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40 Cards in this Set

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simple Duct System
simple- single unbranched duct
compound duct system
branching duct system
cellular organization of secretory portion
tubule- straight, coiled, branchedf
acinar- spherical collections of cells
gland organization types
simple tubular, simple branched acinar, mixed, compound tubular or compound acinar
saliva
complex fluid product of serous and mucous glands that lubricates oral cavity, helps dissolve food for tast bud function, moistens food for swallowing
digestive role of saliva
contains amylases and lipases to facilitae digestion
protective role of saliva
host defense functions, lysozymes, lactoferrin, immunoglobulin A produced by resident B cells and plasma cells
Major Salivary glands-
Major Salivary glands-
1) Parotid Submandibular/Submaxillary Sublingual

2. Exocrine Pancreas

3. Liver
saliva production
produced by parotid, submandibular/submaxillary and
sublingual salivary glands- compound tubuloalveolar glands
with ducts emptying into the oral cavity.
parotid salivary gland
Parotid-Largest salivary gland-serous gland with serous acini. (almost all serous with a little fat)
submaxillary/mandibular
mixed with serous> mucous acini (look larger)
sublingual
Sublingual-mixed, with mucous > serous acini (look smaller)
mixed acinus
When samples are prepared with rapid cryofixation and fixation,
Serous and mucous cells line up adjacent to each other
Myoepithelial cells surround acinus. Basement membrane present.
demilune
an artifact previously thought to be key component of mixed acinus
describe duct system of salivary glands
intercalated ducts lined by cuboidal epi that get secretion from acini
striated ducts of salivary glands
Several intercalated ducts join to form striated ducts-plump epithelial cells that may have visible striations in their cytoplasm and tend to be intensely eosinophilic.
How do striated ducts drain?
Striated ducts draining each lobule join to form interlobular ducts and excretory ducts. Epithelium lining these segments can be stratified cuboidal epithelial cells.
Why called striated ducts?
Striated ducts draining each lobule join to form interlobular ducts and excretory ducts. Epithelium lining these segments can be stratified cuboidal epithelial cells.
exocrine pancreas
makes degradative enzymes to help digest food, mostly stored in cytoplasmic granules of pancreatic acinar cells (zymogen granules). these are secreted in a watery alkaline fluid that serves to neutralize teh gastic acid.
Organization of exocrine pancreas
similar to parotid gland, but: epithelium of intercalated duct projects into the lumun of the acinus-centroacinar cells, no striated ducts, presence of islets in the pancreas
liver description
largest gland in the body, displaye both endocrine and exocrine function. Receives blood from gut tube, processes/stores nutrients, interconverts glucose and glycogen. exocrine function, protein synthessis, chemical modification of metabolites/drugs.
exocrine function of liver
production of bile, synthesis of many proteins found in the blood including: albumin, coagulation factors, growth factors, chemical modification
organization of liver
delicate tissue, some CT (has delicate capsule and serosa, organized array of ep. cells- hepatocytes- in a roughly hexagonal pattern.
functional unit of liver
lobule, which is defined by vascular organization.
hepatic vein
brings blood from gut
central vein
means of egress for blood from lobule of liver
Space of Disse
basically sieves so that blood has no impediment to interact with hepatocytes in space b/w the two.
Arrangement of hepatocytes
Hepatocytes are arranged as cords of cells separated by venous sinusoids that
are lined by fenestrated endothelium and occasional macrophages (Kupffer cells).
As blood passes through the sinusoids toward the central vein, there is ample opportunity
for the hepatocytes to interact with the blood.
kupfer cells
secondary site for removal of old RBC instead of spleen.
hepatic triad
artery, vein and bile duct
what makes bile?
hepatocytes
how does bile get out?
bile ducts around peripheray. Hepatocytes line up and form channel between hepatocytes. They secrete bile into channel they've made and bile flows opp direction from blood, leaves from duct in triad.
how is channel made b/w hepatocytes?
tight juction to make seal b/w membrane to make channel. visible in lecture slide 24 as white dots b/w hepatocytes)
How does liver work as an exocrine gland?
liver has lobules organized around a central bile duct that drains ductules or tributaries from 3 adjacent lobules. Duct in triad receives bile from multiple sources.
How does liver work in the acinar model?
Based on blood perfusion of lobules. Peripheray of lobule sees most O2 and material absorbed by gut. Patterns of hepato-toxicity/glycogen metabolism.
Zones in acinar model of liver
Zone 1 gets highest concentration of XXX, zone 2 and then 3 get less concentration. Zone 1 gets damaged first.
Biliary cirrhosis
inflammation of liver and efacement, expansion of CT, biliary has to do with duct, Delicate CT is scarred and becomes huge. Changing liver organization.
Centriolobar necrosis
From toxic drug / metabolites intermediate processing
gall bladder
tube lined with folded ep. that gets and stores bile secrection from liver. Ep. concentrates bile 10 to 50x by water removal. Sac-like structure with SM and CT. Lacks the layered organization of the gut and that the
epithelium lacks goblet cells or crypts.
Differentiate gall bladder from gut tissue
No loose CT, no MM, no villi