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28 Cards in this Set

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nervous tissue: components
neurons

supporting cells:
CNS glia
PNS scwhann & satellite cells
neurons: char
can be up to 1 meter long

cell body: perikarium
active nucleus: lots of euchrom.
large nucleolus (lots of RNA stuff)
conspicuous RER: lots of secretions: Nissl bodies
->dendrites(Nissl & other)->body->axon (single, no synth machinery)
axon hillock
where action potential starts

beginning of axon
neuron classification
multipolar: 2 or more dendrites

bipolar: axon and single dendrite
retina, olfactory

pseudounipolar: short process that branches into two
dorsal root ganglion, sensory neuron
neuron: histo
triangular cell body

Nissl substance in body and dendrite

prominent nucleolus

can see region with no Nissl->axon
neurons: others stains
^affinity for heavy metals

gold->neurofilaments in dendrites, etc.
Neuronal cytoskeleton
neurofilaments: intermediate

microtubules: long, thick, where vescicles are attached w/ motor proteins (kinesin, dynein)

movement over long dx
axonal transport
slow: anterograde, parts of cytoskeleton

fast: cell components, signals about state of adj. cell, and membrane components
synapses
lots of synaptic vescicles w/ neuroxmitter

fusion at synaptic cleft

postsynaptic thickening: just under receptors to keep them in place, so don't migrate in memb.
synapse: histo
lots of little cheerio lookin' things in a triangle

thickening under receptor cell membrane
neuromuscular jxn
flower-spray ending at terminal branches where connect to muscle fiber
neuromuscular jxn: histo
brocoli/finger projections from a relatively empty cell
en passant synapse
varicosities in axon terminals: snake that ate a mouse

disperses signal over large area: smooth muscle only
myasthenia gravis
autoimmune of neuromusc jxn

Ig's bind receptors and block them

also, cause degradation of receptors

->muscle weakness
snake toxin
blocks acetylcholine receptor
parkinson's
death of dopaminergic cells

neurons lost

->tremor->muscle rigidity

need to improve dopamine synthesis
CNS glia

ex. and char
protoplasmic astrocyte, fibrous astrocyte:
growth factors, removal of neuroxmitters

oligodendrocytes: equiv. of schwann cells

microglia: macrophages of nervous systm
satellite cells: histo
autonomic neurons

supporting cells of peripheral ganglion
peripheral nerve
collection of axons: no cell bodies

enclosed by layers of connective tissue

endoneuriym inside of perineuriym inside of epineurium
peripheral nerve: histo
fascicles, looks like muscle but fascicles are much smaller
non-myelinated axons
embedded in schwann cell cytoplasm

no spiral covering, just pushed in
myelinated axons
schwann engulfs and invaginates

spiral wrap begins->cytoplasm squeezed out->major dense line& interperiod line
shmidt lanterman
little leftovers of cytoplasm so that there's some nutrients left after myelination
nodes of Ranvier
current flow through axon

schwann insulates and allows signal to travel further

where action potential is regenerated (boosted)

saltutory conduction: successive conduction and action potential release
Nodes of Ranvier: histo
looks like strings of sausages strung together

light yellow/gold stringy
CNS myelin
one oligodendrocyte myelinates multiple axons
multiple sclerosis
autoimmune demyelination

antibodies against myelin

relapsing remitting: oligodend. regenerate each time-> but nodes of Ranvier ^each time->slows down signal

can inject MBP into rabbit: experimental allergic encephalomyelitis
CMT1
palpable enlargement of the nerves: too much myelin

duplication of PMP 22 gene

loss of sensory and motor axons