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23 Cards in this Set

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Epidermis cells::
1. Stratified squamous keratinized epithelium
2. Melanocytes
3. Langerhan`s cells
4. Merkel cells
Where is there thick type of skin?
Palms of hands and soles of feet
Stratum spinosum:
Synthesize acylglucosylceramide
Have RER+ GA = membrane coating granules (lammelar bodies)
Stratum granulosum:
Proteosynthesis--> keratohyaline granules.
Lamellar bodies release ceramide into the intercellular spaces.
Stratum lucidum:
Intermediate layer (eosinophilic)
Stratum corneum:
Cells without nuclei
Have keratin crosslinked by flaggrin that form cell envelope together with ceramide.
Cells are joined by desmosomes
Cytokeratins in stratum basale:
Low molecular weight cytokeratins: CK1- 8,14,17
Cytokeratin:
Proteins of keratin containing intermediate filaments found in intracytoplasmic cytoskeleton of epithelial tissue.
Cytokeratins in startum spinosum:
High molecular weight cytokeratins: CK 10, 18
Melanocytes:
Develop form neural crest
Secrete cytocrine and produce melanin, melanosomes are injected into keratinocytes.
Function of melanin in keratinocyte: protect from UV radiation.
Melanin unit: apprx 1000/ square mm (2x higher in pigmented skin such as scrotum, anal and areola area)
Overview of steps in melanin synthesis:
Tyrosine--> dopa--> dopaquinone--> melanin

Catalyzed by tyrosinaze
Merkel cells:
Found in stratum basale, commonly in thin type og skin
Have dense granules containing neurotransmittors
Free nerve endings
Sensoric mechanoreceptors
Langerhan`s cells:
Present in stratum spinosum of epidermis.
Derived from bone marrow and are APC- differentiate---> dendritic cells within lymphatic nodes (contain Bierbeck granules- rodlike)
Dermis:
Dense collagen connective tissue with elastic fibers
Main GAG: dermatan sulphate
Stratum papillare
Stratum reticulare
Appendages: glands, nails and hairs
Sensoric organs (Vater- Paccini and Meissner bodies)
Sebaceous glands:
Holocrine, compund alveolar
Not present in thick skin
Excretory ducts open into hair follicles except in:
- glans penis
- clitoris
- labia minora
- lip
- areola mammae
Sweat eccrine glands:
Simple coiled tubular glands
Dark cells (mucoid glycoproteins)
Clear cells (glycogen, basolateral labyrinth- transport of water and ions)
Duct directly on the surface
Duct with two layers of cuboid cells
Characteristics of thick skin type:
Thick stratum corneum and stratum lucidum
Only eccrine sweat glands
Have sensoric ending- Meissner and Vater- Paccini bodies
Skin of axilla:
Thin skin type
Hair follicle
All three types of skin glands:
- sebaceous glands
- eccrine sweat glands
- apocrine glands
Skin of abdomen:
Thin type
Hair follicles
Sebaceous and sweat glands
Thick hypoderm- adipose tissue
Skin of scrotum:
Thin type
Pigmentation in stratum basale- (high nr of melanocytes)
Smooth mm. cells in dermis
Mamma:
15-20 compound tuboalveolar glands
Ducts= lactiferous ducts---> lactiferous sinuses---> nipple (mammary papilla) and areola
Lobes--> lobules---> glandular alveoles surrounded by dense connective tissue and adipose tissue
Lactation:
Growth and differentiation of secretory ducts by: estrogen, progesterone, prolactin and placental lactogen.
Oxytocin from nerve stimulus stimulates contraction of myoepithelial cells--> rejection of milk

Decrease of prolactin level---> apoptosis---> regression
Milk:
Proteins- merocrine secretion
Lipids- apocrine secretion
Sugar (lactose)- produced in GA
IgA- plasma cells