxtaglomerular apparatus and its potential effect on the adrenal gland.
Secretions of JG cells play a role in the maintenance of blood pressure.
The macula densa of the DCT is usually located near the region of the afferent arteriole that contains the JG cells.
Together, this portion of the arteriole and the macula densa form the JG apparatus. JG Cells produce renin which cleaves angiotensinogen to Angiotensin I which is in turn cleaved to Angiotensin II by pulmonary endothelium. Angiotensin II levels stimulate the production of aldosterone by the reticular layer of the adrenal gland.
List the principal cells associated with the renin-angiotensin cascade.
•JG Cells: produce rennin which cleaves angiotensinogen to Angiotensin I
•Pulmonary endothelium: cleaves angiotensin I to Angiotensin II.
Describe the function of a proximal convoluted tubule
They are a component of the nephron frequently seen near the renal corpuscles in the renal cortex.
They are lined with cuboidal epithelium, which contain microvilli that form a brush border. Majority of Na and H2O are absorbed in the PCT.
Name the regions of the cortex in the kidney?
RENAL CORPUSCLES
Proximal convoluted tubules
Nephron loops(of Henle)
Distal convoluted tubules
Collecting tubules
Peritubular plexus