Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/475

Click to flip

475 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are the three layers of the skin?
Epidermis, dermis, hypodermis
What is the primary component of the epidermis?
Keritinized stratified squamous epithelium.
Are there blood vessels in the epidermis layer?
No.
What are the two layers of the dermis?
Papillary and Reticular
What is the top 1/5 of the dermis layer?
Papillary layer
What is the bottom 4/5 of the dermis layer?
Reticular layer
What does the papillary layer consist of?
areolar CT, nerve endings and blood vessels.
What does the reticular layer consist of?
Dense Irreg. CT, lots of
collagen and elastic fibers
Is the hypodermis part of the integumentary system?
No, not normally
What is another name for the hypodermis?
Superfical Fascia
What does the hypodermis consist of?
Adipose CT - mostly
Areolar CT - some
blood vessels and secreting portion of some glands.
What is the primary role of the hypodermis?
It connects skin to underlying organs usually muscle (deep fascia- perimysium, epimysium)
What is the precursor that is synthesized by the skin
Cholecalciferol - precursor for Vit D
What are the 4 types of cells in the skin
Keratinocytes, Langerhans cells, Merkle cells, Melanocytes
Keratinocytes
5 layers of cells in the epidermis.
Langerhans cells are part of what system?
The macrophage- monocyte system.
What type of cells are pale staining and extend cytoplasmic processes in between keratinocytes?
Langerhans cells aka dendritic cells
Where are langerhans cells produced?
In the bone marrow and then migrate out.
Which epidermis cell type is an antigen presenting cell?
Langerhans cell
Where are Birbeck granules found?
In Langerhans cells
What is the distinguishing characteristic of the Langerhans cell?
Birbeck granules - rod shaped granules
Where are Merkle cells found?
In the stratum basale
How do Merkel cells produce an action potential?
They deform under touch and release neurotransmitter. Neurotransmitter binds to the end of the merkle disc and produces action potential
What is comprised of a merkel cell and merkel disc?
The merkle corpuscle.
What does the merkle cell differiante from?
Fetal epithelium
Where are melanocytes found?
In the stratum basale of the epithelium
What type of cell is round to columnar and extends processes containing melanosomes up to the next stratum?
Melanocytes
What is the function of melanosomes?
They convert tyrosine to melanin. Melanin aggregates around nucleus to protect DNA from UV in the spinosum and basale.
What stimulate the converison of tyrosine to melanin
UV light
Albinism is what?
A complete lack of melanin
How does an individual with albinism get their color?
From hemeglobin
What is the difference in the melanocytes between light and dark skin color?
Light skinned people have smaller nuceoli. Darker skin has large, scattered melanocytes that do not degrade as quickly.
What are the five layers of the epidermis?
top to bottom:
Stratum corneum
Stratum lucidum
Stratum granulosum
Stratum Spinosum
Stratum Basale
Which layers together are known as the stratum germotivum?
Mitotic cells of the Stratum basale and spinosum
Which layer is only found in the thick layer of skin
Stratum lucidum
Which layer sits on the basement membrane?
Stratum Basale
What epidermal cells are found in the Stratum Basale?
Merkel cells and melanocytes
How many layers of cells are in the stratum basale and what shape are they?
A single layer of cuboidal cells.
Is the Nucleus of the stratum basale cells large or small?
Large
What is kind of keratin makes up the tight jxns of the stratum basale
Cytokeratin.
What are tonofilaments?
Single and bundles of keratin intermediate filaments from basale cells= tightly joined jxns.
Do stratum basale cells have mitochondria or ribosomes?
Few mitochondria, but yes for ribosomes.
What is the thickest layer of epidermis?
Stratum Spinosum.
Why is stratum spinosum the thickest layer?
It is the shape of the cells (polygonal) not the number.
It is a few layers of cells thick.
Are there mitotic cells in the Stratum Spinosum?
yes there are and they are in the basal layer.
Which layer has the most tonofilaments?
Stratum Spinosum
Bundles of tonofilaments are called what?
Tonofibrils. Groups of keratin filaments sufficently thick to be seen under the microscope.
Which epidermis cells are in the Stratum Spinosum?
Langerhans cells.
Melanosomes are deposited in this layer.
What do the secretory granules of the stratum spinosum contain?
Stratum Spinosum cells produce granules of both keratin and lamellar bodies.(membrane-coating granules) Lamallar bodies contain glycosphingolipids, phosolipids, and ceramides.
How do the tonofibrils of the Stratum Spinosum make this layer stain?
Eosinophilic
What contributes to the formation of the intercellular epidermal water barrier?
The glycosphinolipids, phosolipids, and ceramides of the spinosum lamellar bodies are released by exocytosis into intercellular spaces of the granulosum and corneum.
What is the most superficial layer of non-keratinized epithelium?
The Str. Granulosum.
How thick is the Str. granulosum?
Several layers 1-3 layers.
What type of granules do the str. granulosum cells contain?
Keratohyalin
Are the keratohyalin granules membrane bound?
What stain to they take up?
They are not membrane bound and they take up basophilic stain. Very dark staining
What action does keratohyalin stimulate?
KH contains precursors of the protein filaggrin that promotes the aggragation of tonofilaments into tonofibrils.
What two substances make the str. granulosum water proof
Lamellar bodies and keratin
What does Keratohyalin convert to?
Keratin
What is the stratum Lucidum
A quasi layer of flattened cells with out organelles.
Layer is thin and clear.
What is Eliadin?
A transformation product of keratinohyalin.
What are kerafibrils?
Densly packed keratinofilaments in the str. lucidum layer
What is the most superfiscal layer of the epidermis?
the stratum corneum
What makes up the str. corneum?
Kertinized cells filled with keratin fibers.
What type of plasma membrane do str. corneum cells have
A thicked Plasma membrane.
What cells of the str. corneum have desmosomes?
Only the deeper cells of this layer
What are squames?
The surface cells of the str. corneum that will be sloughed off.
What are the fxns of the dermis layer?
It supports the epidermis metabolically and physically.
It connects the epidermis with the hypodermis.
What does the papillary layer of dermis consist of?
Areolar CT with elastic and Type III collagen fibers.
Has Areolar CT cells. It is 1/5 of the entire dermal layer
Dermal Papillae
The interface between the epidermis and dermis. The raised portions of the folds.
They are dermal cells.
Epidermal Ridges
The epidermal contribution to the epidermal/dermal interface.
They are the invaginations of the folds.
Fingerprints
The parallel papillary surface translated through the epidermis (dermatoglyphs)
Capillaries and sensory receptors of the dermal layer
Most of the dermal layer as a capillary layer but also contains Meissner's corpuscles.
What are Meissner's corpuscles
They are a sensory nerve ending with schwann cell in between.
What does the reticular layer of the dermis contain
Dense irregular CT with type I collagen fibers usually packed in bundles parallel with the surface. Thick elastic fibers intersparsed throughout the layer.
some adipose in deeper portions, cells are more sparse because of fibers.
The secreting portion of sebaceous and sweat glands.
Base of hair follicle.
Groups of smooth muscle to wrinkle skin.
Erector pilli muscle.
What is the ground substance of the reticular layer?
Rich in protoglycans-dermatin sulfate.
Cells of the reticular layer
Fibroblasts, macrophages, mast cells, etc.
What is different about the muscle type in this layer in the face , scalp, and neck?
The pannicula carnosus.
It is skeletal and not smooth.
It starts in the hypodermis and inserts in the dermis.
Corpuscles of the deeper dermis and hypodermis.
Pacinian corpuscles and Ruffini's corpuscles.
What type of receptors are
Pacinian and Ruffini's corpuscles
Pacinian - Deep pressure - vibratory and mechano.

Ruffini's - encapuslated mechanoreceptors.
What are the 3 groups of epidermal derivatives?
Glands, Hair, and nails
Where are glands found in skin?
In the dermis
How are glands classified?
By secretion, ducted or non ducted, and shape.
What are the two types sweat glands?
Eccrine- simple coiled tubular gland.
Apocrine- coiled tubular glands that can be compound or simple.
What are the segments of an eccrine sweat gland?
secretory and duct segments
What is the function of Eccrine sweat glands?
They begin to work shortly after birth. They provide thermoregulation for the body.
What is the secretion of Eccrine sweat glands
Watery sweat. Ducts move up through dermis and epidermis to secrete fluid into sweat pore.
Where are eccrine sweat glands located and when do they begin to fxn?
eccrine sweat glands are located throughout the body and begin to fxn shortly after birth.
What is the secretory process of the eccrine gland?
Merocrine - releases product bound in membrane vesicles that bind to the plasma membrane at the apical end of the surface cell and release their contents via exocytosis.
What nervous division is innervates the eccrine glands.
sympathetic division
What cell types make up the secretory unit of the eccrine sweat gland?
Dark cells, clear cells, and myoepithelial cells
What are dark cells?
Inverted cone shaped simple cuboidal cell. Lines the lumen of the gland and does not touch the basement membrane. Have dense secretory granules rich in proteoglycans- thicker mucous secretion. Have abundant rER
Clear cells
Abundant in glycogen they are in between dark cells. no secretory granules, secretion is watery. Broader base narrower apex.
Canaculi of eccrine sewat gland
canals that run between dark and clear cells. The secretions from these cells enters into the canaculi.
Myoepithelial cells
cells that surround the secretory unit cells.
Contain contractile proteins.
Description of eccrine duct
wider at base near secretory portion and narrows as it goes up to surface.Made of stratified cuboidal epithelium.
What are they two layers of eccrine duct? What is the difference?
Basal and luminal layers.
The basal layer cells have a large nucleus and the luminal cells have smaller nuclei.
What cells line the lumen of the duct in the epidermis?
Keratinocyte
Eccrine sweat contains
Mainly water but also Na, K, urea, NH4, Cl-.
What do ductal cells do?
They reabsorb most of the ions so they are not lost.
Secretion ends up being water, urea, & NH4. It is odorless and colorless
Apocrine sweat glands
large lumened tubular glands associated with hair follicles.
What do apocrine glands arise from?
The epidermis that gives rise to hair follicles.
Onset at puberty.
Where does the secretion go?
Into the hair follicle.
Modified apocrine glands
Cerminous glands
Mammary glands
Sebacous glands
pale staining cytoplasmic glands that are found throughout the body except soles and palms
Sebacous gland product
sebum contains
cholesterol, triglycerides& cellular debris
What type of secretion
holocrine
What type of cells are in the secretory unit of sebaceous gland
small basal cells surrounding lgr luminal cells.
What type of epithelium are sebacous ducts lined with?
Stratified squamous epithelium,
What is hair
Filamentous keratinized structures projecting from skins surface.
What is the nerve ending that wraps around each hair
Root hair plexus.
The three types of hair
Terminal
Vellus
Lanugo
Lanugo hair
Fine baby hair usually shed after birth
Vellus hair
Short fine hair on arms legs
mostly women,most human hair is this type.
Terminal
hard hair - head eyebrows
Average hair growth
1 cm per month
Cyclical hair growth
axillary - 6 mos
scalp - 6.5 years
Heaviest between 16-45 years
Androgens stimulate---
Hair growth on certain areas.
Internal root sheath layers
Cuticle, Huxley's layer, Henle's layer
Cuticle
The outer layer of internal root sheath. Several layers of squamous cells that overlap
Huxley's layer
1-2 layers of flattened cells forming the middle layer of internal root sheath.
Henle's layer
single layer of cuboidal cells
external root sheath. downgrowth of epidermis.
Glassy membrane
Basement membrane that separates that hair follicle from the dermis.
Medulla of hair
Central part of shaft. Large vaculated cells. Only in thick hair
Three layers of the hair
Medulla, Cortex, Cuticle of the hair shaft
Cortex of hair
located outside of medulla
Contains cuboidal cells. These cells differentiate into keratin-filled cells
Cuticle of hair
Squamous cells forming the outer portion of hair. Enlongated cells in many layers
Hair grows from....
The matrix
Color of hair from
melanin in and between cortex cells.
Internal root sheath and cuticle root sheath are...
interdigitated to create firm bond.
parts of the nail
Nail bed, nail plates, nail root, matrix, eponychium, hyponychium
Nail root
buried in the fold of epidermis and covers the
matrix
Eponychium
the skin covering the nail root.
Hyponychium
the thickened epidermal layer that secures the free edge to at the fingertip.
Joints
articulations
Classification of articulations
Synarthoses, amphiarthroses,
diathroses
Synarthrosis
immovable joint
fibrous or cartilagenous
Amphiarthrosis
Slightly movable joint
Fibrous or cartilagenous
Diarthrosis
Free movable joint
synovial joint
Fibrous Joints
suture- between two bones that will fuse
Gomphosis- Tooth and Bony socket
syndesmosis-ligamentous cartilage
synostoses- fused sutures
Cartilagenous Joints
Synchondrosis - hyaline cartilage separating bones

Symphysis- vertebral disks
Synovial Joints
Fibrous capsule filled with synovial fluid.
Tidemark
Line between articular and clacified cartilage rich in glycoproteins
Articular capsule
Fibrous capsule surrounding a synvial joint
Synovial membrane
made of folds of highly vascular tissue (areolar or dense CT) almost like adipose
Synovial cells
Mesenchymal in origin
Type A synovocytes
resemble macrophages
Type B synovocytes
Basically fibroblasts
Synovial Fluid
filtered plasma mixed with hyaluronic acid. Lubricates and provides nutrition cartilage
Articular Cartilage
no perichondrium and anchored to bone by zone of calcified cartilage.
Tendons and Ligaments
Sac- like synovial capsules without bone
Bursae
Flatten sac between tendon and bone
Tendon sheath
sacs of synovial membrane wrapped around bone.
Lg Elastic artery
Tunica Intima
Simple squamous epithelium
Areolar CT
Smooth muscle cells-(myointimal cells)
Int. elastic lamina sheet
Lg Elastic artery
Tunica Media
Very broad layer
Fenestrated sm.muscle cells
that secrete elastin, collagen, & ECM.
Ext.Elastic Lamina
Lg Elastic Artery
Tunica Adventitia
Thin layer of areolar CT
vasa vasorum can penetrate the T. media
Med. Muscular artery
Tunica Intima
Smpl squamous epi
Flattened subendo layer of areolar CT and sm muscle cells
very prominent int. elastic lamina
Med Muscular artery
T. Media
Horizontal sm muscle acting as one cell.
Sparse elastic and reticular fibers. chondrotin sulfate sm. muscle cells secrete these. Ext Elastic lamina only in largest muscular arteries
Med Muscular Arteries
T. Adventitia
Areolar CT
Few Longitudinal muscle cells
Arterioles
T. Intima
simple sq. epi
thin subendo areolar CT and reticular fibers.
Thin fenestrated int. elastic lamina
Arterioles
T. Media
1-3 layers of circular sm muscle , no ext. elastic lamina
metarteriole
T. Adventitia
none
Capillary
T. Intima
simple sq. epi
basement membrane
some reticular fibers
perocytes(CT cells in walls)
that have contractile proteins
and can differtiate into sm. muscle.
tight jxns
no T. media or adventitia
Marginal Fold
Junction of overlapping cells in capillaries
three types of capillaries
fenestrated, continous, sinusoidal.
Post capillary venule
T. Intima
endothelium
reticular fibers
periocytes
leukocytes migrate through these.
No T. media or Adventitia
Muscular Veins
T. Intima
No periocytes
Muscular Veins
T. Media
1-2 layers of discontinuous sm. muscle cells
Muscular Veins
T. Adventitia
Areolar CT, elastic fibers, thicker than T. Media
Large Veins
T. Intima
Endothelium
Basement Membrane
reticular fibers
subendothelial layer of areolar CT
Large Veins
T. Media
Poorly developed
Sm. muscle layer separated by collagen fibers.
Vena Cava smooth muscle arranged longitudal.
Large Veins
T. Adventitia
Well developed lots of fibers
lymphatics, vasa vasorum
Very thick layer.
Lymph capillaries
Overlapping endothelium
no periocytes
no fenestrations, no tight jxns
blind sided
no basement membrane
anchored by anchoring filaments to pervent collapse of lumen with increasing pressure.
Lymph Vessels
Same tissue structure as capillaries but walls are thicker and larger lumen than veins. Have valves to prevent backflow
Lymphatic Ducts
T. Intima
Endothelium
elastic lamina
Lymphatic Ducts
T. Media
Sm. Muscle cells
Lymphatic Ducts
T. Adventitia
Collagen and reticular fibers
General characteristics of
T. Intima
single layer of flattened cells - simple sq. epithelium
a basement membrane, and fine collagen fibers
General characteristics
of T. Media
Muscle (smooth-LVS) (cardiac-BVS)
General charactristics
of T. Adventitia
dense or loose CT sometimes some epithelium.
Endocardium
T. Intima of Heart
inner simple sq. epi and fibroblasts with underlying areolar CT. Under areolar CT is dense CT with scattered smooth muscle cells.
Subendothelium layer of heart
Thin layer of areolar CT
small blood vessels and nerves
Myocardium
Tunica Media
Thickest layer of heart
bundles and layers of cardiac muscle.
Myocardial cells
Most are self-excitable some secrete ANP
Epicardium
Tunica Adventitia
viseral peridcardium
serous membrane = pericardium
mesothelium with underlying areolar CT.
Subepicardium
Layer between epicardium and myocardium is adipose CT.
Peritial pericardium
lines the inner surface of pericardium
Fibrous Pericardium
Dense CT , forms capsule
that encloses everything
Fibrous skeleton of heart
Thick fibrous CT around valves - supports valves and points of attachment for cardiac muscles
What prevents action potential spread from atrium to ventricle
fibrous skeletal
Annuli Fibroci
thickening around AV valves at base of aorta - part of fibrous skeletion
Trigonium Fibrosum
flap areas around aortic valve
Septum membranaceum
upper portion of interventricular septum
more thicken area of fibrous skeleton
Heart valves
leaflet of collagenous tissue covered with simple sq. epithelium
Lamina Fibrosa
Some elastic but mainly collagen fibers, simple sq. epi covering the endocardium
Valve annulus
ring of condensed CT where the valves attach to the wall of heart. Part of the fibrous skeleton
Leaflets of AV valves
connected to wall by
papillary muscles and extended cordae tendinae (collagenous strands)
Heart valve layers
Fibrosa, Spongosia, and Ventricularis
Autoruthmic cells
intrinsic conducting system of heart conducts the action potential
Pathway of action potential
in heart
SA node in r atruim - atria contracts - av node - (delay)-AV bundle - delay- interventicular septum-purkinje cells.
Rate of force for blood vessels of coronary vascular system regulated by
autonomic system
Microcirculation
circulation of smaller veins, venules
General characteristics of veins
Low pressure
transport and collection of blood, lymph, CSF
Skeletal muscle contraction is the pump for the system
Respiratory pump
changes in pressure in abdominal cavity with breathing.
Venous valves
CT core, endothelial lining
Percentage of blood in veins
60%-70%
Respiratory System
Functions
To bring blood into close contact with warm humidified air for the purpose of gas exchange.
Pulmonary ventilation
mechanical ventilation
12x per minute
internal ventilation
gas exchange
internal respiration
exchange of gases between blood and interstitial fluid in systemic capillaries and cells
Cellular respiration
glycolysis, Kreb cycle, elctron transport chain
Organization of respiratory system
conduction portion-passages
respiratory portion - alveoli
Lung lobes
2- left
3- right
Blood supply for lungs
pulmonary artries, veins, capillaries
Is the pressure higher in the systemic or pulmonary system
systemic
Upper respitory system
everything to the trachea
Lower respiratory
trachea to alveoli
choana
external and internal nares
Anterior portion of nasal cavity- vestibulae
dilated lined with keratinized stratified squamous epithelium exhibits vibrisse, sweat and sebacous gland anchored to cartilage via collagen bundles
Posterior portion of nasal cavity-
lined with respiratory epithelium, goblet vells, lamina propria (areolar CT) with lymphoid cells. Submucosa (Areolar CT) with bony septum underneath all.
Olfactory epithelium
Provides region for olfaction, warms and humidifies air. Provides some immunity protection from muscous (has antimicrobial properties)
Paranasal sinuses
Ethmoid, frontal, maxilla, sphenoid provides communication with nasal cavities.
Reduces mass of skull
provides resonance chambers
Paranasal sinuses histolgy
mucoperiosteum (simple ciliated columnar epithelium with thin lamina propria fused with periosteum)
Nasopharnyx
lined with resp epithelium
lamina propria varies from areolar to dense CT, fused with epimysium of pharngeal tonsil
Oropharnyx
Laryngopharnyx
Lined with non-keratinized squamous epithelium.
Mucous glands in lamina propria(seromucous glands containing antibodies)
auditory tube
Connects nasopharynx to middle ear cavity. Lined with respitory epithelium- continous with nasopharynx epithelium.
Larynx
rigid short tube enforced with hyaline cartilage.
Rings of larynx cartilage connected togther by __________ and moved by______
ligaments, skeletal muscle
Epiglottis
Opening to glottis
Has elastic cartilage
Lumen of larynx
Vestibular folds -false vocal cords

vocal cords
Vestibular folds
Areolar CT and adipose covered with respitory epi.

doesn't move
Vocal cords
Areolar CT,dense regular CT, and elastic tissue (vocal ligament)
vocalis muscle
muscle at end of vocal ligament that regulates width and alters tension on folds.
Function of larynx
sound, trapping debris
Paranasal sinuses
Ethmoid, frontal, maxilla, sphenoid provides communication with nasal cavities.
Reduces mass of skull
provides resonance chambers
Paranasal sinuses histolgy
mucoperiosteum (simple ciliated columnar epithelium with thin lamina propria fused with periosteum)
Nasopharnyx
lined with resp epithelium
lamina propria varies from areolar to dense CT, fused with epimysium of pharngeal tonsil
Oropharnyx
Laryngopharnyx
Lined with non-keratinized squamous epithelium.
Mucous glands in lamina propria(seromucous glands containing antibodies)
auditory tube
Connects nasopharynx to middle ear cavity. Lined with respitory epithelium- continous with nasopharynx epithelium.
Larynx
rigid short tube enforced with hyaline cartilage.
Rings of larynx cartilage connected togther by __________ and moved by______
ligaments, skeletal muscle
Epiglottis
Opening to glottis
Has elastic cartilage
Lumen of larynx
Vestibular folds -false vocal cords

vocal cords
Vestibular folds
Areolar CT and adipose covered with respitory epi.

doesn't move
Vocal cords
Areolar CT,dense regular CT, and elastic tissue (vocal ligament)
vocalis muscle
muscle at end of vocal ligament that regulates width and alters tension on folds.
Function of larynx
sound, trapping debris
Trachea histology
hollow tube reinforced by imcomplete hyaline cartilage.
Opens posteriorly.
Rings are connected by fibrous CT. It is not rigid but not collapsed either
Three layers of trachea
Muscosa, submucosa, and outer adventitia
Trachea mucosa layer contents
respitory epithelium-30%
thick b.membrane with lots of cilia,
brush cells- 3-4%- narrow with microvilli
Kulchitsky cells- 4-6%
Lamina propria with areolar CT and lots of fibers and mucous and serous glands.
Elastic fiber band
Trachea submucosa layer content
areolar CT with lots of glands opening to epithelial surface
Trachea adventitia layer contents
fibroelastic CT with cartilage rings anchors trachea to mediastinum.
contains blood vessels and nerves and lymphatics.
Cartilages of larynx
9 cartiliages all are hyaline except epiglottis.
Thyroid-adam's apple
Cricoid-
epiglottis- flexible elastic cartilage
Laryngeal folds are attached to arytenoid cartilage by..
vocal ligaments
Septal cartilage
Nasal conchae project off of each lateral wall
Respiratory epithelium
contains 5 cell types
Cilitated cell, goblet cells, brush cells, small granule cells, basal cells.
Brush cells
general name for cells in respiratory tract that have short blunt mircovilli
Lamina propria of respiratory segment
capillary loops for air to be warmed. Turbulent precipitation
Olfactory epithelium
cell types
Olfactory cells, bipolar neurons, sustenicular cells, basal cells, brush cells
Sustenicular cells of the olfactory epithelium
columnar cells tht provide mechanical and metabolic support to olfactory cells
Larynx epithelium
stratified squamous and respiratory epithelium
Tracheal epithelium
respiratory epithelium, goblet cells, basal cells, small amount of brush and granule cells.
Tracheal elastic membrane
Marks the boundary between the mucosa and submucosa
Trachealis muscle and tracheal cartilages
Mark the separation between the submucosa and adventitia layers.
Primary Bronchi Begins at _____
bifurcation
Primary Bronchi characteristics
Thinner walls
Epithelial cells get shorter
fewer goblet cells
denser lamina propria - more elastin for recoil
Primary Bronchi lamina propria
of muscosal layer separated from submuscosal layer by __________.
A muscularis layer of discontinous smooth muscle
Extrapulmonary
Primary Bronchi- found outside of the lungs
Intrapulmonary
Secondary and tertiary bronchi-found within the lungs
Secondary Bronchi
Lobar bronchi - Branching -arborizing
Smooth muscle____________
as the bronchi get _________.
Cartilage _____________
as the bronchi get __________.
increases, smaller
decreases, smaller
Bronchus layers
Mucosa, Muscularis, submuscosa,cartilage layer, adventitia.
Tertiary bronchi cartilage
Plates of cartilage surround the lumen
Teritary Bronchi muscularis layer
two layers of smooth muscle spiraling to constrict.
Tertiary adventitia
Elastin primarily (Elastin also found in submucosa and lamina propria)
Seromucous glands sparse
Lymphatic elements apparent
Mast cells here.
Mast cell degranulation causes ..........
in bronchi
smooth muscle contraction and vasodilation.
bronchioles
10th-15th branching of broncial tree.
What is the lumenal diameter in bronchioles?
les than 1mm.
Bronchiole histology
- simple columnar to simple cuboidal epithelium.
- Lamina propria no glands
- submucosa no glands
- incomplete sm. muscle bundles
- no cartilage
- adventitia- fibroelastic(interconnects with other portions of bronchial tree)
Differences in larger bronchiole epithelium and small bronchiole epithelium
Larger bronchioles will have columnar few goblet cells.
Small bronchioles will have cuboidal cells ciliated.
Clara cells
tall cuboidal cells with short microvilli. Protects apical surface. Secrete surfactant active agent- lipoprotein.
Terminal bronchiole histology
- lumen less than 0.5 mm diameter
- Lung acini
- simple cuboidal epithelium
- clara cells
Respiratory bronchioles histology
- simple ciliated cuboidal epi
- no goblet cells
- clara cells
- sparse lamina propria
- smooth muscle
- Fibroelastic adventitia
Pulmonary acini
smaller units of structure that make up the lobules.
Consists of a terminal/respiratory bronchioles and alveoli
Alveolar Duct
-linear arrangement of alveoli
-end in alveolar sacs
-simple squamous
-small aggregations of sm. muscle.
Interalveolar septa
Thin CT with blood capillaries
Alveoli
small outpocketing - 300 million in both lungs Respiratory membrane.
made of two types of simple squamous epithelium - Type 1 and type 2 pneumocytes
Type 1 pneumocyte
alveolar lining cells
95% of alveolar surface
joined by occluding jxns.
basement membrane very thin and fused with BM of capillary.
Type 2 pneumocytes
great alveolar cells
small but not as flattened
5% of alveolar cells
more numerous than type 1
extend into the alveolar lumen
and excrete surfactant.
located in between alveoli.
progenitor cells for type 1 cells.
Type 2 pneumocytes lamellar bodies
surfactant starts here
Tubular myelin
found in alveoli
Alveolar pores of Kohn
holes in septa that equalize air pressure.
Dust cells
alveolar macrophages
Endocrine system function
regulates metabolic activites
Target Organs
Organs that exhibit receptors for hormones
Peptides
most are 2nd messengers. Secreted by hypothalmus, pituitary gland, thyroid, parathyroid, pancreas, scattered endocrine cells of Gi tract and respiratory systems.
Steroids
Lipid based carrier bound
and bind to intracellular receptors.
Secreted by adrenal cortex, testes, and ovaries
Amines
Epinephrine, Norepi, and thyroids. Secreted by Adrenal medulla and thyroid.
Neurohormones-Neurotransmitters
Hormones secreted by neurons
localized comunication
Localized hormones
Paracrine and autocrine
Paracrine
act on nearby cells- diffusion
Autocrine
Act on themselves-neurotransmitters
Gastroendocrine system
Bile duct, pancreatic duct
mediates and coordinates GI activity. CCK, GIP, Gastrin, etc.
Open type gastroendocrine
exposed to lumen
Closed type gastroendocrine
deep to surface
argyrophilic cells
silver loving cells
Enterchromaffin cells
nueroendocrine cells, dk staining cells in GI tract
Endocrine cells characteristics
Prominate nucleus, secretory granules.
Pancreas
secretes only peptide hormones
prohormone
Islets of Langerhans
highly vascularized pale staining accumulations in the pancreas with alpha and beta cells. 1 million in pancreas 3000 cells per islet
Islet cells and hormones
alpha cells- glucagon
beta cells-insulin
delta cell- somatropin
G cells-gastrin
PP cells- pancreatic polypeptide-regulates exocrine portion
Endocrine glands
Aggregations of endocrine cells enclosed within a fibrous capsule.
Stroma
Framework of an endocrine gland
Septa
partitions of endocrine gland.
Carries blood vessels.
Parenchyma
Secreting portion of gland
Ductless endocrine glands
Secrete into ECF
well vascularized
-pineal, Pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, thymus, adrenals, testes/ovaries, kidney, placenta
Hypophysis
Pituitary Gland
Pars Distalis
anterior Pituitary.
Chromaphils
Cells of pars distalis
-somatotrophs, Mammotrophs
Somatotrophs
release hormones into capillary bed. hGH
Mammotrophs
Secrete PRL
PIH
Dopamine
Basophils
corticotrophs, thyrotrophs, Gonadotrophs
Corticotrophs
20% of cells - releases prohormones
ACTH, LPH, MSH, endorphins
CRH
released by hypothalamus to stimulate release of corticotrophs
Thyrotrophs
TSH responds to TRH in hypothalamus. granules not distinctive, clusters embedded in cords
Gonadotrophs
lg cells with distinctive organelle and secretory population. next to sinusoidial capillary
FSH, LH- GnRH controls secretion
chromaphobes
do not stain and do not secrete hormones
Folliculostellate cells
Cells in pars distalis
with long processes that form gap junctions
pituocytes
neuroglia cells found in pars nervosa
Herring's Bodies
accumulations of hormone along the distention of axons along the hypothalamic-hypophyseal tract
Hypothalamic-Hypophyseal Tract
axons and pituocytes
Thyroid Gland formed from
Cells froming tongue in embryo
Isthmus capsule of thyroid
dense CT that connects lobes of thyroid
Thyroid septa
Blood vessels and lymphatics
follicle walls histology
simple cuboidal epithelium
Principle cells
Follicular cells
Thyroglobulin
Colloid material
Thyroid follicular cells
well devepoled Golgi
Use ATPase pumps to convert iodide to iodine
MIT + DIT
t3
DIT+DIT
T4
T3 &T4 release when
Follicular cells are stimulated and villi extend pseudopodia to break down colliod.
Which is active T3 or T4?
T3
Parafollicular cells
Secrete calcitonin not derived from same type of cells as follicular cells
Parathyriod gland
Encapsulated in DCT
Superior Parathyroid
and Inferior Parathyroid glands
superior- develop from fourth pharyngeal pouch

inferior- develop from third pharyngeal pouch.
Septa of Parathyroid gland
accumulates fat with age
Glandular epithelium of parathyroid gland
surrounded by reticular fibers
Chief cells
Secrete PTH- granules contain lipofuscin- stimulated by decrease in Ca2+ in blood plasma. stimulates bone rabsorption and production of calatriol in skin
Oxyphil cells
store glucogen- eosinophilic
Pineal gland covered by
Pia mater
Pinealocyte
modified neuron, slightly basophilic with well develped cytoskeleton
Synaptic Ribbons
number in dark
Pineal interstitual cells
neuroglial cells
Corpora Arenacea
Brain sand -CaPo4 CaCo3 increases with age
Thymus gland
Site of maturing T-lymphocytes
Adrenal capsule
carries nerves and bllod vessels 3 arteries serve
Subcapsular plexus of adrenal
no veins or lymphatics in cortex, only arteries
Cortical arteries
extend throughout cortex, some extend into medulla
Adrenal medulla
intervated by sympathetic division, glial cells found here, stains lighter, releases catacholimines epi and norepi. chormaffin cells
embryonic origination of cortex and medulla
Cortex- mesodermal mesenchyme
Medulla- neural crest
Zonal secretions of adrenal cortex
ZG- Aldosterone-mineralcorticoids
ZF- Cortisol-glucocorticoids
ZR- DHEA-Gonadocorticoids
Kidney capsule
Dense irregular CT with some sm. muscle and elastic fibers
Renal Sinus
Filled with adipose
Ducts of Bellini
Ducts that preforate the papilla and carry urine into minor calyx.
Ureter layers
Mucosa, muscularis, adventitia
Ureter Mucosa
urothelium (transistional epithelium) lamina propria, dense CT -renal pelvis
Ureter muscularis
Inner longitudinal, Outer longitudinal
Ureter Adventitia
Blends in with capsule- areolar CT
Urinary Bladder structure
Mucosa, Muscularis, adventitia
Urinary Bladder Mucosa
- folded when relaxed, no folds in trigone
- basal cells- cuboidal or columanar
-Intermediate cells-polygonal
-superficial- umbrella cells
thicken areas known as plaques, intersparsed normal membrane(interplaque region)as hinges that allow plaque to fold and form cleft. Unfolded clefts become part of mucosa.
Thin BM, lamina propria dense irrg CT, deeper into tissue becomes areolar cT. no glands except at bottom.
Urinary Bladder Muscularis
3 layers of sm muscle interlaced with elastic fibers
inter and outer longitudinal layers
Adventitia of Urinary Bladder
Dense Irregular CT covered in serosa in others covered in fat.
External urethral sphincter
skeletal muscle
Female urethra
Urotheium lining near bladder
straited squamous epithelium (non-keratinized)-near opening
Mucosa in elongated folds due to fibroelastic dense CT lamina propria
Glands of littre in lamina propria
Glands of littre
in lamina propria of female urethra
Surrounding mucosa of female urethra
thin vascularized erectile tissue
Muscularis of female urethra
continous with bladder except for the 2nd layer.
Adventitia of female urethra
poorly defined
Male urethra
long common pathway for semen and urine divided into regions - prostatic, membraneous, and spongy urethra
Prostatic urethra
1st portion lined with uroepithelium receives ducts for prostate gland and ejaculatory ducts.
Thin lamina propria, thin and delicate muscularis, poorly defined lamina propria
Membraneous urethra
Lined with stratified columnar epithelium with patches of ps. str columnar epi.
Muscularis layer is skeletal muscle to form external urethral sphincter.
Spongy urethra
lined with stratified columnar epithelium intersparsed with ps. str epithelium.
At tip - stratified squamous
Lamina propria- areolar CT and glands of littre and bulbourethral gland.
Muscularis - smooth muscle
Thick erectile coat between lamina propria & muscularis.
No adventitia
Glomerulus capillaries
fenestrated, negatively charged endothelial surface because of podocalyxin
BM-thicker type 4 collagen network with structural glycoproteins, fibronectin, laminin, water molecules.
Glomerulus BM layers
Lamina rara interna
Lamina densa
Lamina rara externia
Both rara layers are negatively charged.
podocytes adjacent to externa
interna-adjacent to capillaries
densa- overlapping portion of both layers.
Bowman's capsule layers
Parietal - simple squamous
Visceral - podocytes -modified simple squamous
Mesengial cells- groups
extraglomerular, intraglomerular
Extraglomerular mesengial cells
at both vascular poles of afferent and efferent arterioles.
Intraglomerular cells
w/in the renal corpuscle, not part of JG cells, phagocytotic
what helps connect podocytes to BM
laminin and fibronectin
Pedicles of podocytes
invaginations on primary foot processes, cytoplasm has no organelles
Podocalyxin
what the outer surfaces of podocytes and slits are covered in.
Filtration membrane histology
endothelial cells with fenestrations
Podocytes exhibit what?
actin filaments
Renal tubules lined with?
simple epithelium
PCT histology
simple cuboidal epithelium
Two regions of PCT
pars convuluta
pars recta
Pars convuluta
S1- 1st 2/3 of PCT -closely packed apical canalculi lot of mitochondria in enfoldings.

S2- last 1/3 of pars convuluta and most of pars recta- microvilli not as tall, caniculi are less tightly packed
Pars Recta
straighter and joins loop of Henle. Basal and lateral folding not as elaborate.
Simple cuboidal tall microvilli, lot of pinocytotic vesicles well defined BM. lateral processes.
S3- low cuboidal no apical caniculi
Peritubular capillaries
very thin endothelium & BM
Histo of PCT to L of H transistion
abrupt from cuboidal to squamous
Lateral processes of Loop of Henle descending in JM nephrons
lateral process and interdigitations and basal infoldings.
Loop histo
cells joined by tight jxns.
few mito
Ascending limb of Jm nephrons
lateral processes and interdigitations but no basal infoldings
Thick segment of L of H
simple cuboidal epi
few short microvilli
lateral and basal infoldings and interdigitations
no urea secretion
Vasa Recta
capillary plexus lined with fenestrated endothelium.
Mesengium
mesengial cells and their ECM
DCT-
Simple cuboidal epi- few microvilli
7:1- PCT to DCT - DCT is shorter
Lumen is wider
few organelles or mitochondria
Lies between the two arterioles.
many interdigitation(lateral) few basal infoldings
Macula Densa
Simple columnar epi- pale staining, central nucleus- part of JGA - chemoreceptors
Collecting Tubules
Simple cubiodal to simple columnar
Principle cells
pale cytoplasm, few short microvilli, few mito, basal infoldings but no interdig
Target cells for Aldosterone
Intercalated cells
Dkr cytoplasm few cells lot of mito more microvilli
Type A- secrete H+ absorn HCO3
Type B-opposite
The further down the CT the fewer___________ and the more _______cells and _______cells.
DCT cells, intercalated and principle.
Collecting Duct
Simple columnar ,prinicple and intercalated cells down to primarily Prinicple cells at end. Descend into the medullary rays.
papillary duct
Ducts of Bellini
JGA
Macula densa, JG cells, Lacis cells.
JG cells
smooth muscle cells in afferent and efferent tubules secrete renin- barioreceptors
Lacis cells
extraglomerular cells flattened cells with fine cytoplasmic processes surround a network of mesengial cells
Medullary Ray
CD, Loop of Henle
Renal column
contains blood vessels and nerves
Cortex-interstitum
Delicate areolar CT bllod vessels. BM of tubules, fibroblasts, macrophages.
Medullary- interstitum
areolar CT Fibroblasts, interstitual cells.
Interstitual cells of kidney medulla
produces medullipin 1- a powerful vasodilator
Kidney innervation
sympathetic
Deglutition
swallowing
egestion
defecation
oral cavity & anus origin
ectoderm
Alimentary canal origin
endoderm
Accessory digestive
mesoderm
Oral cavity - 2 parts
vestible- between cheeks and gums and teeth
Oral cavity proper- behind teeth, hard and soft palates, tongue floor of mouth
Extramural glands
salivary glands, liver, pancreas, gallbladder.
Oral cavity lined with___-
oral mucosa= wet stratified squamous epithelium with lamina propria
Mastification mucosa
Kertinized to partly keratinized stratified squamous epithelium.
Dense irreg CT- lamina propria
Oral lining mucosa
non-keratinized stratified squamous epithelium. Lamina propria- dense irregular CT.
Specialized oral mucosa
bears taste buds and minor salivary glands
Where muscle under mucosa there will be a
submucosa of areolar CT
three regions of lips
external aspect-glands, hair
vermillion zone- vascularized,no glands or hair
internal aspect-wet-nk str sq epi.
Submucosa -many glands
succedanous teeth
incisors, canines
Alveolus
Bony socket, roots housed here separated by interalveolus septum
Peridontal Ligament
Dense irregular CT attaches root to bone- vascularized from alveolar bone.
Consists of principle fiber groups of type 1 collagen.
Fibroblasts, nerve fibers(autonomic and pain fibers).
Point of attachment under constant remodeling - prevents movement of tooth through the bone.
Gingiva
Gums
Oral mucosa of alveolar ridge
mastification mucosa.
Tapers from thick to thin epithelium
Free gingiva
Jxnal epithelium creating collar around tooth
Crevicular epithelium
epithelium lining the gingival sulcus (crevis)
sections of tooth in relation to gingiva
Root is in alveolus
crown is outside alveolus-bone level
neck is inbetween
Crown of tooth
projects above level of alveolar bone- covered with enamel
root of tooth
lies below the level of alveolar bone. covered with cementum
neck tooth
Jxn between root and crown
Inside of tooth
Pulp
Pulp
Lies in pulp cavity, areolar CT, rich in proteoglycans,GAGs, adipocytes, pulp stones. Highly vascularized with nerve fibers
Pulp cavities
pulp chamber and root canal
three zones surrounding pulp core
Outer ondontoblastic zone
cell free zone
cell rich zone
Outer odonoblastic zone
single layer of ondontablasts extending processes into dentin.
Cell rich layer
fibroblasts, mesenchymal cells, surrounds pulp core
Dentin
surrounds pulp cavity
2nd hardest substance in body
70% hydroxyapetite
25% organic matter
10% water
Produced by odonoblasts
can self repair on pre existing dentin
most of tooth
Enamel
Translucent covering dentin in crown
hardest substance in body
96% hydroxyapetite
4% organic molecules and water
Organic matrix of enamel
composed of enamalins and keratin
Enamel produced by
enameloblasts (before birth)
Body cannot repair
Aneloblasts
primary enamel cuticle made by these. Cuticle worn away after eruption
cementum
Covers the dentin of roots.
1/2 hydroxyapetite
1/2 organic matter and water
softer material
Matrix - type 1 collagen
are in lacunae
cellular cementum at the base
Cementoblsts
throughout life renewal of cementum.
Basic structure of alimentary canal from esophagus to anal canal
Mucosa - lining epithelium, lamina propria, muscularis mucosa(smooth muscle)

Submucosa-dense irregular CT

Muscularis externa - layers of smooth muscle.

Serosa-serous membrane of simple squamous epithelium, mesothelium, and underlying CT.
Adventitia- consisting of only CT only where tube id directly attached to adjoining structures.
Epithelium of esophageal mucosa
stratified squamous
Epithelium of GI tract mucosa
tight junctions of ciliated simple columnar epithelium.
Glands of the alimentary canal
Mucosal glands- extend into lamina propria

submucosal glands- deliver directly to surface or through ducts

Extramural glands- lie outside GI tract and deliver via ducts.(liver, pancreas)
esophagus mucosa, submucosa, muscularis externia
nk striatified squamous epi
Submucosa- dense irreg CT with lymphatics blood vessels, nerve fibers and ganglion cells

Muscularis externa- two muscle layers -inner circ
outer-long- vagus nerve
Glands of the esophagus
esophageal glands proper -submucosa
esophageal cardiac gland- lamina propria
Stomach mucosa
surface mucous cells with mucigen granules
Fundic glands
gastric glands -
parietal cells- intrinisc factor and HCL
enteroendocrine cells-
chief cells
mucous neck cells
Pyloric glands
branched coiled tubular.
plyoric glands
some parietal and enteroendocrine glands
Gastric muscularis externa
inner oblique
middle circular
outer long
Gastroduodenal jxn
no oblique muscle
Ileum
No Plicae
Intestinal mucosal epithelium
Paneth cells
Enteroendocrine
M cells
Stem cells- at bottom of crypts
Goblet cells
Surface absorptive cells
intraepithelium cells
Subnucosa
Meissner's plexus
Coarse areolar CT
Terminal web
network of hrizontally oriented contractile microfilaments at the apical end of cell
Teniae coli
three thickened equally spaced bands of the outer longitudinal mucularis externa